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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2242240, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119149

ABSTRACT

Importance: Herpes zoster infection after COVID-19 vaccination has been reported in numerous case studies. It is not known whether these cases represent increased reporting or a true increase in risk. Objective: To assess whether COVID-19 vaccination is associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used a self-controlled risk interval (SCRI) design to compare the risk of herpes zoster in a risk interval of 30 days after COVID-19 vaccination or up to the date of the second vaccine dose with a control interval remote from COVID-19 vaccination (defined as 60-90 days after the last recorded vaccination date for each individual, allowing for a 30-day washout period between control and risk intervals). A supplemental cohort analysis was used to compare the risk of herpes zoster after COVID-19 vaccination with the risk of herpes zoster after influenza vaccination among 2 historical cohorts who received an influenza vaccine in the prepandemic period (January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2019) or the early pandemic period (March 1, 2020, to November 30, 2020). Data were obtained from Optum Labs Data Warehouse, a US national deidentified claims-based database. A total of 2 039 854 individuals who received any dose of a COVID-19 vaccine with emergency use authorization (BNT162b2 [Pfizer-BioNTech], mRNA-1273 [Moderna], or Ad26.COV2.S [Johnson & Johnson]) from December 11, 2020, through June 30, 2021, were eligible for inclusion. Individuals included in the SCRI analysis were a subset of the COVID-19-vaccinated cohort who had herpes zoster during either a risk or control interval. Exposures: Any dose of a COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incident herpes zoster, defined by International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Tenth Revision codes and a prescription of a new antiviral medication or a dose increase in antiviral medication within 5 days of diagnosis. Results: Among 2 039 854 individuals who received any dose of a COVID-19 vaccine during the study period, the mean (SD) age was 43.2 (16.3) years; 1 031 149 individuals (50.6%) were female, and 1 344 318 (65.9%) were White. Of those, 1451 patients (mean [SD] age, 51.6 [12.6] years; 845 [58.2%] female) with a herpes zoster diagnosis were included in the primary SCRI analysis. In the SCRI analysis, COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with an increased risk of herpes zoster after adjustment (incidence rate ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.82-1.01; P = .08). In the supplementary cohort analysis, COVID-19 vaccination was not associated with a higher risk of herpes zoster compared with influenza vaccination in the prepandemic period (first dose of COVID-19 vaccine: hazard ratio [HR], 0.78 [95% CI, 0.70-0.86; P < .001]; second dose of COVID-19 vaccine: HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.71-0.88; P < .001]) or the early pandemic period (first dose of COVID-19 vaccine: HR, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.80-1.00; P = .05]; second dose: HR, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.81-1.02; P = .09]). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, there was no association found between COVID-19 vaccination and an increased risk of herpes zoster infection, which may help to address concerns about the safety profile of the COVID-19 vaccines among patients and clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Herpes Zoster , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Ad26COVS1 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Herpes Zoster/epidemiology , Herpes Zoster/prevention & control , Herpes Zoster/drug therapy , Herpes Zoster Vaccine/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy
3.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(11): ofac563, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115743

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen can be detected in plasma, but little is known about its performance as a diagnostic test for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection or infectious viral shedding among nonhospitalized individuals. Methods: We used data generated from anterior nasal and blood samples collected in a longitudinal household cohort of SARS-CoV-2 cases and contacts. Participants were classified as true positives if polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive for SARS-CoV-2 and as true negatives if PCR negative and seronegative. Infectious viral shedding was determined by the cytopathic effect from viral culture. Stratified by 7 days after symptom onset, we constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to describe optimized accuracy (Youden index), optimized sensitivity, and specificity. Results: Of 80 participants, 58 (73%) were true positives while 22 (27%) were true negatives. Using the manufacturer's cutoff of 1.25 pg/mL for evaluating infection, sensitivity was higher from 0 to 7 days (77.6% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 64%-88.2%]) than from 8 to 14 days (43.2% [95% CI, 31.1%-54.5%]) after symptom onset; specificity was unchanged at 100% (95% CI, 88.1%-100%). This test had higher sensitivity (100% [95% CI, 88.4%-100%]) and lower specificity (65% [95% CI, 40.8%-84.6%]) for infectious viral shedding as compared with infection, particularly within the first week of symptom onset. Although the presence of N-antigen correlated with infectious viral shedding (r = 0.63; P < .01), sensitivity still declined over time. Additional cutoffs from ROC curves were identified to optimize sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions: We found that this SARS-CoV-2 N-antigen test was highly sensitive for detecting early but not late infectious viral shedding, making it a viable screening test for community-dwelling individuals to inform isolation practices.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2087789

ABSTRACT

Interferon (IFN)-specific autoantibodies have been implicated in severe COVID-19 and have been proposed as a potential driver of the persistent symptoms characterizing Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). We report than only two of 215 SARS-CoV-2 convalescent participants tested over 394 timepoints, including 121 people experiencing Long COVID symptoms, had detectable IFN-α2 antibodies. Both had been hospitalized during the acute phase of the infection. These data suggest that persistent anti-IFN antibodies, although a potential driver of severe COVID-19, are unlikely to contribute to Long COVID symptoms in the post-acute phase of the infection.

5.
JAMA ; 328(14): 1427-1437, 2022 10 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084928

ABSTRACT

Importance: Evidence describing the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness following vaccination and booster with BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and Ad26.COV2.S vaccines is needed, particularly for high-risk populations. Objective: To describe the incidence of severe COVID-19 illness among a cohort that received vaccination plus a booster vaccine dose. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of adults receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities across the US who received a vaccination series plus 1 booster against SARS-CoV-2, conducted from July 1, 2021, to May 30, 2022. Patients were eligible if they had received a primary care visit in the prior 2 years and had documented receipt of all US Food and Drug Administration-authorized doses of the initial mRNA vaccine or viral vector vaccination series after December 11, 2020, and a subsequent documented booster dose between July 1, 2021, and April 29, 2022. The analytic cohort consisted of 1 610 719 participants. Exposures: Receipt of any combination of mRNA-1273 (Moderna), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) primary vaccination series and a booster dose. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were breakthrough COVID-19 (symptomatic infection), hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death, and hospitalization with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and/or death. A subgroup analysis of nonoverlapping populations included those aged 65 years or older, those with high-risk comorbid conditions, and those with immunocompromising conditions. Results: Of 1 610 719 participants, 1 100 280 (68.4%) were aged 65 years or older and 132 243 (8.2%) were female; 1 133 785 (70.4%) had high-risk comorbid conditions, 155 995 (9.6%) had immunocompromising conditions, and 1 467 879 (91.1%) received the same type of mRNA vaccine (initial series and booster). Over 24 weeks, 125.0 (95% CI, 123.3-126.8) per 10 000 persons had breakthrough COVID-19, 8.9 (95% CI, 8.5-9.4) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or died, and 3.4 (95% CI, 3.1-3.7) per 10 000 persons were hospitalized with severe pneumonia or died. For high-risk populations, incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death was as follows: aged 65 years or older, 1.9 (95% CI, 1.4-2.6) per 10 000 persons; high-risk comorbid conditions, 6.7 (95% CI, 6.2-7.2) per 10 000 persons; and immunocompromising conditions, 39.6 (95% CI, 36.6-42.9) per 10 000 persons. Subgroup analyses of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 pneumonia or death by time after booster demonstrated similar incidence estimates among those aged 65 years or older and with high-risk comorbid conditions but not among those with immunocompromising conditions. Conclusions and Relevance: In a US cohort of patients receiving care at Veterans Health Administration facilities during a period of Delta and Omicron variant predominance, there was a low incidence of hospitalization with COVID-19 pneumonia or death following vaccination and booster with any of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad26.COV2.S vaccines.


