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ACS ES&T water ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824014


The majority of sewer systems in the United States and other countries are operated by public utilities. In the absence of any regulation, the public perception of wastewater monitoring for population health biomarkers is an important consideration for a public utility commission when allocating resources for this purpose. We conducted a survey in August 2021 as part of an ongoing COVID-19 community prevalence study in Louisville/Jefferson County, KY, US. The survey comprised seven questions about wastewater awareness and privacy concerns and was sent to approximately 35 000 households randomly distributed within the county. A total of 1220 adults were involved in the probability sample, and data from 981 respondents were used in the analysis. A total of 2444 adults additionally responded to the convenience sample, and data from 1751 respondents were used in the analysis. The samples were weighted to obtain estimates representative of all adults in the county. Public awareness of tracking the virus that causes COVID-19 in sewers was low. Opinions strongly support the public disclosure of monitoring results. Responses showed that people more strongly supported measurements in the largest areas (>50 000 households), typically representing population levels found in a large community wastewater treatment plant. Those with a history of COVID-19 infection were more likely to support highly localized monitoring. Understanding wastewater surveillance strategies and privacy concern thresholds requires an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of public opinion for continued success and effective public health monitoring. This study investigated the public awareness of and support for the use of wastewater for SARS-CoV-2 monitoring in Louisville, KY. The researchers found that awareness was low but support was strong. The researchers concluded that wastewater surveillance strategies and privacy concern thresholds require an in-depth and comprehensive analysis of public opinion for continued success and effective public health monitoring.

Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18285, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410888


Serological assays intended for diagnosis, sero-epidemiologic assessment, and measurement of protective antibody titers upon infection or vaccination are essential for managing the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Serological assays measuring the antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 antigens are readily available. However, some lack appropriate characteristics to accurately measure SARS-CoV-2 antibodies titers and neutralization. We developed an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) methods for measuring IgG, IgA, and IgM responses to SARS-CoV-2, Spike (S), receptor binding domain (RBD), and nucleocapsid (N) proteins. Performance characteristics of sensitivity and specificity have been defined. ELISA results show positive correlation with microneutralization and Plaque Reduction Neutralization assays with infectious SARS-CoV-2. Our ELISA was used to screen healthcare workers in Louisville, KY during the first wave of the local pandemic in the months of May and July 2020. We found a seropositive rate of approximately 1.4% and 2.3%, respectively. Our analyses demonstrate a broad immune response among individuals and suggest some non-RBD specific S IgG and IgA antibodies neutralize SARS-CoV-2.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Kentucky/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins/immunology , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology