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1.
Z Herz Thorax Gefasschir ; : 1-8, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966138

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic caused by SARS-CoV­2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) has led to hospitalizations and increased mortality worldwide. With potentially high prevalence and severity of COVID-19 in cardiac transplantation, there is a great need to generate data in this at-risk cohort. Objective: We report here our experience with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) in heart transplant recipients at a German transplantation center longitudinally over the previous pandemic waves and place it in context to published experiences of other centers. Material and methods: All adult patients who had received a heart transplant at our center and had confirmed COVID-19 infection (n = 12) were included and retrospectively characterized. Results: The mean age was 61.5 (49-63) years, and the majority were male (83%). Comorbidities such as diabetes (42%), arterial hypertension (43%), and chronic renal failure (67%) were found. Passive immunization (convalescent plasma/monoclonal antibodies) was performed in 50%. Oxygen administration was required in 33% of patients; only one patient required noninvasive ventilation (8%), and no patient required invasive ventilation or mechanical cardiovascular support (ECMO). No new cardiovascular or thromboembolic events were found. Conclusion: We could longitudinally not detect severe courses or increased mortality of COVID-19 in heart transplant patients. Prospective studies are needed to make better prognostic estimates of COVID-19 in (heart) transplant patients in the future.

2.
Zeitschrift fur Herz-, Thorax- und Gefasschirurgie ; : 1-8, 2022.
Article in German | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1958268

ABSTRACT

Hintergrund Die durch SARS-CoV‑2 (Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) verursachte Erkrankung gilt bei immunsupprimierten Patienten als besonders gefährlich. Patienten nach einer Herztransplantation zählen zu den Gruppen mit langjähriger, meist 3‑facher Immunsuppression. In der Literatur werden schwerwiegende klinische Verläufe beschrieben. Ziel der Arbeit (Fragestellung) In dieser Arbeit wird über unsere Erfahrungen mit COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) bei herztransplantierten Patienten an einem deutschen Transplantationszentrum longitudinal über die bisherigen Pandemiewellen berichtet und es erfolgt eine Einordnung dieser in publizierte Erfahrungen anderer Zentren. Material und Methoden Alle adulten herztransplantierten Patienten unseres Zentrums, bei denen nach der Herztransplantation eine SARS-CoV-2-Infektion nachgewiesen wurde (n = 12), wurden eingeschlossen und retrospektiv analysiert. Ergebnisse Das Durchschnittsalter betrug 61,5 (49 bis 63) Jahre;die Mehrheit der Patienten war männlich (83 %). Die häufigsten Komorbiditäten waren Diabetes (42 %), arterielle Hypertonie (43 %) sowie chronische Niereninsuffizienz (67 %). Bei 50 % erfolgte bei Krankenhausaufnahme eine passive Immunisierung (Rekonvaleszenzplasma/monoklonale Antikörper). Eine Sauerstoffgabe war bei 33 % der Patienten notwendig;nur ein Patient erhielt eine nichtinvasive Ventilation (8 %). Kein Patient benötigte eine invasive Beatmung oder eine mechanische Herz-Kreislauf-Unterstützung (ECMO). Es fanden sich keine neuen kardiovaskulären oder thrombembolischen Ereignisse. Zusammenfassung In dieser Kohorte konnten wir longitudinal keine schweren Verläufe oder eine erhöhte Mortalität von COVID-19 in herztransplantierten Patienten detektieren. Prospektive Studien sind notwendig, um in Zukunft bessere Prognoseabschätzungen bei COVID-19 in (herz-)transplantierten Patienten treffen zu können.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911403

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis in response to COVID-19 vaccination has been reported since early 2021. In particular, young male individuals have been identified to exhibit an increased risk of myocardial inflammation following the administration of mRNA-based vaccines. Even though the first epidemiological analyses and numerous case reports investigated potential relationships, endomyocardial biopsy (EMB)-proven cases are limited. Here, we present a comprehensive histopathological analysis of EMBs from 15 patients with reduced ejection fraction (LVEF = 30 (14-39)%) and the clinical suspicion of myocarditis following vaccination with Comirnaty® (Pfizer-BioNTech) (n = 11), Vaxzevria® (AstraZenica) (n = 2) and Janssen® (Johnson & Johnson) (n = 2). Immunohistochemical EMB analyses reveal myocardial inflammation in 14 of 15 patients, with the histopathological diagnosis of active myocarditis according the Dallas criteria (n = 2), severe giant cell myocarditis (n = 2) and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (n = 10). Importantly, infectious causes have been excluded in all patients. The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein has been detected sparsely on cardiomyocytes of nine patients, and differential analysis of inflammatory markers such as CD4+ and CD8+ T cells suggests that the inflammatory response triggered by the vaccine may be of autoimmunological origin. Although a definitive causal relationship between COVID-19 vaccination and the occurrence of myocardial inflammation cannot be demonstrated in this study, data suggest a temporal connection. The expression of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein within the heart and the dominance of CD4+ lymphocytic infiltrates indicate an autoimmunological response to the vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Biopsy , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Inflammation/etiology , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(6)2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903383

ABSTRACT

Due to shortages of medical resources during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, an allocation algorithm for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) was established. We investigated the impact on patient selection and procedural results. In total, 456 TAVR patients before (pre-COVID-19 group) and 456 TAVR patients after (COVID-19 group) the implementation of our allocation algorithm were compared. Concerning patient characteristics, the COVID-19 group revealed a higher rate of cardiac decompensations/cardiogenic shocks (10.5% vs. 1.3%; p < 0.001), severe angina pectoris (Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) II, III and IV: 18.7% vs. 11.8%; p = 0.004), troponin elevation (>14 ng/L: 84.9% vs. 77%; p = 0.003) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (<45%: 18.9% vs. 12%; p = 0.006). Referring to procedural characteristics, more predilatations (46.3% vs. 35.1%; p = 0.001) and a longer procedural time (80.2 min (+/-29.4) vs. 66.9 min (+/-17.5); p < 0.001) were observed. The success rate was evenly high; no differences in safety parameters were reported. Examining the utilization of hospital resources, the COVID-19 group showed a shorter in-hospital stay (8.4 days (+/-5.9) vs. 9.5 days (+/-9.33); p = 0.041) and fewer TAVR patients were treated per month (39 (+/-4.55) vs. 46.11 (+/-7.57); p = 0.03). Our allocation algorithm supported prioritization of sicker patients with similar efficient and safe TAVR procedures. In-hospital stay could be shortened.

5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819933

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Heart transplant (HTx) recipients are at increased risk of developing infections or malignancies due to immunosuppressive medication. Thus, regular aftercare in those patients is of utmost importance. The extent of collateral damage due to the COVID-19 pandemic (delayed or canceled clinical visits and diagnostics) on high-risk patients is yet unknown. We believe that, especially for HTx-patients, data acquisition on potential pandemic-related non-attendance is crucial to improve clinical care in the future. Therefore, we aim to decipher possible COVID-19-related alterations in attendance to clinical care post-HTx using a survey-based approach. METHODS: HTx recipients two years beyond transplantation were selected (n = 75). We filed a paper-based questionnaire or an online survey containing nine items about COVID-19 related exceptional circumstances. Fifty-two patients (69%) returned fully answered questionnaires. RESULTS: A perceived impact on daily life was evident with 79% of all patients reporting moderate to severe negative influence of COVID-19 pandemic on daily routine. We detected increased non-attendance of clinical care during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic time (38% vs. 6%, p<0.0001). The various diagnostic modalities of aftercare were heterogeneously affected, ranging from 2% non-attendance for influence vaccination and 18% for colonoscopy. Off note, non-attendance to clinical care within the pandemic was independent of perceived impact of the pandemia on daily life (p>0.68). CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, we objectively demonstrate significant decrease in attendance to clinical care in HTx recipients during COVID-19 pandemic. Efforts are needed to increase attendance in this highly vulnerable patient cohort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
J Intern Med ; 292(3): 438-449, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported regional differences in end-of-life care (EoLC) for critically ill patients in Europe. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this post-hoc analysis of the prospective multicentre COVIP study was to investigate variations in EoLC practices among older patients in intensive care units during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. METHODS: A total of 3105 critically ill patients aged 70 years and older were enrolled in this study (Central Europe: n = 1573; Northern Europe: n = 821; Southern Europe: n = 711). Generalised estimation equations were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) to population averages. Data were adjusted for patient-specific variables (demographic, disease-specific) and health economic data (gross domestic product, health expenditure per capita). The primary outcome was any treatment limitation, and 90-day mortality was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: The frequency of the primary endpoint (treatment limitation) was highest in Northern Europe (48%), intermediate in Central Europe (39%) and lowest in Southern Europe (24%). The likelihood for treatment limitations was lower in Southern than in Central Europe (aOR 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.73; p = 0.004), even after multivariable adjustment, whereas no statistically significant differences were observed between Northern and Central Europe (aOR 0.57; 95%CI 0.27-1.22; p = 0.15). After multivariable adjustment, no statistically relevant mortality differences were found between Northern and Central Europe (aOR 1.29; 95%CI 0.80-2.09; p = 0.30) or between Southern and Central Europe (aOR 1.07; 95%CI 0.66-1.73; p = 0.78). CONCLUSION: This study shows a north-to-south gradient in rates of treatment limitation in Europe, highlighting the heterogeneity of EoLC practices across countries. However, mortality rates were not affected by these results.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Terminal Care , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Prospective Studies
7.
JMIR Med Inform ; 10(3): e32949, 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 is challenging health care systems globally. The disease disproportionately affects the elderly population, both in terms of disease severity and mortality risk. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate machine learning-based prognostication models for critically ill elderly COVID-19 patients, which dynamically incorporated multifaceted clinical information on evolution of the disease. METHODS: This multicenter cohort study (COVIP study) obtained patient data from 151 intensive care units (ICUs) from 26 countries. Different models based on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, logistic regression (LR), random forest (RF), and extreme gradient boosting (XGB) were derived as baseline models that included admission variables only. We subsequently included clinical events and time-to-event as additional variables to derive the final models using the same algorithms and compared their performance with that of the baseline group. Furthermore, we derived baseline and final models on a European patient cohort, which were externally validated on a non-European cohort that included Asian, African, and US patients. RESULTS: In total, 1432 elderly (≥70 years old) COVID-19-positive patients admitted to an ICU were included for analysis. Of these, 809 (56.49%) patients survived up to 30 days after admission. The average length of stay was 21.6 (SD 18.2) days. Final models that incorporated clinical events and time-to-event information provided superior performance (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81; 95% CI 0.804-0.811), with respect to both the baseline models that used admission variables only and conventional ICU prediction models (SOFA score, P<.001). The average precision increased from 0.65 (95% CI 0.650-0.655) to 0.77 (95% CI 0.759-0.770). CONCLUSIONS: Integrating important clinical events and time-to-event information led to a superior accuracy of 30-day mortality prediction compared with models based on the admission information and conventional ICU prediction models. This study shows that machine-learning models provide additional information and may support complex decision-making in critically ill elderly COVID-19 patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04321265; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04321265.

8.
Ann Intensive Care ; 12(1): 26, 2022 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753126

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Critically ill old intensive care unit (ICU) patients suffering from Sars-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. This post hoc analysis investigates the association of the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) with the outcome in this vulnerable patient group. METHODS: The COVIP study is a prospective international observational study that recruited ICU patients ≥ 70 years admitted with COVID-19 (NCT04321265). Several parameters including ADL (ADL; 0 = disability, 6 = no disability), Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), SOFA score, intensive care treatment, ICU- and 3-month survival were recorded. A mixed-effects Weibull proportional hazard regression analyses for 3-month mortality adjusted for multiple confounders. RESULTS: This pre-specified analysis included 2359 patients with a documented ADL and CFS. Most patients evidenced independence in their daily living before hospital admission (80% with ADL = 6). Patients with no frailty and no disability showed the lowest, patients with frailty (CFS ≥ 5) and disability (ADL < 6) the highest 3-month mortality (52 vs. 78%, p < 0.001). ADL was independently associated with 3-month mortality (ADL as a continuous variable: aHR 0.88 (95% CI 0.82-0.94, p < 0.001). Being "disable" resulted in a significant increased risk for 3-month mortality (aHR 1.53 (95% CI 1.19-1.97, p 0.001) even after adjustment for multiple confounders. CONCLUSION: Baseline Activities of Daily Living (ADL) on admission provides additional information for outcome prediction, although most critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19 had no restriction in their ADL prior to ICU admission. Combining frailty and disability identifies a subgroup with particularly high mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.

9.
ESC Heart Fail ; 9(3): 1756-1765, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739148

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major risk factor for mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This prospective international multicentre study investigates the role of pre-existing CHF on clinical outcomes of critically ill old (≥70 years) intensive care patients with COVID-19. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with pre-existing CHF were subclassified as having ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiac disease; patients with a documented ejection fraction (EF) were subclassified according to heart failure EF: reduced (HFrEF, n = 132), mild (HFmrEF, n = 91), or preserved (HFpEF, n = 103). Associations of heart failure characteristics with the 30 day mortality were analysed in univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Pre-existing CHF was reported in 566 of 3917 patients (14%). Patients with CHF were older, frailer, and had significantly higher SOFA scores on admission. CHF patients showed significantly higher crude 30 day mortality [60% vs. 48%, P < 0.001; odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-2.3] and 3 month mortality (69% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment for confounders (SOFA, age, sex, and frailty), no independent association of CHF with mortality remained [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.2, 95% CI 0.5-1.5; P = 0.137]. More patients suffered from pre-existing ischaemic than from non-ischaemic disease [233 vs. 328 patients (n = 5 unknown aetiology)]. There were no differences in baseline characteristics between ischaemic and non-ischaemic disease or between HFrEF, HFmrEF, and HFpEF. Crude 30 day mortality was significantly higher in HFrEF compared with HFpEF (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.042). EF as a continuous variable was not independently associated with 30 day mortality (aOR 0.98, 95% CI 0.9-1.0; P = 0.128). CONCLUSIONS: In critically ill older COVID-19 patients, pre-existing CHF was not independently associated with 30 day mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Failure , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Stroke Volume
10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313582

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions regarding treatment limitations. Our study sought to determine the interaction of frailty and age in elderly COVID-19 ICU patients. Methods: A prospective multi-centre study of COVID-19 patients ≥ 70 years admitted to intensive care in 138 ICUs from 28 countries was conducted. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Frailty was assessed using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS). Additionally, comorbidities, management strategies and treatment limitations were recorded. Results: The study included 1346 patients (28% female) with a median age of 75 years (IQR 72-78, range 70-96), 16.3% were older than 80 years and 21% of the patients were frail. The overall survival at 30 days was 59% (95%CI 56-62), with 66% (63-69) in fit, 53% (47-61) in vulnerable and 41% (35-47) in frail patients (p<0.001). In frail patients, there was no difference in 30 day survival between different age categories. Frailty was linked to an increased use of treatment limitations and less use of mechanical ventilation. In a model controlling for age, disease severity, sex, treatment limitations and comorbidities, frailty was independently associated with lower survival. Conclusion: Frailty provides relevant prognostic information in elderly COVID-19 patients in addition to age and comorbidities.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313581

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly ICU patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe.Methods: A prospective European observation study (The COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to December 2020. An electronic Case Record Form was used to register a number of parameters including: SOFA score, Clinical Frailty Scale, comorbidities, usual ICU procedures including pharmacotherapy, limitation of care, ICU length of stay and survival at 30 days. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT04321265).Results: In total 2711 patients were included, 1325 from the first and 1291 from the second surge and 94 in between. Median age was 74 and 75 years in surge 1 and surge 2 respectively. SOFA score was higher in the first surge (median 6 versus 5, p<0.0001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was higher during surge 1 and more patients received mechanical ventilation (78% versus 68%, p<0.0001). More patients were given corticosteroids in surge 2 (93 vs 38%, p<0.0001). 30 days survival was lower in the second surge (57.4% vs 49.3%) with adjusted HR of 1.43 (1.18-1.74).Conclusion: An unexpected, but significant, increase in 30-day mortality was observed during the second surge in our cohort of elderly ICU patients. The reason for this is unknown, however, practice changed and this might not be supported by sufficient evidence in this elderly population with COVID-19.Trial Registration: NCT04321265Funding Statement: The support of the study in France by a grant from Fondation Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris pour la recherche is greatly appreciated. In Norway, the study was supported by a grant from the Health Region West. In addition, the study was supported by a grant from the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC). EOSCsecretariat.eu has received funding from the European Union's Horizon Programme call H2020-INFRAEOSC-05-2018-2019, grant agreement number 831644.Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests. JCS reports grants (full departmental disclosure) from Orion Pharma, Abbott Nutrition International, B. Braun Medical AG, CSEM AG, Edwards Lifesciences Services GmbH, Kenta Biotech Ltd, Maquet Critical Care AB, Omnicare Clinical Research AG, Nestle, Pierre Fabre Pharma AG, Pfizer , Bard Medica S.A., Abbott AG, Anandic Medical Systems, Pan Gas AG Healthcare, Bracco, Hamilton Medical AG, Fresenius Kabi, Getinge Group Maquet AG, Dräger AG, Teleflex Medical GmbH, Glaxo Smith Kline, Merck Sharp and Dohme AG, Eli Lilly and Company, Baxter, Astellas, Astra Zeneca, CSL Behring, Novartis, Covidien, Philips Medical, Phagenesis Ltd, Prolong Pharmaceuticals and Nycomed outside the submitted work. The money went into departmental funds. No personal financial gain applied.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was organised by the Very old Intensive care Patients (VIP) project 10,11 within the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine (ESICM) who also endorsed the study (www.vipstudy.org). Due to variations in requirement for ethical consent, some countries could recruit patients without upfront informed consent while others had to obtain it. The study deliberately allowed for coenrolment of study patients to other COVID-19 studies. The study adhered to the European Union General Data Privacy Regulation (GDPR) directive.

12.
Am Heart J ; 247: 33-41, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1652480

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammatory pathways during acute myocardial infarction contributes to infarct size and left ventricular (LV) remodeling. The present prospective randomized clinical trial was designed to test the efficacy and safety of broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy with a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor to reduce infarct size. DESIGN: Controlled-Level EVERolimus in Acute Coronary Syndrome (CLEVER-ACS, clinicaltrials.gov NCT01529554) is a phase II randomized, double-blind, multi-center, placebo-controlled trial on the effects of a 5-day course of oral everolimus on infarct size, LV remodeling, and inflammation in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Within 5 days of successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI), patients are randomly assigned to everolimus (first 3 days: 7.5 mg every day; days 4 and 5: 5.0 mg every day) or placebo, respectively. The primary efficacy outcome is the change from baseline (defined as 12 hours to 5 days after pPCI) to 30-day follow-up in myocardial infarct size as measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI). Secondary endpoints comprise corresponding changes in cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers as well as microvascular obstruction and LV volumes assessed by CMRI. Clinical events, laboratory parameters, and blood cell counts are reported as safety endpoints at 30 days. CONCLUSION: The CLEVER-ACS trial tests the hypothesis whether mTOR inhibition using everolimus at the time of an acute STEMI affects LV infarct size following successful pPCI.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , Anterior Wall Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Acute Coronary Syndrome/drug therapy , Arrhythmias, Cardiac , Double-Blind Method , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , Prospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/drug therapy , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Ventricular Remodeling
13.
Clin Hemorheol Microcirc ; 79(1): 109-120, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477773

ABSTRACT

PURPOSECritically ill elderly patients who suffer from Sars-CoV-2 disease are at high risk for organ failure. The modified MELD-XI score has not been evaluated for outcome prediction in these most vulnerable patients.METHODSThe Corona Virus disease (COVID19) in Very Elderly Intensive Care Patients study (COVIP, NCT04321265) prospectively recruited patients on intensive care units (ICU), who were = 70 years. Data were collected from March 2020 to February 2021. The MELD-XI score was calculated using the highest serum bilirubin and creatinine on ICU admission. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the MELD-XI score and mortality. The primary outcome was 30-day-mortality, the secondary outcomes were ICU- and 3-month-mortality.RESULTSIn total, data from 2,993 patients were analyzed. Most patients had a MELD-XI <12 on admission (76%). The patients with MELD-XI = 12 had a significantly higher 30-day-, ICU- and 3-month-mortality (44%vs 64%, and 42%vs. 59%, and 57%vs. 76%, p < 0.001). After adjustment for multiple confounders, MELD-XI = 12 remained significantly associated with 30-day- (aOR 1.572, CI 1.268-1.949, p < 0.001), ICU-, and 3-month-mortality.CONCLUSIONIn critically ill elderly intensive care patients with COVID-19, the MELD-XI score constitutes a valuable tool for an early outcome prediction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Aged , Humans , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
14.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 344, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study was to assess the outcome of elderly intensive care unit (ICU) patients treated during the spring and autumn COVID-19 surges in Europe. METHODS: This was a prospective European observational study (the COVIP study) in ICU patients aged 70 years and older admitted with COVID-19 disease from March to December 2020 to 159 ICUs in 14 European countries. An electronic database was used to register a number of parameters including: SOFA score, Clinical Frailty Scale, co-morbidities, usual ICU procedures and survival at 90 days. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04321265). RESULTS: In total, 2625 patients were included, 1327 from the first and 1298 from the second surge. Median age was 74 and 75 years in surge 1 and 2, respectively. SOFA score was higher in the first surge (median 6 versus 5, p < 0.0001). The PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission was higher during surge 1, and more patients received invasive mechanical ventilation (78% versus 68%, p < 0.0001). During the first 15 days of treatment, survival was similar during the first and the second surge. Survival was lower in the second surge after day 15 and differed after 30 days (57% vs 50%) as well as after 90 days (51% vs 40%). CONCLUSION: An unexpected, but significant, decrease in 30-day and 90-day survival was observed during the second surge in our cohort of elderly ICU patients. The reason for this is unclear. Our main concern is whether the widespread changes in practice and treatment of COVID-19 between the two surges have contributed to this increased mortality in elderly patients. Further studies are urgently warranted to provide more evidence for current practice in elderly patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265 , registered March 19th, 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Critical Illness/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Comorbidity , Europe/epidemiology , Female , Frail Elderly , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis
15.
Respir Care ; 66(5): 814-821, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1395146

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The growing proportion of elderly intensive care patients constitutes a public health challenge. The benefit of critical care in these patients remains unclear. We compared outcomes in elderly versus very elderly subjects receiving mechanical ventilation. METHODS: In total, 5,557 mechanically ventilated subjects were included in our post hoc retrospective analysis, a subgroup of the VENTILA study. We divided the cohort into 2 subgroups on the basis of age: very elderly subjects (age ≥ 80 y; n = 1,430), and elderly subjects (age 65-79 y; n = 4,127). A propensity score on being very elderly was calculated. Evaluation of associations with 28-d mortality was done with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Very elderly subjects were clinically sicker as expressed by higher SAPS II scores (53 ± 18 vs 50 ± 18, P < .001), and their rates of plateau pressure < 30 cm H2O were higher, whereas other parameters did not differ. The 28-d mortality was higher in very elderly subjects (42% vs 34%, P < .001) and remained unchanged after propensity score adjustment (adjusted odds ratio 1.31 [95% CI 1.16-1.49], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Age was an independent and unchangeable risk factor for death in mechanically ventilated subjects. However, survival rates of very elderly subjects were > 50%. Denial of critical care based solely on age is not justified. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT02731898.).


Subject(s)
Critical Illness , Respiration, Artificial , Aged , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Simplified Acute Physiology Score
16.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 128, 2021 Aug 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367683

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lactate is an established prognosticator in critical care. However, there still is insufficient evidence about its role in predicting outcome in COVID-19. This is of particular concern in older patients who have been mostly affected during the initial surge in 2020. METHODS: This prospective international observation study (The COVIP study) recruited patients aged 70 years or older (ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04321265) admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 disease from March 2020 to February 2021. In addition to serial lactate values (arterial blood gas analysis), we recorded several parameters, including SOFA score, ICU procedures, limitation of care, ICU- and 3-month mortality. A lactate concentration ≥ 2.0 mmol/L on the day of ICU admission (baseline) was defined as abnormal. The primary outcome was ICU-mortality. The secondary outcomes 30-day and 3-month mortality. RESULTS: In total, data from 2860 patients were analyzed. In most patients (68%), serum lactate was lower than 2 mmol/L. Elevated baseline serum lactate was associated with significantly higher ICU- and 3-month mortality (53% vs. 43%, and 71% vs. 57%, respectively, p < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, the maximum lactate concentration on day 1 was independently associated with ICU mortality (aOR 1.06 95% CI 1.02-1.11; p = 0.007), 30-day mortality (aOR 1.07 95% CI 1.02-1.13; p = 0.005) and 3-month mortality (aOR 1.15 95% CI 1.08-1.24; p < 0.001) after adjustment for age, gender, SOFA score, and frailty. In 826 patients with baseline lactate ≥ 2 mmol/L sufficient data to calculate the difference between maximal levels on days 1 and 2 (∆ serum lactate) were available. A decreasing lactate concentration over time was inversely associated with ICU mortality after multivariate adjustment for SOFA score, age, Clinical Frailty Scale, and gender (aOR 0.60 95% CI 0.42-0.85; p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: In critically ill old intensive care patients suffering from COVID-19, lactate and its kinetics are valuable tools for outcome prediction. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04321265.

18.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 149, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led highly developed healthcare systems to the brink of collapse due to the large numbers of patients being admitted into hospitals. One of the potential prognostic indicators in patients with COVID-19 is frailty. The degree of frailty could be used to assist both the triage into intensive care, and decisions regarding treatment limitations. Our study sought to determine the interaction of frailty and age in elderly COVID-19 ICU patients. METHODS: A prospective multicentre study of COVID-19 patients ≥ 70 years admitted to intensive care in 138 ICUs from 28 countries was conducted. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. Frailty was assessed using the clinical frailty scale. Additionally, comorbidities, management strategies and treatment limitations were recorded. RESULTS: The study included 1346 patients (28% female) with a median age of 75 years (IQR 72-78, range 70-96), 16.3% were older than 80 years, and 21% of the patients were frail. The overall survival at 30 days was 59% (95% CI 56-62), with 66% (63-69) in fit, 53% (47-61) in vulnerable and 41% (35-47) in frail patients (p < 0.001). In frail patients, there was no difference in 30-day survival between different age categories. Frailty was linked to an increased use of treatment limitations and less use of mechanical ventilation. In a model controlling for age, disease severity, sex, treatment limitations and comorbidities, frailty was independently associated with lower survival. CONCLUSION: Frailty provides relevant prognostic information in elderly COVID-19 patients in addition to age and comorbidities. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT04321265 , registered 19 March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Frail Elderly/statistics & numerical data , Frailty/mortality , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Survival Analysis
19.
Aktuelle Kardiologie ; : 7, 2020.
Article in German | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1010104

ABSTRACT

Approximately 14% of COVID-19 patients have a more severe and approximately 5% a critical course of disease. The elderly, males, smokers, and severely obese people are particularly at risk. If the patient is ventilated invasively or non-invasively, mortality rises to 53% and 50% respectively. As a rule, it takes ten days from the onset of symptoms to admission to the intensive care unit. The average length of stay in the intensive care unit is nine days. Prioritization is based on the clinical chances of success of intensive care treatment and the patient 's wishes. Central criteria for admission to the intensive care unit are hypoxemia (SpO(2) < 90% by admitting 2-4 liters of oxygen/min., if no pre-existing therapy is used), dyspnea, an increased respiratory rate (> 25-30/min) and systolic blood pressure = 100mmHg. The protection of the personnel has priority in all measures. All aerosol generating procedures should be performed with great care. If adequate oxygenation is not achieved under high flow (SpO(2) >= 90% or a paO(2) > 55mmHg), escalation should be considered (NIV, invasive ventilation). The patients should be ventilated lung-protectively. Intubation should be performed as rapid sequence induction. An ECMO can be considered. Thromboembolic complications are very frequent. Antibiotics should not be given routinely. The best data currently available is for dexamethasone. Remdesivir can accelerate the convalescence. Longterm consequences after COVID-19 are very common. Cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological problems are in the foreground.

20.
J Eur CME ; 9(1): 1832750, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977350

ABSTRACT

Continuing medical education (CME) should not be an end in itself, but as expressed in Moore's pyramid, help to improve both individual patient and ultimately community, health. However, there are numerous barriers to translation of physician competence into improvements in community health. To enhance the effect CME may achieve in improving community health the authors suggest a kick-off/keep-on continuum of medical competence, and integration of aspects of public health at all levels from planning to delivery and outcomes measurement in CME.

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