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1.
J Med Virol ; 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2127877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recently emerged novel coronavirus, "severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2)", caused a highly contagious disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has severely damaged the world's most developed countries and has turned into a major threat for low- and middle-income countries. Since its emergence in late 2019, medical interventions have been substantial, and most countries relied on public health measures collectively known as nonpharmaceutical interventions. AIMS: To centralize the accumulative knowledge on non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) against COVID-19 for each country under one worldwide consortium. METHODS: International COVID-19 Research Network collaborators developed a cross-sectional online-survey to assess the implications of NPIs and sanitary supply on incidence and mortality of COVID-19. Survey was conducted between January 1 and February 1, 2021, and participants from 92 countries/territories completed it. The association between NPIs, sanitation supplies and incidence and mortality were examined by multivariate regression, with log-transformed value of population as an offset value. RESULTS: Majority of countries/territories applied several preventive strategies including social distancing (100.0%), quarantine (100.0%), isolation (98.9%), and school closure (97.8%). Individual-level preventive measures such as personal hygiene (100.0%) and wearing facial mask (94.6% at hospital; 93.5% at mass transportation; 91.3% in mass gathering facilities) were also frequently applied. Quarantine at a designated place was negatively associated with incidence and mortality compared to home quarantine. Isolation at a designated place was also associated with reduced mortality compared to home isolation. Recommendations to use sanitizer for personal hygiene reduced incidence compared to recommendation to use soap did. Deprivation of mask was associated with increased incidence. Higher incidence and mortality were found in countries/territories with higher economic level. Mask deprivation was pervasive regardless of economic level. CONCLUSION: NPIs against COVID-19 such as using sanitizer, quarantine, and isolation can decrease incidence and mortality of COVID-19. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269574, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Risk communication and community engagement are among the key strategies used in response to pandemics. Effective risk communication and community engagement can be achieved when assisted by health learning materials. However, their utilization was not known in Ethiopia. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the utilization of COVID-19 health learning materials (HLMs), and explore barriers and facilitating factors. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed-methods study consisting of two phases was carried out. The first phase was a cross-sectional survey to assess the utilization of COVID-19 HLMs and their predictors. In this phase, a multistage sampling technique was used to select 530 health workers. A self-administered structured questionnaire was used for data collection. Epi-data manager version 4.6.0.2 and STATA version 16 were used for data entry and analyses, respectively. Descriptive analyses were carried out as necessary. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were done to identify the predictors of COVID-19 HLMs utilization. Phase two is a qualitative study to explore enablers and barriers to COVID-19 HLMs utilization. A judgmental sampling technique was used and 14 key informants were recruited. The collected data were uploaded into Atlas ti version 7.0.71. An inductive process of thematic analysis was employed and the data were coded, categorized, and thematized. RESULTS: Findings showed that out of the total 530 respondents, 210(39.6%), 117(22.1%), and 203(38.3%) of them never use COVID-19 HLMs, use sometimes, and always, respectively. Health workers' perceived quality of COVID-19 HLMs [AOR = 6.44 (95% CI: 4.18-9.94)], health workers' perceived usefulness of COVID-19 HLMs [AOR = 2.82 (95% CI: 1.88-4.22)], working facility [AOR = 1.83 (95% CI: 1.07-3.14)], educational level of the respondents [AOR = 1.73 (95% CI: 1.11-2.72)] and availability of COVID-19 HLMs [AOR = 1.45(95% CI: 1.01-2.08)] had statistically significant association with the utilization status of COVID-19 HLMs. Findings from the qualitative study showed that materials-related factors, and structure and health workers-related factors had influence on HLMs utilization. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that only a few of the respondents were regularly utilizing COVID-19 HLMs. Perceived quality, usefulness, and availability of HLMs, and health workers' educational status and working facility determined the level of COVID-19 HLMs utilization. There is a need for giving due attention to HLMs, evaluating their quality, availing them to health facilities, and providing training for health workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics
3.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
4.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 981, 2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243807

