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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0431122, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317294

ABSTRACT

Nelfinavir, an orally administered inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease, inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of nelfinavir in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included unvaccinated asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adult patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection within 3 days before enrollment. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral nelfinavir (750 mg; thrice daily for 14 days) combined with standard-of-care or standard-of-care alone. The primary endpoint was the time to viral clearance, confirmed using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR by assessors blinded to the assigned treatment. A total of 123 patients (63 in the nelfinavir group and 60 in the control group) were included. The median time to viral clearance was 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 to 12.0) days in the nelfinavir group and 8.0 (95% CI, 7.0 to 10.0) days in the control group, with no significant difference between the treatment groups (hazard ratio, 0.815; 95% CI, 0.563 to 1.182; P = 0.1870). Adverse events were reported in 47 (74.6%) and 20 (33.3%) patients in the nelfinavir and control groups, respectively. The most common adverse event in the nelfinavir group was diarrhea (49.2%). Nelfinavir did not reduce the time to viral clearance in this setting. Our findings indicate that nelfinavir should not be recommended in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The study is registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT2071200023). IMPORTANCE The anti-HIV drug nelfinavir suppresses the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. However, its efficacy in patients with COVID-19 has not been studied. We conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19. Compared to standard-of-care alone, nelfinavir (750 mg, thrice daily) did not reduce the time to viral clearance, viral load, or the time to resolution of symptoms. More patients had adverse events in the nelfinavir group than in the control group (74.6% [47/63 patients] versus 33.3% [20/60 patients]). Our clinical study provides evidence that nelfinavir, despite its antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, should not be recommended for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 having no or mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
Cureus ; 15(1): e34178, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273495

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the growing demand for home-based medication during the COVID-19 pandemic period, there remains scarce evidence of hypoxemic infection in home-care settings. In this study, we investigated the clinical features of hypoxemic respiratory failure due to infection during the period under home-based medication (defined as 'home-care-acquired infection'). METHODS: This retrospective observational study enrolled patients with home-care-acquired infection, other than COVID-19, in two home-care clinics in Sapporo, Japan, between April 2020 and May 2021 (the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic). The participants were divided into two groups according to whether they required additional home oxygen therapy, and were compared to assess the predictors of hypoxemic respiratory failure. Furthermore, the clinical features were compared with those in patients aged >60 years with COVID-19 who were admitted to Toyama University Hospital during the same period. RESULTS: A total of 107 patients with home-care-acquired infections were included in the study (median age, 82 years). Twenty-two patients required home oxygen therapy, and 85 did not. Thirty-day mortality rates were 32% and 8%. Among the patients in the hypoxemia group, none had desired a care-setting transition, following the advanced care planning. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that initial antibiotic treatment failure and malignant disease were independently associated with hypoxemic respiratory failure (odds ratio, 7.28 and 7.10; p=0.023 and p<0.005, respectively). In comparison with hypoxemia in the COVID-19 cohort, the lower incidence of febrile co-habitants and earlier onset of hypoxemia were significant in those due to home-care-acquired infection. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that hypoxemia due to home-care-acquired infection was characterized by distinct features, possibly different from those due to COVID-19 in the early pandemic period.

3.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0513122, 2023 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265827

ABSTRACT

In addition to the original monovalent vaccines available for SARS-CoV-2, bivalent vaccines covering wild-type (WT) and Omicron BA.1 are also available. However, there is a lack of real-world data on the immunogenicity of bivalent vaccines as second boosters against the dominant Omicron sublineages, including BA.2 and BA.5. Healthcare workers (n = 565) who received the first booster vaccination were followed for 2 weeks after the second booster dose of the monovalent mRNA-1273 (WT group, n = 168) and bivalent BNT162b2 (WT+BA.1 group, n = 23) vaccines. Participants with previous SARS-CoV-2 infections were excluded from the study. The anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) antibody levels after the second booster dose in the WT and WT+BA.1 group were similar (median [interquartile range], 26,262.0 [16,951.0 to 38,137.0] U/mL versus 24,840.0 [14,828.0 to 41,460.0] U/mL, respectively). Although the neutralization activities of the pooled sera were lower against BA.5 than against other variants in both groups, the activities against BA.2 and BA.5 in the WT+BA.1 group were higher than those of the WT group in both pseudotyped and live virus assays. Vaccine-related symptoms, including systemic and local symptoms, were strongly correlated with anti-RBD antibody levels and neutralizing titers. In conclusion, the second booster dose of the bivalent (WT/Omicron BA.1) vaccine induced higher neutralizing activity against BA.2 and BA.5 than that of the original monovalent vaccine. IMPORTANCE Although Omicron BA.1-containing bivalent vaccines have been authorized, real-world data validating their safety and antibody responses remain scarce. We conducted a prospective longitudinal study to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and reactogenicity of the second booster dose with the Omicron BA.1 bivalent vaccine in health care workers. Compared with the original monovalent vaccine, the bivalent (WT+BA.1) vaccine elicited higher levels of neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron BA.2 and BA.5 subvariants. The frequency of adverse events after the second booster dose was similar to that of the monovalent vaccine. BA.5-neutralizing antibodies induced by the bivalent Omicron BA.1-containing vaccine were expected to decline. A prospective longitudinal study should be performed to determine the persistence of the humoral immunity.

4.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243493

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The lateral flow antigen test is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The analytical sensitivity of six lateral flow antigen test kits was compared. METHODS: The limit of detection (LoD) and time to positive results were evaluated for six lateral flow tests including ImmunoArrow®, ESPLINE® SARS-CoV-2, QuickNavi™ COVID19 Ag, ImmunoAce® SARS-CoV-2, Panbio™ COVID-19 Ag Rapid Test Device, and SARS-CoV-2 Rapid Antigen Test using the heat-inactivated virus. The LoD of ImmunoArrow® against the Omicron variants was compared with that against the wild-type using recombinant proteins. RESULTS: ImmunoArrow® and ESPLINE® showed the lowest LoD. The time to positive results of all tests except for ESPLINE® was within 200 s in the evaluation at high dose of antigens (2.5 × 105 TCID50/mL) and 500 s in the evaluation at low dose of antigens (2.5 × 104 TCID50/mL). The LoD of ImmunoArrow® against the Omicron variants was the same concentration against the wild-type antigen. CONCLUSIONS: ImmunoArrow® detected SARS-CoV-2 antigens including the Omicron variants with good sensitivity among the six lateral flow antigen tests. These finding support that it can support the rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 with the good sensitivity.

5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 128: 355-363, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2165395

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nafamostat combined with favipiravir for the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel assignment study in hospitalized patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 pneumonia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive favipiravir alone (n = 24) or nafamostat with favipiravir (n = 21). The outcomes included changes in the World Health Organization clinical progression scale score, time to improvement in body temperature, and improvement in oxygen saturation (SpO2). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the changes in the clinical progression scale between nafamostat with favipiravir and favipiravir alone groups (median, -0.444 vs -0.150, respectively; least-squares mean difference, -0.294; P = 0.364). The time to improvement in body temperature was significantly shorter in the combination group (5.0 days; 95% confidence interval, 4.0-7.0) than in the favipiravir group (9.0 days; 95% confidence interval, 7.0-18.0; P =0.009). The changes in SpO2 were greater in the combination group than in the favipiravir group (0.526% vs -1.304%, respectively; least-squares mean difference, 1.831; P = 0.022). No serious adverse events or deaths were reported, but phlebitis occurred in 57.1% of the patients in the combination group. CONCLUSION: Although our study showed no differences in clinical progression, earlier defervescence, and recovery of SpO2 were observed in the combination group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Single-Blind Method , Disease Progression , Treatment Outcome
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11125, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2028698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen; therefore, its research environment is limited. Pseudotyped viruses that mimic the infection of SARS-CoV-2 have been widely used for in vitro evaluation because they are available in BSL-2 containment laboratories. However, in vivo application is inadequate. Therefore, animal models instigated with animal BSL-2 will provide opportunities for in vivo evaluation. Hamsters (6-10-week-old males) were intratracheally inoculated with luciferase-expressing vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. The lungs were harvested 24-72 h after inoculation and luminescence was measured using an in vivo imaging system. Lung luminescence after inoculation with the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus increased in a dose-dependent manner and peaked at 48 h. The VSV-G (envelope G) pseudotyped virus also induced luminescence; however, a 100-fold concentration was required to reach a level similar to that of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus. The SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus is applicable to SARS-CoV-2 respiratory infections in a hamster model. Because of the single-round infectious virus, the model can be used to study the steps from viral binding to entry, which will be useful for future research on SARS-CoV-2 entry without using live SARS-CoV-2 or transgenic animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Cricetinae , Male , Respiratory Rate , Respiratory System , Viral Pseudotyping
8.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(9): 1273-1278, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966847

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 provides humoral immunity to fight COVID-19; however, the acquired immunity gradually declines. Booster vaccination restores reduced humoral immunity; however, its effect on newly emerging variants, such as the Omicron variant, is a concern. As the waves of COVID-19 cases and vaccine programs differ between countries, it is necessary to know the domestic effect of the booster. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from healthcare workers (20-69 years old) in the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine program at the Toyama University Hospital 6 months after the second dose (6mA2D, n = 648) and 2 weeks after the third dose (2wA3D, n = 565). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level was measured, and neutralization against the wild-type and variants (Delta and Omicron) was evaluated using pseudotyped viruses. Data on booster-related events were collected using questionnaires. RESULTS: The median anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was >30.9-fold elevated after the booster (6mA2D, 710.0 U/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 443.0-1068.0 U/mL]; 2wA3D, 21927 U/mL [IQR: 15321.0->25000.0 U/mL]). Median neutralizing activity using 100-fold sera against wild-type-, Delta-, and Omicron-derived variants was elevated from 84.6%, 36.2%, and 31.2% at 6mA2D to >99.9%, 99.1%, and 94.6% at 2wA3D, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were significantly elevated in individuals with fever ≥37.5 °C, general fatigue, and myalgia, local swelling, and local hardness. CONCLUSION: The booster effect, especially against the Omicron variant, was observed in the Japanese population. These findings contribute to the precise understanding of the efficacy and side effects of the booster and the promotion of vaccine campaigns.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Japan , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Inactivated , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 06 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911656

ABSTRACT

The effects of casirivimab and imdevimab (C/I) on the innate immune response against SARS-CoV-2 infection remain unclear. We evaluated the effect of C/I on type I interferon (IFN-I) and cytokines in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This prospective observational study recruited consecutive patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Blood levels of IFN-I and cytokines before and after C/I administration were assessed using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The study enrolled 29 patients in the C/I group. In addition, 11 patients who received remdesivir and dexamethasone (R/D group) during the early phase (≤5 days after the onset of symptoms) were included as a comparator group. After treatment, IFN-α and IFN-ß levels decreased significantly in both the C/I group and R/D group, whilst the post-treatment neutrophil-to-lymphoid ratio increased in the early C/I group but not the R/D group. In the C/I group, temporal temperature elevation and hypoxemia were observed after treatment in 58.6% and 41.4% of the cohort, respectively. However, most patients recovered by 5 days after treatment. This study could demonstrate the high therapeutic effect of C/I with an antibody-dependent enhancement-like response and decreased IFN-I production, which was likely due to the immediate induction of an antibody-dependent immune response against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Interferon Type I , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Cytokines , Humans , Interferon Type I/pharmacology , Interferon Type I/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 844304, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903005

ABSTRACT

Background: The role of type I interferons (IFNs) in the early phase of COVID-19 remains unclear. Objectives: To evaluate the relationship between IFN-I levels in patients with COVID-19 and clinical presentation, SARS-CoV-2 viral load, and other major pro-inflammatory cytokines. Methods: This prospective observational study recruited patients hospitalized with COVID-19. The levels of interferon-alpha (IFN-α), interferon-beta (IFN-ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand (CXCL10) within 5 days after symptom onset were measured using an ELISA, in serum from blood collected within 5 days after the onset of symptoms. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load was determined via qPCR using nasal-swab specimens and serum. Results: The study enrolled 50 patients with COVID-19. IFN-α levels were significantly higher in patients who presented with pneumonia or developed hypoxemic respiratory failure (p < 0.001). Furthermore, IFN-α levels were associated with viral load in nasal-swab specimens and RNAemia (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was no significant association between IFN-ß levels and the presence of pneumonia or RNAemia, despite showing a stronger association with nasal-swab viral load (p < 0.001). Correlation analysis showed that the serum levels of IFN-α significantly correlated with those of IFN-ß, IL-6, and CXCL10, while the levels of IFN-ß did not correlate with those of IL-6 or CXCL10. Conclusions: Serum IFN-I levels in the early phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection were higher in patients who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure. The association between IFN-α, IL-6, and CXCL10 may reflect the systemic immune response against SARS-CoV-2 invasion into pulmonary circulation, which might be an early predictor of respiratory failure due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Interferon Type I/blood , Respiratory Insufficiency/blood , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/blood , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load
11.
Journal of infection and chemotherapy : official journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1887898

