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DEN open ; 2(1): e42, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653219


Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) primarily cause respiratory symptoms. However, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can also occur. The endoscopic characteristics of the GI tract in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. We herein report a 62-year-old male with severe COVID-19 who needed multidisciplinary treatment, including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Despite the improvement in his respiratory status, GI bleeding developed. Capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy revealed extensive mucosal sloughing in the lower intestinal tract. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the mRNA expression levels of various proinflammatory cytokines in the intestinal mucosal tissues. The results suggested a significant elevation of IL-6, which could be involved in the pathophysiology of the GI involvement in COVID-19. Further investigation with more clinical data, including endoscopic findings and molecular analyses, will contribute to a comprehensive understanding of COVID-19-associated GI injury.

Clin J Gastroenterol ; 14(4): 1008-1013, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174015


The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly become a pandemic, resulting in a global suspension of non-emergency medical procedures such as screening endoscopic examinations. There have been several reports of COVID-19 patients presenting with gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea and vomiting. In this report, we present a case of successful hemostasis of bleeding gastric inflammatory fibroid polyp by endoscopic treatment in a patient with severe COVID-19. The case was under mechanical ventilation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and the airway was on a closed circuit. This indicates that COVID-19 is associated with not only lung injury but also intestinal damage, and that proper protective protocols are essential in guaranteeing the best outcomes for patients and clinical professionals during this pandemic.

COVID-19 , Leiomyoma , Hemostasis , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
J Gastroenterol ; 56(5): 409-420, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147593


Although primarily a respiratory illness, several studies have shown that COVID-19 causes elevation of liver enzymes and various gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether the presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms contributed toward COVID-19 severity, and identify the GI symptoms characteristic of severe COVID-19. We conducted a literature search of PubMed from December 1, 2019, to June 30, 2020, and identified all reports with GI symptoms reported. A meta-analysis comparing the severity of COVID-19 with the presence of liver enzyme elevation and GI symptoms was performed using RevMan version 5.4. Pooled data from 15,305 unique reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction positive COVID-19 patients from 44 studies were analyzed. We found that the severe COVID-19 patients significantly had abdominal pain compared to the non-severe COVID-19 patients (OR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.17-6.27, Z = 2.32, p = 0.02, I2 = 0%) by analyzed 609 patients of 4 studies who reported both abdominal pain and COVID-19 severity. However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting between the two groups. Thus, this systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that abdominal pain could be characteristic of severe COVID-19 infections. Compared with other viral infections that primarily infect the respiratory system, patients with COVID-19 have a slightly lower frequency of diarrheal symptoms with abdominal pain. However, to confirm this, further studies with COVID-19 patients across various countries and ethnicities are required.

COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Liver/enzymology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Diarrhea/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/virology , Humans , Liver/virology , Nausea/epidemiology , Nausea/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Vomiting/epidemiology , Vomiting/virology