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective risk communication is one of the critical strategies in the response to COVID-19. This study examined risk perceptions and attitudinal responses to COVID-19 among the educated section of the society in Ethiopia. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted from April 22 to May 04, 2020, in Ethiopia. A questionnaire addressing the perception of health threat-combination of perceived vulnerability (PV) and perceived seriousness (PS), and perceived efficacy-combinations of perceived response efficacy (PRE), perceived self-efficacy (PSE), and perceived collective efficacy (PCE). The data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0. Descriptive statistics were computed after the standardization of the scores. The scores for overall efficacy and threat were split by median value and response classifications were generated through threat by efficacy interactions. For statistical significance, 95% CI and p-value < 0.05 were used. RESULTS: A total of 929 respondents submitted their responses. Eight hundred and twenty-eight (89.1%) of the respondents were male and 753 (81.1%) were Christian. The perceived threat to COVID-19 was generally low (median = 58.3). The median score for overall efficacy, PRE, and PSE were 79.8, 87.5, and 80.0, respectively. However, the median value (66.7) for PCE was relatively low. Perceived threat significantly varied by age, education, occupation, and place of residence (p < 0.05). Perceived efficacy significantly differed by gender, residence, and use of some sources of information (p < 0.05). In terms of response to COVID-19, 290 (31.2%), 239 (25.7%), 175 (18.8%) and 225 (24.2%) of the respondents were in the responsive, pro-active, avoidant, and indifferent attitudinal categories, respectively. The avoidant and indifferent groups constituted a fear control response (mal-adaptive motivation towards COVID-19 protective behavior) whereas responsive and pro-active categories formed a danger control response (self-protective motivation). These responses varied significantly by residence, region, religion, and sources of information (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Understanding people's perceived health threat and efficacy is a critical step toward creating risk communication campaigns. Hence, this study provided an insight that has the potential to inform the COVID-19 risk communication campaigns targeting the educated section of the society, by ensuring a balanced combination of threat appeals and efficacy messages for improved self-protective responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
5.
Ann Gen Psychiatry ; 20(1): 22, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led individuals to suffer from different levels of mental health problems such as psychological distress, anxiety, depression, denial, panic, and fear. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors among the Ethiopian population during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed through an online survey using different online platforms. The questionnaire was created through Google Form and the survey link was administered by e-mail, LinkedIn, Telegram, and Facebook. Educated Ethiopian population who have access to the internet were invited to participate through an online survey and addressed to 929 respondents. The study participants completed the survey anonymously without any personal identifier. The psychological distress was assessed using the Kessler 10-item tool to measure psychological distress. Data were analyzed using SPSS and logistic regression to examine mutually adjusted associations, expressed as adjusted odds ratios. A generalized additive model was also employed to identify additional predictors using R. RESULTS: The prevalence of high psychological distress among the study population was 236 (25.5%). Of all respondents, 421 (45.1%) had low psychological distress, 274 (29.4%) had moderate psychological distress, 164 (17.6%) had high psychological distress, and 72 (7.3%) had very high psychological distress. Psychological distress increased with being at young and middle-aged adults, getting information from social media, and not correctly practicing infection prevention and control measures to prevent COVID-19 infection. Respondents with high perceived severity had increased psychological distress. On the contrary, those with the highest score of perceived response efficacy had low distress. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of psychological distress was substantial. The need for intervention of psychological distress inline with the prevention of COVID-19 is critically essential. The intervention target groups are those whose information sources are from social media, young and middle-aged adults, and those who do not correctly practice infection prevention and control measures against COVID-19 infection.

6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0243024, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-950967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The endeavor to tackle the spread of COVID-19 effectively remains futile without the right grasp of perceptions and beliefs presiding in the community. Therefore, this study aimed to assess myths, beliefs, perceptions, and information gaps about COVID-19 in Ethiopia. METHODS: An internet-based survey was conducted in Ethiopia from April 22 to May 04, 2020. The survey link was promoted through emails, social media, and the Jimma University website. Perceptions about COVID-19 have considered the World Health Organization (WHO) resources and local beliefs. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) software version 20.0. Classifications and lists of factors for each thematic perception of facilitators, inhibitors, and information needs were generated. Explanatory factor analysis (EFA) was executed to assist categorizations. Standardized mean scores of the categories were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-tests. A significant difference was claimed at p-value <0.05. RESULTS: A total of 929 responses were gathered during the study period. The EFA generated two main categories of perceived facilitators of COVID-19 spread: behavioral non-adherence (55.9%) and lack of enablers (86.5%). Behavioral non-adherence was illustrated by fear of stigma (62.9%), not seeking care (59.3%), and hugging and shaking (44.8%). Perceived lack of enablers of precautionary measures includes staying home impossible due to economic challenges (92.4%), overcrowding (87.6%), and inaccessible face masks (81.6%) and hand sanitizers (79.1%). Perceived inhibitors were categorized into three factors: two misperceived, myths (31.6%) and false assurances (32.9%), and one correctly identified; engagement in standard precautions (17.1%). Myths about protection from the virus involve perceived religiosity and effectiveness of selected food items, hot weather, traditional medicine, and alcohol drinking, ranging from 15.1% to 54.7%. False assurances include people's perception that they were living far away from areas where COVID-19 was rampant (36.9%), and no locally reported cases were present (29.5%). There were tremendous information needs reported about COVID-19 concerning protection methods (62.6%), illness behavior and treatment (59.5%), and quality information, including responses to key unanswered questions such as the origin of the virus (2.4%). Health workers were perceived as the most at-risk group (83.3%). The children, adolescents, youths were marked at low to moderate (45.1%-62.2%) risk of COVID-19. Regional, township, and access to communication showed significant variations in myths, false assurances, and information needs (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Considering young population as being at low risk of COVID-19 would be challenging to the control efforts, and needs special attention. Risk communication and community engagement efforts should consider regional and township variations of myths and false assurances. It should also need to satisfy information needs, design local initiatives that enhance community ownership of the control of the virus, and thereby support engagement in standard precautionary measures. All forms of media should be properly used and regulated to disseminate credible information while filtering out myths and falsehoods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Communication , Culture , Perception , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Risk , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
7.
PLOS ONE ; 15(5):e0233744-e0233744, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-327132

ABSTRACT

Background Novel-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a pandemic and public health emergency of international concern, as avowed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Ethiopia has become one of the affected countries as of March 15, 2020. Objective This study aimed to assess the knowledge, perceptions, and practices among the Jimma University medical center (JUMC) visitors in Jimma town. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 247 sampled visitors, from 20–24 March 2020. Consecutive sampling was used to recruit the participants. The study tools were adapted from WHO resources. The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the status of knowledge, perception, and practices. Logistic regression was executed to assess the predictors of dominant preventive practices. Results Of the 247 respondents, 205 (83.0%) knew the main clinical symptoms of COVID-19. 72.0% knew that older people who have chronic illnesses are at high risk of developing a severe form of COVID-19. About 95.1% knew that the COVID-19 virus spreads via respiratory droplets of infected people, while 77 (31.2%) of the respondents knew about the possibility of asymptomatic transmission. Only 15 (6.1%) knew that children and young adults had to involve preventive measures. Overall, 41.3% of the visitors had high knowledge. The majority, 170(68.8%), felt self-efficacious to controlling COVID-19. 207(83.3%) believed that COVID-19 is a stigmatized disease. Frequent hand washing (77.3%) and avoidance of shaking hands (53.8%) were the dominant practices. Knowledge status and self-efficacy (positively), older age, and unemployment (negatively) predicted hand washing and avoidance of handshaking. Conclusions The status of knowledge and desirable practices were not sufficient enough to combat this rapidly spreading virus. COVID-19 risk communication and public education efforts should focus on building an appropriate level of knowledge while enhancing the adoption of recommended self-care practices with special emphasis on high-risk audience segments.

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