Subject(s)
2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/therapeutic use , Ad26COVS1/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , BNT162 Vaccine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Secondary/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Male , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Veterans Health Services/statistics & numerical data
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_2): S193-S204, 2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Households have emerged as important venues for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission. Little is known, however, regarding the magnitude and determinants of household transmission in increasingly vaccinated populations. METHODS: From September 2020 to January 2022, symptomatic nonhospitalized individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection by RNA detection were identified within 5 days of symptom onset; all individuals resided with at least 1 other SARS-CoV-2-uninfected household member. These infected persons (cases) and their household members (contacts) were subsequently followed with questionnaire-based measurement and serial nasal specimen collection. The primary outcome was SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts. RESULTS: We evaluated 42 cases and their 74 household contacts. Among the contacts, 32 (43%) became infected, of whom 5 (16%) were asymptomatic; 81% of transmissions occurred by 5 days after the case's symptom onset. From 21 unvaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among contacts was 18/40 (45% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 29%-62%]), most of whom were unvaccinated. From 21 vaccinated cases, 14-day cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 14/34 (41% [95% CI, 25%-59%]) among all contacts and 12/29 (41% [95% CI, 24%-61%]) among vaccinated contacts. At least 1 comorbid condition among cases and 10 or more days of RNA detection in cases were associated with increased risk of infection among contacts. CONCLUSIONS: Among households including individuals with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, both vaccinated-to-vaccinated and unvaccinated-to-unvaccinated transmission of SARS-CoV-2 to household contacts was common. Because vaccination alone did not notably reduce risk of infection, household contacts will need to employ additional interventions to avoid infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA
7.
J Infect Dis ; 226(10): 1688-1698, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2034602

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As of early 2022, the Omicron variants are the predominant circulating lineages globally. Understanding neutralizing antibody responses against Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 after vaccine breakthrough infections will provide insights into BA.2 infectivity and susceptibility to subsequent reinfection. METHODS: Live virus neutralization assays were used to study immunity against Delta and Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in samples from 86 individuals, 24 unvaccinated (27.9%) and 62 vaccinated (72.1%), who were infected with Delta (n = 42, 48.8%) or BA.1 (n = 44, 51.2%). Among the 62 vaccinated individuals, 39 were unboosted (62.9%), whereas 23 were boosted (37.1%). RESULTS: In unvaccinated infections, neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against the three variants were weak or undetectable, except against Delta for Delta-infected individuals. Both Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections resulted in strong nAb responses against ancestral wild-type and Delta lineages, but moderate nAb responses against BA.1 and BA.2, with similar titers between unboosted and boosted individuals. Antibody titers against BA.2 were generally higher than those against BA.1 in breakthrough infections. CONCLUSIONS: These results underscore the decreased immunogenicity of BA.1 compared to BA.2, insufficient neutralizing immunity against BA.2 in unvaccinated individuals, and moderate to strong neutralizing immunity induced against BA.2 in Delta and BA.1 breakthrough infections.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(36): 1151-1154, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2025811

ABSTRACT

Before emergence in late 2021 of the highly transmissible B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1,2), several studies demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 was unlikely to be cultured from specimens with high cycle threshold (Ct) values§ from real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests (suggesting low viral RNA levels) (3). Although CDC and others do not recommend attempting to correlate Ct values with the amount of infectious virus in the original specimen (4,5), low Ct values are sometimes used as surrogate markers for infectiousness in clinical, public health, or research settings without access to virus culture (5). However, the consistency in reliability of this practice across SARS-CoV-2 variants remains uncertain because Omicron-specific data on infectious virus shedding, including its relationship with RNA levels, are limited. In the current analysis, nasal specimens collected from an ongoing longitudinal cohort¶ (6,7) of nonhospitalized participants with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results living in the San Francisco Bay Area** were used to generate Ct values and assess for the presence of culturable SARS-CoV-2 virus; findings were compared between specimens from participants infected with pre-Omicron variants and those infected with the Omicron BA.1 sublineage. Among specimens with culturable virus detected, Ct values were higher (suggesting lower RNA levels) during Omicron BA.1 infections than during pre-Omicron infections, suggesting variant-specific differences in viral dynamics. Supporting CDC guidance, these data show that Ct values likely do not provide a consistent proxy for infectiousness across SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reproducibility of Results , San Francisco/epidemiology
9.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(9): e1010802, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021984

ABSTRACT

The impact of vaccination on SARS-CoV-2 infectiousness is not well understood. We compared longitudinal viral shedding dynamics in unvaccinated and fully vaccinated adults. SARS-CoV-2-infected adults were enrolled within 5 days of symptom onset and nasal specimens were self-collected daily for two weeks and intermittently for an additional two weeks. SARS-CoV-2 RNA load and infectious virus were analyzed relative to symptom onset stratified by vaccination status. We tested 1080 nasal specimens from 52 unvaccinated adults enrolled in the pre-Delta period and 32 fully vaccinated adults with predominantly Delta infections. While we observed no differences by vaccination status in maximum RNA levels, maximum infectious titers and the median duration of viral RNA shedding, the rate of decay from the maximum RNA load was faster among vaccinated; maximum infectious titers and maximum RNA levels were highly correlated. Furthermore, amongst participants with infectious virus, median duration of infectious virus detection was reduced from 7.5 days (IQR: 6.0-9.0) in unvaccinated participants to 6 days (IQR: 5.0-8.0) in those vaccinated (P = 0.02). Accordingly, the odds of shedding infectious virus from days 6 to 12 post-onset were lower among vaccinated participants than unvaccinated participants (OR 0.42 95% CI 0.19-0.89). These results indicate that vaccination had reduced the probability of shedding infectious virus after 5 days from symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Vaccination , Virus Shedding
10.
AIDS ; 36(12): F7-F16, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2018373

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on the long-term clinical and immunologic consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people with HIV (PWH). METHODS: We measured SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular responses in people with and without HIV recovering from COVID-19 ( n  = 39 and n  = 43, respectively) using binding antibody, surrogate virus neutralization, intracellular cytokine staining, and inflammatory marker assays. We identified individuals experiencing postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) and evaluated immunologic parameters. We used linear regression and generalized linear models to examine differences by HIV status in the magnitude of inflammatory and virus-specific antibody and T-cell responses, as well as differences in the prevalence of PASC. RESULTS: Among PWH, we found broadly similar SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses as compared with a well matched group of HIV-negative individuals. PWH had 70% lower relative levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific memory CD8 + T cells ( P  = 0.007) and 53% higher relative levels of PD-1+ SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + T cells ( P  = 0.007). Higher CD4 + /CD8 + ratio was associated with lower PD-1 expression on SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8 + T cells (0.34-fold effect, P  = 0.02). HIV status was strongly associated with PASC (odds ratio 4.01, P  = 0.008), and levels of certain inflammatory markers (IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IP-10) were associated with persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: We identified potentially important differences in SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 + and CD8 + T cells in PWH and HIV-negative participants that might have implications for long-term immunity conferred by natural infection. HIV status strongly predicted the presence of PASC. Larger and more detailed studies of PASC in PWH are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(8): 1163-1171, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether or not individuals with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic Ebola virus infection and unrecognised Ebola virus disease develop clinical sequelae is unknown. We assessed current symptoms and physical examination findings among individuals with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and unrecognised Ebola virus disease compared with Ebola virus disease survivors and uninfected contacts. METHODS: Between June 17, 2015, and June 30, 2017, we studied a cohort of Ebola virus disease survivors and their contacts in Liberia. Surveys, current symptoms and physical examination findings, and serology were used to characterise disease status of reported Ebola virus disease, unrecognised Ebola virus disease, pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic Ebola virus infection, or no infection. We pre-specified findings known to be differentially prevalent among Ebola virus disease survivors versus their contacts (urinary frequency, headache, fatigue, muscle pain, memory loss, joint pain, neurological findings, chest findings, muscle findings, joint findings, abdominal findings, and uveitis). We estimated the prevalence and incidence of selected clinical findings by disease status. FINDINGS: Our analytical cohort included 991 reported Ebola virus disease survivors and 2688 close contacts. The median time from acute Ebola virus disease onset to baseline was 317 days (IQR 271-366). Of 222 seropositive contacts, 115 had pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic Ebola virus infection and 107 had unrecognised Ebola virus disease. At baseline, prevalent findings of joint pain, memory loss, muscle pain, and fatigue were lowest among those with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic infection or no infection, higher among contacts with unrecognised Ebola virus disease, and highest in reported survivors of Ebola virus disease. Joint pain was the most prevalent finding, and was reported in 434 (18%) of 2466 individuals with no infection, 14 (12%) of 115 with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic infection, 31 (29%) of 107 with unrecognised Ebola virus disease, and 476 (48%) of 991 with reported Ebola virus disease. In adjusted analyses, this pattern remained for joint pain and memory loss. Survivors had an increased odds of joint pain compared with unrecognised Ebola virus disease contacts (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2·13, 95% CI 1·34-3·39); unrecognised Ebola virus disease contacts had an increased odds of joint pain compared with those with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and uninfected contacts (adjusted OR 1·89, 95% CI 1·21-2·97). The adjusted odds of memory loss was more than four-times higher among survivors than among unrecognised Ebola virus disease contacts (adjusted OR 4·47, 95% CI 2·41-8·30) and two-times higher among unrecognised Ebola virus disease contacts than in those with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic infection and uninfected contacts (adjusted OR 2·05, 95% CI 1·10-3·84). By 12 months, prevalent findings had decreased in the three infected groups. INTERPRETATION: Our findings provide evidence of post-Ebola virus disease clinical sequelae among contacts with unrecognised Ebola virus disease but not in people with pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic Ebola virus infection. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases of the National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola , Arthralgia/epidemiology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Fatigue/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/complications , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Liberia/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Memory Disorders/complications
12.
Pathog Immun ; 7(1): 95-103, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924851

ABSTRACT

Background: Efforts to understand the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants, vaccine status, and treatment on the development and persistence of Long COVID have intensified. Methods: We report 4 sequential cases from a post-COVID cohort study demonstrating variability in outcomes following differentially timed nirmatrelvir therapy, received as part of clinical care. Results: In the first case, the participant experienced symptomatic rebound and developed Long COVID despite early initiation of antiviral therapy. In the next 2 cases, participants reported improvement in persistent COVID symptoms when nirmatrelvir was taken 25 and 60 days following initial symptom onset. In the final case, an individual with presumed Long COVID for 2 years reported substantial improvement in chronic symptoms when taking nirmatrelvir following SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Conclusions: These anecdotes suggest that systematic study of antiviral therapy for Long COVID is warranted.

13.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(7): 100680, 2022 07 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907870

ABSTRACT

The biological determinants underlying the range of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) clinical manifestations are not fully understood. Here, over 1,400 plasma proteins and 2,600 single-cell immune features comprising cell phenotype, endogenous signaling activity, and signaling responses to inflammatory ligands are cross-sectionally assessed in peripheral blood from 97 patients with mild, moderate, and severe COVID-19 and 40 uninfected patients. Using an integrated computational approach to analyze the combined plasma and single-cell proteomic data, we identify and independently validate a multi-variate model classifying COVID-19 severity (multi-class area under the curve [AUC]training = 0.799, p = 4.2e-6; multi-class AUCvalidation = 0.773, p = 7.7e-6). Examination of informative model features reveals biological signatures of COVID-19 severity, including the dysregulation of JAK/STAT, MAPK/mTOR, and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) immune signaling networks in addition to recapitulating known hallmarks of COVID-19. These results provide a set of early determinants of COVID-19 severity that may point to therapeutic targets for prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19 progression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
14.
JCI Insight ; 7(15)2022 08 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902172

ABSTRACT

Long COVID, a type of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), has been associated with sustained elevated levels of immune activation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms that drive this inflammation remain unknown. Inflammation during acute coronavirus disease 2019 could be exacerbated by microbial translocation (from the gut and/or lung) to blood. Whether microbial translocation contributes to inflammation during PASC is unknown. We did not observe a significant elevation in plasma markers of bacterial translocation during PASC. However, we observed higher levels of fungal translocation - measured as ß-glucan, a fungal cell wall polysaccharide - in the plasma of individuals experiencing PASC compared with those without PASC or SARS-CoV-2-negative controls. The higher ß-glucan correlated with higher inflammation and elevated levels of host metabolites involved in activating N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (such as metabolites within the tryptophan catabolism pathway) with established neurotoxic properties. Mechanistically, ß-glucan can directly induce inflammation by binding to myeloid cells (via Dectin-1) and activating Syk/NF-κB signaling. Using a Dectin-1/NF-κB reporter model, we found that plasma from individuals experiencing PASC induced higher NF-κB signaling compared with plasma from negative controls. This higher NF-κB signaling was abrogated by piceatannol (Syk inhibitor). These data suggest a potential targetable mechanism linking fungal translocation and inflammation during PASC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Glucans , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Inflammation , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , NF-kappa B/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Syk Kinase
15.
JCI Insight ; 7(10)2022 05 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861744

ABSTRACT

Shortness of breath, chest pain, and palpitations occur as postacute sequelae of COVID-19, but whether symptoms are associated with echocardiographic abnormalities, cardiac biomarkers, or markers of systemic inflammation remains unknown. In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed symptoms, performed echocardiograms, and measured biomarkers among adults more than 8 weeks after confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. We modeled associations between symptoms and baseline characteristics, echocardiographic findings, and biomarkers using logistic regression. We enrolled 102 participants at a median of 7.2 months following COVID-19 onset; 47 individuals reported dyspnea, chest pain, or palpitations. Median age was 52 years, and 41% of participants were women. Female sex, hospitalization, IgG antibody against SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain, and C-reactive protein were associated with symptoms. Regarding echocardiographic findings, 4 of 47 participants (9%) with symptoms had pericardial effusions compared with 0 of 55 participants without symptoms; those with effusions had a median of 4 symptoms compared with a median of 1 symptom in those without effusions. There was no strong evidence for a relationship between symptoms and echocardiographic functional parameters or other biomarkers. Among adults more than 8 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 infection, SARS-CoV-2 RBD antibodies, markers of inflammation, and, possibly, pericardial effusions are associated with cardiopulmonary symptoms. Investigation into inflammation as a mechanism underlying postacute sequelae of COVID-19 is warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pericardial Effusion , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Chest Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Ann Neurol ; 91(6): 772-781, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739117

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As SARS-CoV-2 is known to invade neural cell mitochondria, a plasma system for quantifying central nervous system proteins in living humans was used to investigate neuropathogenic mechanisms of long-COVID-19. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 proteins and mitochondrial proteins (MPs) in enriched plasma neuron-derived extracellular vesicles (NDEVs) and astrocyte-derived EVs (ADEVs) were quantified in resolved acute COVID-19 without post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), PASC without neuropsychiatric manifestations (NP), PASC with NP and healthy controls. RESULTS: NDEV and ADEV mean levels of SARS-CoV-2 S1 and nucleocapsid (N) proteins were higher in all PASC sub-groups than controls, but only N levels were higher in PASC with than without NP. Exosome marker CD81-normalized NDEV mean levels of subunit 6 of MP respiratory chain complex I and subunit 10 of complex III, and neuroprotective MPs Humanin and mitochondrial open-reading frame of the 12S rRNA-c (MOTS-c) all were decreased significantly in PASC with NP but not in PASC without NP relative to controls. NDEV levels of MPs voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 (VDAC1) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1) were decreased in PASC without and with NP, whereas those of calcium channel MPs mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), sodium/calcium exchanger (NCLX) and leucine zipper EF-hand containing transmembrane 1 protein (LETM1) were decreased only in PASC with NP. ADEV levels of MCU and NCLX only were increased in PASC without and with NP. INTERPRETATION: Abnormal NDEV and ADEV levels of SARS-CoV-2 N and S1 protein and MPs correlate with NP and may be biomarkers for long-COVID prognostics and therapeutic trials. ANN NEUROL 2022;91:772-781.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Exosomes , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Disease Progression , Exosomes/metabolism , Humans , Membrane Proteins , Mitochondrial Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int J Behav Med ; 29(5): 610-623, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712359

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to fully understand the impact of variable COVID-19 experiences and the optimal management of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We characterized the variability in the acute illness experience and ongoing recovery process from participants in a COVID-19 recovery cohort study in Northern California in 2020. METHOD: We completed 24 semi-structured in-depth interviews with adults with confirmed positive SARV-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test result, had recovered or were recovering from acute infection, and underwent serial evaluations. We purposefully sampled English- and Spanish-speaking adults with asymptomatic, mild, and severe symptomatic infection, including those who were hospitalized and those with HIV co-infection. We used a thematic analysis to analyze interviews and identify salient themes. RESULTS: After integrating the thematic analysis with clinical data, we identified key themes: (1) across symptom profiles and severity, experiencing COVID-19 was associated with psychological distress; (2) symptomatic infection carried uncertainty in symptom presentation and ongoing recovery (e.g., long COVID); and (3) health information-seeking behavior was facilitated by access to medical care and uncertainty with the recovery process. CONCLUSION: Our data informs the emerging field of "long COVID" research and shows a need to provide information and continuous support to persons with post-acute sequelae to ensure they feel secure along the path to recovery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab640, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is mounting evidence for the presence of postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS: We assembled a cohort of adults with a documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA positivity at ≥2 weeks past onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS: Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 were symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 were symptomatic and hospitalized. During the postacute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping, and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared with pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple subphenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various subgroups of PASC.

19.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1624185

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There is mounting evidence for the presence of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), but there is limited information on the spectrum, magnitude, duration, and patterns of these sequelae as well as their influence on quality of life. METHODS We assembled a cohort of adults with documented history of SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positivity who were ≥ 2 weeks past onset of COVID-19 symptoms or, if asymptomatic, first positive test. At 4-month intervals, we queried physical and mental health symptoms and quality of life. RESULTS Of the first 179 participants enrolled, 10 were asymptomatic during the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 125 symptomatic but not hospitalized, and 44 symptomatic and hospitalized. During the post-acute phase, fatigue, shortness of breath, concentration problems, headaches, trouble sleeping and anosmia/dysgeusia were most common through 8 months of observation. Symptoms were typically at least somewhat bothersome and sometimes exhibited a waxing-and-waning course. Some participants experienced symptoms of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress, as well as difficulties with performance of usual activities. The median visual analogue scale rating of general health was lower at 4 and 8 months compared to pre-COVID-19. Two clusters of symptom domains were identified. CONCLUSION Many participants report bothersome symptoms following onset of COVID-19 with variable patterns of persistence and impact on quality of life. The substantial variability suggests the existence of multiple sub-phenotypes of PASC. A rigorous approach to the prospective measurement of symptoms and functional manifestations sets the stage for the next phase of research focusing on the pathophysiologic causes of the various sub-groups of PASC.

20.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 9(2): 221-226, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1624961

ABSTRACT

Cognitive post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) can occur after mild COVID-19. Detailed clinical characterizations may inform pathogenesis. We evaluated 22 adults reporting cognitive PASC and 10 not reporting cognitive symptoms after mild SARS-CoV-2 infection through structured interviews, neuropsychological testing, and optional cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) evaluations (53%). Delayed onset of cognitive PASC occurred in 43% and associated with younger age. Cognitive PASC participants had a higher number of pre-existing cognitive risk factors (2.5 vs. 0; p = 0.03) and higher proportion with abnormal CSF findings (77% vs. 0%; p = 0.01) versus controls. Cognitive risk factors and immunologic mechanisms may contribute to cognitive PASC pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Cognition/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Research Personnel , Risk Factors , Young Adult
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