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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335503

ABSTRACT

As the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic continues to evolve, efforts to understand variability in COVID-19 recovery, as well as the impact of factors including viral variants, vaccine status, and COVID-19 treatment on the development and persistence of Long COVID symptoms have intensified. We report three cases that demonstrate that variability in the timing of nirmatrelvir therapy may be associated with different outcomes and underscores the need for systematic study of antiviral therapy for this disease condition.

2.
Global Qualitative Nursing Research ; 9:233339362210948-233339362210948, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1822151

ABSTRACT

It has long been known that nursing work is challenging and has the potential for negative impacts. During the COVID-19 pandemic most nurses’ working landscapes altered dramatically and many faced unprecedented challenges. Resilience is a contested term that has been used with increasing prevalence in healthcare with health professionals encouraging a “tool-box” of stress management techniques and resilience-building skills. Drawing on narrative interview data ( n = 27) from the Impact of Covid on Nurses (ICON) qualitative study we examine how nurses conceptualized resilience during COVID-19 and the impacts this had on their mental wellbeing. We argue here that it is paramount that nurses are not blamed for experiencing workplace stress when perceived not to be resilient “enough,” particularly when expressing what may be deemed to be normal and appropriate reactions given the extreme circumstances and context of the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332871

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS CoV-2 infection (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to the blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We found higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as beta-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared to those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. The higher beta-glucan correlated with higher levels of markers of inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neuro-toxic properties. Mechanistically, beta-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via the Dectin-1 receptor) and activating Syk/NF-kB signaling. Using an in vitro Dectin-1/NF-kB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-kB signaling compared to plasma from SARS-CoV-2 negative controls. This higher NF-kB signaling was abrogated by the Syk inhibitor Piceatannol. These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.

4.
J Rural Health ; 2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752619

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Working in a hospital setting during a global health pandemic can lead to increased levels of anxiety, stress, burnout, and depression. Anecdotal evidence exists, but there is little research utilizing clinically validated tools to measure hospital staff psychological distress. METHODS: In Summer 2021, 771 hospital staff in North Dakota responded to an electronic survey collecting demographic data and employing validated behavioral health screening tools to assess anxiety, depression, emotional distress, and work-related quality of life. FINDINGS: Compassion satisfaction was significantly higher for those who worked in rural areas than urban [t(769) = -1.99, P = .0467]. The burnout rating was significantly higher for those who worked in urban areas than rural [t(769) = 2.23, P = .0261)]. There was no significant geographic variation in stress, anxiety, or depression. Anxiety, depression, burnout, and stress were all significantly higher for those who worked directly with COVID-19 patients than those who did not, regardless of hospital location. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital staff caring for COVID-19 patients experienced equitable (and high) levels of depression and anxiety. However, data indicate that rural providers experienced greater protective factors, resulting in lower rates of burnout and higher compassion satisfaction. Rural communities, hospitals, and health systems may have characteristics that could be duplicated in urban areas to support hospital staff well-being. Support and promotion of mental wellness must also come from the hospital system, and health care and policy leaders. If we do not care for our hospital staff, there will not be hospital staff left to care for the community.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327600

ABSTRACT

Background: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). Methods: We measured SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immune responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 (n=39 and n=43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing symptomatic post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. Results: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T cell immune responses as compared with a well-matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory CD8+ T cells (p=0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2 specific CD4+ T cells (p=0.007). Higher CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2 specific CD8+ T cells (0.34-fold effect, p=0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, p=0.008), and the proportion of PD-1+ CD4+ T cells and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. Conclusions: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324759

ABSTRACT

Background: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 demonstrate a higher risk of developing thromboembolism. Anticoagulation (AC) has been proposed for high-risk patients, even without confirmed thromboembolism. However, benefits and risks of AC are not well assessed due to insufficient clinical data. We performed a retrospective analysis of outcomes from AC in a large population of COVID-19 patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 1189 patients hospitalized for COVID-19 between March 15 and May 15, 2020, with primary outcomes of mortality, invasive mechanical ventilation, and major bleeding. Patients who received therapeutic AC for known indications were excluded. Propensity score matching of baseline characteristics and admission parameters was performed to minimize bias between cohorts. Results: The analysis cohort included 973 patients. Forty-four patients who received therapeutic AC for confirmed thromboembolic events and atrial fibrillation were excluded. After propensity score matching, 133 patients received empiric therapeutic AC while 215 received low dose prophylactic AC. Overall, there was no difference in the rate of invasive mechanical ventilation (73.7% versus 65.6%, p = 0.133) or mortality (60.2% versus 60.9%, p = 0.885). However, among patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, empiric therapeutic AC was an independent predictor of lower mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 0.476, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.345-0.657, p < 0.001) with longer median survival (14 days vs 8 days, p < 0.001), but these associations were not observed in the overall cohort ( p = 0.063). Additionally, no significant difference in mortality was found between patients receiving empiric therapeutic AC versus prophylactic AC in various subgroups with different D-dimer level cutoffs. Patients who received therapeutic AC showed a higher incidence of major bleeding (13.8% vs 3.9%, p < 0.001). Furthermore, patients with a HAS-BLED score of ≥2 had a higher risk of mortality (HR 1.482, 95% CI 1.110-1.980, p = 0.008), while those with a score of ≥3 had a higher risk of major bleeding (Odds ratio: 1.883, CI: 1.114-3.729, p = 0.016). Conclusion: Empiric use of therapeutic AC conferred survival benefit to patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation, but did not show benefit in non-critically ill patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Careful bleeding risk estimation should be pursued before considering escalation of AC intensity.

8.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 127: 104155, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The specific challenges experienced by the nursing and midwifery workforce in previous pandemics have exacerbated pre-existing professional and personal challenges, and triggered new issues. We aimed to determine the psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the UK nursing and midwifery workforce and identify potential factors associated with signs of post-traumatic stress disorder. METHODS: A United Kingdom national online survey was conducted at three time-points during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic between April and August 2020 (T1 and T2 during initial wave; T3 at three-months following the first wave). All members of the UK registered and unregistered nursing and midwifery workforce were eligible to participate. The survey was promoted via social media and through organisational email and newsletters. The primary outcome was an Impact of Events Scale-Revised score indicative of a post-traumatic stress disorder diagnosis (defined using the cut-off score ≥33). Multivariable logistic regression modelling was used to assess the association between explanatory variables and post-traumatic stress disorder. RESULTS: We received 7840 eligible responses (T1- 2040; T2- 3638; T3- 2162). Overall, 91.6% participants were female, 77.2% were adult registered nurses, and 28.7% were redeployed during the pandemic. An Impact of Events Scale-Revised score ≥33 (probable post-traumatic stress disorder) was observed in 44.6%, 37.1%, and 29.3% participants at T1, T2, and T3 respectively. At all three time-points, both personal and workplace factors were associated with probable post-traumatic stress disorder, although some specific associations changed over the course of the pandemic. Increased age was associated with reduced probable post-traumatic stress disorder at T1 and T2 (e.g. 41-50 years at T1 odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.42-0.86), but not at T3. Similarly, redeployment with inadequate/ no training was associated with increased probable post-traumatic stress disorder at T1 and T2, but not at T3 (T1 OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.06-1.77; T3 OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.89-1.55). A lack of confidence in infection prevention and control training was associated with increased probable post-traumatic stress disorder at all three time-points (e.g. T1 OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11-1.97). CONCLUSION: A negative psychological impact was evident 3-months following the first wave of the pandemic. Both personal and workplace are associated with adverse psychological effects linked to the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings will inform how healthcare organisations should respond to staff wellbeing needs both during the current pandemic, and in planning for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Midwifery , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Workforce
9.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295908

ABSTRACT

We aimed to characterize the variability in the illness experience and recovery process from COVID-19. We conducted in-depth individual interviews with participants enrolled in the Long-term Immunological Impact of Novel Coronavirus (LIINC) cohort study in San Francisco, California from June through October of 2020. Participants were adults who had a previously confirmed positive SARV-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test result, had recovered or were recovering from acute infection, and underwent serial evaluations at our clinical research center. We purposefully sampled 24 English- and Spanish-speaking adults with asymptomatic, mild and severe symptomatic infection, including those who were hospitalized, and those with HIV co-infection. Half of our sample (50.0%) identified as Latinx/Hispanic and most of the participants were men (62.5%). We used thematic analysis to characterize the illness experience, recovery process, and mental health impact of experiencing COVID-19 and present clinical data for each participant. Emergent themes were: (1) across symptom profiles and severity, experiencing COVID-19 was associated with psychological distress, (2) among participants with symptomatic infection, the illness experience was characterized by uncertainty in terms of managing symptoms and recovery, and (3) despite wide-ranging illness experiences, participants shared many common characteristics, including health information-seeking behavior facilitated by access to medical care, and uncertainty regarding the course of their illness and recovery. COVID-19 was associated with elevated levels of psychological distress, regardless of symptoms.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. METHODS In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults >8 weeks after PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. RESULTS We enrolled 102 participants at a median 7.2 months (IQR 4.1-9.1) following COVID-19 onset;47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years (range 24-86) and 41% were women. Female sex (OR 2.55, 95%CI 1.13-5.74) and hospitalization during acute infection (OR 3.25, 95%CI 1.08-9.82) were associated with symptoms. IgG antibody to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (OR 1.38 per doubling, 95%CI 1.38-1.84) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (OR 1.31 per doubling, 95%CI 1.00-1.71) were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4/47 (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared to 0/55 without symptoms (p=0.038);those with pericardial effusions had a median 4 symptoms compared to 1 without (p<0.001). There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters (including left ventricular ejection fraction and strain, right ventricular strain, pulmonary artery pressure) or high-sensitivity troponin, NT-pro-BNP, interleukin-10, interferon-gamma, or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. CONCLUSIONS Among adults in the post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying PASC is warranted.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254958, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331994

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic forced a reconsideration of surgical patient management in the setting of scarce resources and risk of viral transmission. Herein we assess the impact of implementing a protocol of more rigorous patient education, recovery room assessment for non-ICU admission, earlier mobilization and post-discharge communication for patients undergoing brain tumor surgery. METHODS: A case-control retrospective review was undertaken at a community hospital with a dedicated neurosurgery and otolaryngology team using minimally invasive surgical techniques, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and early post-operative imaging protocols. All patients undergoing craniotomy or endoscopic endonasal removal of a brain, skull base or pituitary tumor were included during two non-overlapping periods: March 2019-January 2020 (pre-pandemic epoch) versus March 2020-January 2021 (pandemic epoch with streamlined care protocol implemented). Data collection included demographics, preoperative American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, tumor pathology, and tumor resection and remission rates. Primary outcomes were ICU utilization and hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondary outcomes were complications, readmissions and reoperations. FINDINGS: Of 295 patients, 163 patients were treated pre-pandemic (58% women, mean age 53.2±16 years) and 132 were treated during the pandemic (52% women, mean age 52.3±17 years). From pre-pandemic to pandemic, ICU utilization decreased from 92(54%) to 43(29%) of operations (p<0.001) and hospital LOS≤1 day increased from 21(12.2%) to 60(41.4%), p<0.001, respectively. For craniotomy cohort, median LOS was 2 days for both epochs; median ICU LOS decreased from 1 to 0 days (p<0.001), ICU use decreased from 73(80%) to 29(33%),(p<0.001). For endonasal cohort, median LOS decreased from 2 to 1 days; median ICU LOS was 0 days for both epochs; (p<0.001). There were no differences pre-pandemic versus pandemic in ASA scores, resection/remission rates, readmissions or reoperations. CONCLUSION: This experience suggests the COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity for implementing a brain tumor care protocol to facilitate safely decreasing ICU utilization and accelerating discharge home without an increase in complications, readmission or reoperations. More rigorous patient education, recovery room assessment for non-ICU admission, earlier mobilization and post-discharge communication, layered upon a foundation of minimally invasive surgery, TIVA anesthesia and early post-operative imaging are possible contributors to these favorable trends.


Subject(s)
Brain Neoplasms/surgery , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Craniotomy/methods , Enhanced Recovery After Surgery , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures/methods , Patient Discharge , Patient Readmission , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Period , Reoperation/methods , Retrospective Studies
14.
Cell Rep ; 36(7): 109527, 2021 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1330685

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathology involves dysregulation of diverse molecular, cellular, and physiological processes. To expedite integrated and collaborative COVID-19 research, we completed multi-omics analysis of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, including matched analysis of the whole-blood transcriptome, plasma proteomics with two complementary platforms, cytokine profiling, plasma and red blood cell metabolomics, deep immune cell phenotyping by mass cytometry, and clinical data annotation. We refer to this multidimensional dataset as the COVIDome. We then created the COVIDome Explorer, an online researcher portal where the data can be analyzed and visualized in real time. We illustrate herein the use of the COVIDome dataset through a multi-omics analysis of biosignatures associated with C-reactive protein (CRP), an established marker of poor prognosis in COVID-19, revealing associations between CRP levels and damage-associated molecular patterns, depletion of protective serpins, and mitochondrial metabolism dysregulation. We expect that the COVIDome Explorer will rapidly accelerate data sharing, hypothesis testing, and discoveries worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Databases, Genetic , Metabolome , Proteome , Transcriptome , Access to Information , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Data Mining , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Male , Metabolomics , Middle Aged , Proteomics , Young Adult
15.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 25(1): 55-57, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275902

ABSTRACT

Prostate cancer affects a significant proportion of men worldwide. Evidence from genetic and clinical studies suggests that there may be a causal association between prostate cancer and the human papilloma virus (HPV). As HPV is a vaccine-preventable pathogen, the possibility of a role in prostate cancer causation may reinforce the importance of effective HPV vaccination campaigns. This is of particular relevance in light of the COVID-19 pandemic, which may have considerable effects on HPV vaccine uptake and distribution.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus , COVID-19 , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Prostatic Neoplasms , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Papillomaviridae , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/etiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/prevention & control , Vaccination
16.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2223, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1107715

ABSTRACT

The current coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic caused by novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a male bias in severity and mortality. This is consistent with previous coronavirus pandemics such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and viral infections in general. Here, we discuss the sex-disaggregated epidemiological data for COVID-19 and highlight underlying differences that may explain the sexual dimorphism to help inform risk stratification strategies and therapeutic options.


Subject(s)
Adaptive Immunity , COVID-19/mortality , Immunity, Innate , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Characteristics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Gene Expression , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Factors , Survival Analysis , Virus Internalization
17.
Int J Cancer ; 148(2): 277-284, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-635339

ABSTRACT

The age-standardised incidence of cervical cancer in Europe varies widely by country (between 3 and 25/100000 women-years) in 2018. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage is low in countries with the highest incidence and screening performance is heterogeneous among European countries. A broad group of delegates of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations endorse the principles of the WHO call to eliminate cervical cancer as a public health problem, also in Europe. All European nations should, by 2030, reach at least 90% HPV vaccine coverage among girls by the age of 15 years and also boys, if cost-effective; they should introduce organised population-based HPV-based screening and achieve 70% of screening coverage in the target age group, providing also HPV testing on self-samples for nonscreened or underscreened women; and to manage 90% of screen-positive women. To guide member states, a group of scientific professional societies and cancer organisations engage to assist in the rollout of a series of concerted evidence-based actions. European health authorities are requested to mandate a group of experts to develop the third edition of European Guidelines for Quality Assurance of Cervical Cancer prevention based on integrated HPV vaccination and screening and to monitor the progress towards the elimination goal. The occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic, having interrupted prevention activities temporarily, should not deviate stakeholders from this ambition. In the immediate postepidemic phase, health professionals should focus on high-risk women and adhere to cost-effective policies including self-sampling.


Subject(s)
Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Papillomavirus Infections/immunology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Public Health/methods , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Alphapapillomavirus/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Early Detection of Cancer , Europe , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Public Health/standards , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/immunology , Vaccination/methods , World Health Organization , Young Adult
20.
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