ABSTRACT

Introduction The vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 provides humoral immunity to fight COVID-19;however, the acquired immunity gradually declines. Booster vaccination restores reduced humoral immunity;however, its effect on newly emerging variants, such as the Omicron variant, is a concern. As the waves of COVID-19 cases and vaccine programs differ between countries, it is necessary to know the domestic effect of the booster. Methods Serum samples were obtained from healthcare workers (20–69 years old) in the Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine program at the Toyama University Hospital 6 months after the second dose (6mA2D, n = 648) and 2 weeks after the third dose (2wA3D, n = 565). The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody level was measured, and neutralization against the wild-type and variants (Delta and Omicron) was evaluated using pseudotyped viruses. Data on booster-related events were collected using questionnaires. Results The median anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody was >30.9-fold elevated after the booster (6mA2D, 710.0 U/mL [interquartile range (IQR): 443.0–1068.0 U/mL];2wA3D, 21927 U/mL [IQR: 15321.0–>25000.0 U/mL]). Median neutralizing activity using 100-fold sera against wild-type-, Delta-, and Omicron-derived variants was elevated from 84.6%, 36.2%, and 31.2% at 6mA2D to >99.9%, 99.1%, and 94.6% at 2wA3D, respectively. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were significantly elevated in individuals with fever ≥37.5 °C, general fatigue, and myalgia, local swelling, and local hardness. Conclusion The booster effect, especially against the Omicron variant, was observed in the Japanese population. These findings contribute to the precise understanding of the efficacy and side effects of the booster and the promotion of vaccine campaigns.

12.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2072455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839974

ABSTRACT

Many potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been developed and used for therapies. However, the effectiveness of many antibodies has been reduced against recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the Omicron variant. We identified a highly potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, UT28K, in COVID-19 convalescent individuals who recovered from a severe condition. UT28K showed efficacy in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 in an in vitro assay and in vivo prophylactic treatment, and the reactivity to the Omicron strain was reduced. The structural analyses revealed that antibody UT28K Fab and SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein interactions were mainly chain-dominated antigen-antibody interactions. In addition, a mutation analysis suggested that the emergence of a UT28K neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variant was unlikely, as this variant would likely lose its competitive advantage over circulating SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that UT28K offers potent protection against SARS-CoV-2, including newly emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0056121, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546468

ABSTRACT

Vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 have been introduced. To investigate the relationship between vaccine-induced humoral immunity and patient age, we measured antibody levels and neutralization in vaccinated sera. Sera from 13 to 17 days after the second dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine were collected from health care workers at the University of Toyama (n = 740). Antibody levels were measured by the anti-receptor binding domain antibody test (anti-RBD test), and neutralization against wild-type (WT), α- and ß-variant pseudotyped viruses were assayed using a high-throughput chemiluminescent reduction neutralizing test (htCRNT; positivity cutoff, 50% neutralization at serum dilution 1:100). Basic clinical characteristics were obtained from questionnaires. Antibodies were confirmed in all participants in both the anti-RBD test (median, 2,112 U/ml; interquartile range [IQR], 1,275 to 3,390 U/ml) and the htCRNT against WT (median % inhibition, >99.9; IQR, >99.9 to >99.9). For randomly selected sera (n = 61), 100.0% had positive htCRNT values against the α- and ß-derived variants. Among those who answered the questionnaire (n = 237), the values of the anti-RBD test were negatively correlated with age in females (P < 0.01). An age-dependent decline in neutralization was observed against the variants but not against the wild-type virus (wild type, P = 0.09; α, P < 0.01; ß, P < 0.01). The neutralizing activity induced by BNT162b2 was obtained not only against the wild-type virus, but also against the variants; however, there was an age-dependent decrease in the latter. Age-related heterogeneity of vaccine-acquired immunity is a concern in preventive strategies in the era dominated by variants. IMPORTANCE Since mRNA vaccines utilize wild-type SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as an antigen, there are potential concerns about acquiring immunity to variants of this virus. The neutralizing activity in BNT162b2-vaccinated individuals was higher against the wild-type virus than against its variants; this effect was more apparent in older age groups. This finding suggests that one of the weaknesses of the mRNA vaccine is the high risk of variant infection in the elderly population. Because the elderly are at a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, the age-dependent decline of neutralization against viral variants should be considered while planning vaccination programs that include boosters.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination , Viral Pseudotyping , Young Adult , mRNA Vaccines/immunology
14.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0056021, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546467

ABSTRACT

Serological tests are beneficial for recognizing the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify protective immunity, optimization of the chemiluminescent reduction neutralizing test (CRNT) is critical. Whether commercial antibody tests have comparable accuracy is unknown. Serum samples were obtained from COVID-19 patients (n = 74), SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (n = 179), and suspected healthy individuals (n = 229) before SARS-CoV-2 variants had been detected locally. The convalescent phase was defined as the period after day 10 from disease onset or the episode of close contact. The CRNT using pseudotyped viruses displaying the wild-type (WT) spike protein and a commercial anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody test were assayed. Serology for the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants was also assayed. Both tests concurred for symptomatic COVID-19 patients in the convalescent phase. They clearly differentiated between patients and suspected healthy individuals (sensitivity: 95.8% and 100%, respectively; specificity: 99.1% and 100%, respectively). Anti-RBD antibody test results correlated with neutralizing titers (r = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.38). Compared with the WT, lower CRNT values were observed for the variants. Of the samples with ≥100 U/mL by the anti-RBD antibody test, 77.8% and 88.9% showed ≥50% neutralization against the B.1.1.7 and the B.1.351 variants, respectively. Exceeding 100 U/mL in the anti-RBD antibody test was associated with neutralization of variants (P < 0.01). The CRNT and commercial anti-RBD antibody test effectively classified convalescent COVID-19 patients. Strong positive results with the anti-RBD antibody test can reflect neutralizing activity against emerging variants. IMPORTANCE This study provides a diagnostic evidence of test validity, which can lead to vaccine efficacy and proof of recovery after COVID-19. It is not easy to know neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 in the clinical laboratory because of technical and biohazard issues. The correlation of the quantitative anti-receptor-binding domain antibody test, which is widely available, with neutralizing test indicates that we can know indirectly the state of acquisition of functional immunity against wild and variant-type viruses in the clinical laboratory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Vaccine Efficacy , Viral Pseudotyping , Young Adult
15.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 147-153, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363704

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in serum and its association with the clinical severity of COVID-19. This retrospective cohort study performed at Toyama University Hospital included consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the strength of its association with clinical severity variables were examined. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. RNAemia was detected in 19.6% (11/56) patients on admission, and subsequently in 1.0% (1/25), 50.0% (6/12), and 100.0% (4/4) moderate, severe, and critically ill patients, respectively. Patients with RNAemia required more frequent oxygen supplementation (90.0% vs. 13.3%), ICU admission (81.8% vs. 6.7%), and invasive mechanical ventilation (27.3% vs. 0.0%). Among patients with RNAemia, the median viral loads of nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs that were collected around the same time as the serum sample were significantly higher in critically ill (5.4 log10 copies/µl; interquartile range [IQR]: 4.2-6.3) than in moderate-severe cases (2.6 log10 copies/µl; [IQR: 1.1-4.5]; p = 0.030) and were significantly higher in nonsurvivors (6.2 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 6.0-6.5]) than in survivors (3.9 log10 copies/µl [IQR: 1.6-4.6]; p = 0.045). This study demonstrated a relatively high proportion of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and an association between RNAemia and clinical severity. Moreover, among the patients with RNAemia, the viral loads of NP swabs were correlated with disease severity and mortality, suggesting the potential utility of combining serum testing with NP tests as a prognostic indicator for COVID-19, with higher quality than each separate test.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load , Viremia , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Child , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16535, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360210

ABSTRACT

Adaptive immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) dynamics remain largely unknown. The neutralizing antibody (NAb) levels in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are helpful for understanding the pathology. Using SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus, serum sample neutralization values in symptomatic COVID-19 patients were measured using the chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT). At least two sequential serum samples collected during hospitalization were analyzed to assess NAbs neutralizing activity dynamics at different time points. Of the 11 patients, four (36.4%), six (54.5%), and one (9.1%) had moderate, severe, and critical disease, respectively. Fifty percent neutralization (N50%-CRNT) was observed upon admission in 90.9% (10/11); all patients acquired neutralizing activity 2-12 days after onset. In patients with moderate disease, neutralization was observed at earliest within two days after symptom onset. In patients with severe-to-critical disease, neutralization activity increased, plateauing 9-16 days after onset. Neutralization activity on admission was significantly higher in patients with moderate disease than in patients with severe-to-critical disease (relative % of infectivity, 6.4% vs. 41.1%; P = .011). Neutralization activity on admission inversely correlated with disease severity. The rapid NAb response may play a crucial role in preventing the progression of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Time Factors
17.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1122-1125, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1185070

