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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324413

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a major global public health concern. Although rapid point of care testing for detecting viral antigen is important for management the outbreak, none of current antigen detection kits provide a reliable diagnosis due to the lack of a specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) against SARS-CoV-2. In our current study, we produced mAbs exclusively react with SARS-CoV-2 and exhibited no cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses including SARS-CoV. Molecular modeling revealed that the mAbs bound to epitopes present on the exterior surface of the nucleocapsid, encompassing their scope for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. We further selected the optimal pair of anti-SARS-CoV-2 NP mAbs for designing ELISA and immunochromatographic assay. An integrated bioinformatics analysis revealed that our mAbs could comprehensively detect divergent strains of SARS-CoV-2. Due to the high redundancy and absence of cross-reactivity, our newly developed mAbs would be instrumental for developing reliable diagnosis kits for COVID-19.Funding: This work was supported in part by Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (AMED, Grant number: JP19fk0108110 and JP20he0522001), and by Health Labour Sciences research grant from The Ministry of Health Labour and Welfare.Conflict of Interest: The authors have no conflicts of interest directly relevant to the content of this article. YY, SK, KS and DA is a current employee of Kanto Chemical Co., Inc.Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Yokohama City University (IRB No. B200800106), and the protocols used in the study were approved by the ethicscommittee.

2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690006, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686556

ABSTRACT

Background: Epidemiological contact tracing is a powerful tool to rapidly detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in persons with a close contact history with COVID-19-affected patients. However, it remains unclear whom and when should be PCR tested among the close contact subjects. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 817 close contact subjects, including 144 potentially SARS-CoV-2-infected persons. The patient characteristics and contact type, duration between the date of the close contact and specimen sampling, and PCR test results in PCR positive and negative persons were compared. Results: We found that male gender {adjusted odds ratio 1.747 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.180-2.608]}, age ≥ 60 [1.749 (95% CI 1.07-2.812)], and household contact [2.14 (95% CI 1.388-3.371)] are independent risk factors for close contact SARS-CoV-2 infection. Symptomatic subjects were predicted 6.179 (95% CI 3.985-9.61) times more likely to be infected compared to asymptomatic ones. We could observe PCR test positivity between days 1 and 17 after close contact. However, no subject could be found with a Ct-value <30, considered less infective, after day 14 of close contact. Conclusions: Based on our results, we suggest that contact tracing should be performed on the high-risk subjects between days 3 and 13 after close contacts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323017

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education (IPE) is crucial in dentistry, medicine, and nursing. However, scant mixed methods studies have compared the IPE outcomes across these disciplines to develop evidence-based IPE. This study explored the differences in the readiness of dental, medical, and nursing students for interprofessional learning before and after IPE workshops and elucidated reasons for this disparity. METHODS: Data were obtained from dental, medical, and nursing students who participated in IPE workshops conducted at Tokyo Medical and Dental University in Japan in 2019 and 2020. The participants filled the validated Japanese version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) before and after attending the workshops (n = 378). Paired t-tests were performed to assess differences between the pre- and post- workshop RIPLS scores. Welch's t-tests were deployed to evaluate interdisciplinary differences in their scores. Qualitative analyses were conducted using an explanatory sequential design with focus group discussions (FGDs) held with 17 dental students to explain the quantitative results. RESULTS: Total RIPLS scores increased significantly for every discipline after the workshops (p < 0.001). Dental students scored significantly lower pre- and post- workshop aggregates than medical and nursing students, respectively (p < 0.001). The FGDs yielded three principal themes in the explanations tendered by dental students on their lower scores: 1) dental students rarely felt the need for interprofessional collaborations, 2) dentists often worked without the need for interprofessional collaborations, and 3) dental students believed their contribution to the workshop was insufficient. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed divergences in the readiness of dental, medical, and nursing students for interprofessional learning, and the study illuminated possible reasons for these disparities. These outcomes will help develop evidence-based IPE by indicating approaches to place a higher value on interprofessional collaborations in educational environments, ameliorate the awareness of educators, and enhance the workshop facilitation style.


Subject(s)
Interprofessional Relations , Learning , Students, Dental , Students, Medical , Students, Nursing , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult
5.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100311, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230816

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major global public health concern. Although rapid point-of-care testing for detecting viral antigen is important for management of the outbreak, the current antigen tests are less sensitive than nucleic acid testing. In our current study, we produce monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that exclusively react with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and exhibit no cross-reactivity with other human coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV. Molecular modeling suggests that the mAbs bind to epitopes present on the exterior surface of the nucleocapsid, making them suitable for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in clinical samples. We further select the optimal pair of anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (NP) mAbs using ELISA and then use this mAb pair to develop immunochromatographic assay augmented with silver amplification technology. Our mAbs recognize the variants of concern (501Y.V1-V3) that are currently in circulation. Because of their high performance, the mAbs of this study can serve as good candidates for developing antigen detection kits for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phosphoproteins/genetics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Silver/chemistry
6.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
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