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to assess the nasopharyngeal viral load at discharge or time of discontinued isolation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to our hospital and discharged under the current symptom-based criteria in Japan. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and hospitalized at Toyama University Hospital were included in the analysis. Nasopharyngeal viral load was measured when symptom-based criteria for discharge or end of isolation in the accommodations were met, and examined the relationship between viral load and days after onset or age. From the perspective of virus isolation limit, the amount of infectious viral load was defined at 50 copies/µL by nasopharyngeal sample. Thirty-three patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in the analysis, after excluding critical and fatal cases. Mean nasopharyngeal viral load at discharge or end of isolation was 1.90 log-copies/µL, and 64% of patients were discharged with over 50 copies/µL. No correlation was apparent between age and viral load at discharge, and viral load remained relatively high at discharge or end of isolation in all age groups. Although attempts at infectious virus isolation are necessary, infection control precautions even after discharge or discontinued isolation in accommodations may be needed, as the date of onset mostly depended on self-reporting by patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Humans , Japan , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
18.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(7): 1119-1121, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157496

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the standard method for the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This PCR test can be positive even in patients who have recovered from the disease, and the duration for achieving viral clearance has not been clarified yet. METHODS: This study was conducted between April 3, 2020, and June 17, 2020, at the Toyama University Hospital and the Toyama Rehabilitation Home. We collected the data of patients with COVID-19, analyzing the duration until twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients were enrolled. The median duration of the twice-consecutive negative qRT-PCR test was 29.0 d (interquartile range: 25.75-35.25). The longest duration of viral shedding was 73 d. The duration of viral clearance was significantly longer in the older (>65 years) group than in the younger group (34.5 d vs. 25.0 d, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that viral clearance tends to be sustained in the older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 33-35, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1144720

ABSTRACT

As of October 2020, there is still no specific drug to treat COVID-19 as it rages worldwide. Favipiravir, indicated for the treatment of new and re-emerging influenza infections, has been suggested to be effective against SARS-CoV-2, although this is not yet fully validated. We administered favipiravir to a 64-year-old female patient with COVID-19. Her symptoms resolved quickly after the start of treatment, with reduction of SARS-CoV-2 viral load, but she developed a fever again on day 12. Since the fever was relieved by discontinuation of favipiravir, and based on positive results with a drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test, we diagnosed her with favipiravir-induced drug fever. A decrease in the serum concentration of favipiravir was observed along with resolution of the fever. The present case suggests that drug fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of relapsing fever episodes in COVID-19 patients receiving favipiravir.


Subject(s)
Amides/adverse effects , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19/immunology , Fever/chemically induced , Lymphocyte Activation/drug effects , Pyrazines/adverse effects , Amides/pharmacology , Amides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pyrazines/pharmacology , Pyrazines/therapeutic use , Viral Load/drug effects
20.
Virol J ; 18(1): 16, 2021 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus that emerged in 2019 and is now classified in the genus Coronavirus with closely related SARS-CoV. SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and is classified as a biosafety level (BSL)-3 pathogen, which makes manipulating it relatively difficult due to its infectious nature. METHODS: To circumvent the need for BSL-3 laboratories, an alternative assay was developed that avoids live virus and instead uses a recombinant VSV expressing luciferase and possesses the full length or truncated spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, to measure SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions, a chemiluminescence reduction neutralization test (CRNT) for SARS-CoV-2 was developed. The neutralization values of the serum samples collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative donors against the pseudotyped virus infection evaluated by the CRNT were compared with antibody titers determined from an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). RESULTS: The CRNT, which used whole blood collected from hospitalized patients with COVID-19, was also examined. As a result, the inhibition of pseudotyped virus infection was specifically observed in both serum and whole blood and was also correlated with the results of the IFA. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the CRNT for COVID-19 is a convenient assay system that can be performed in a BSL-2 laboratory with high specificity and sensitivity for evaluating the occurrence of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Luminescence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
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