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J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 8(5)2021 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227033


BACKGROUND: Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without the concomitant use of azithromycin have been widely used to treat patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, based on early in vitro studies, despite their potential to prolong the QTc interval of patients. OBJECTIVE: This is a systematic review and metanalysis designed to assess the effect of hydroxychloroquine with or without the addition of azithromycin on the QTc of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane and MedRxiv databases were reviewed. A random effect model meta-analysis was used, and I-square was used to assess the heterogeneity. The prespecified endpoints were ΔQTc, QTc prolongation > 500 ms and ΔQTc > 60 ms. RESULTS: A total of 18 studies and 7179 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The use of hydroxychloroquine with or without the addition of azithromycin was associated with increased QTc when used as part of the management of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The combination therapy with hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin was also associated with statistically significant increases in QTc. Moreover, the use of hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, or the combination of the two was associated with increased numbers of patients that developed QTc prolongation > 500 ms. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and metanalysis revealed that the use of hydroxychloroquine alone or in conjunction with azithromycin was linked to an increase in the QTc interval of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection that received these agents.

JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e216842, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198342


Importance: Critical illness, a marked inflammatory response, and viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 may prolong corrected QT interval (QTc). Objective: To evaluate baseline QTc interval on 12-lead electrocardiograms (ECGs) and ensuing changes among patients with and without COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study included 3050 patients aged 18 years and older who underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing and had ECGs at Columbia University Irving Medical Center from March 1 through May 1, 2020. Patients were analyzed by treatment group over 5 days, as follows: hydroxychloroquine with azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine alone, azithromycin alone, and neither hydroxychloroquine nor azithromycin. ECGs were manually analyzed by electrophysiologists masked to COVID-19 status. Multivariable modeling evaluated clinical associations with QTc prolongation from baseline. Exposures: COVID-19, hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin. Main Outcomes and Measures: Mean QTc prolongation, percentage of patients with QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater. Results: A total of 965 patients had more than 2 ECGs and were included in the study, with 561 (58.1%) men, 198 (26.2%) Black patients, and 191 (19.8%) aged 80 years and older. There were 733 patients (76.0%) with COVID-19 and 232 patients (24.0%) without COVID-19. COVID-19 infection was associated with significant mean QTc prolongation from baseline by both 5-day and 2-day multivariable models (5-day, patients with COVID-19: 20.81 [95% CI, 15.29 to 26.33] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: -2.01 [95% CI, -17.31 to 21.32] milliseconds; P = .93; 2-day, patients with COVID-19: 17.40 [95% CI, 12.65 to 22.16] milliseconds; P < .001; patients without COVID-19: 0.11 [95% CI, -12.60 to 12.81] milliseconds; P = .99). COVID-19 infection was independently associated with a modeled mean 27.32 (95% CI, 4.63-43.21) millisecond increase in QTc at 5 days compared with COVID-19-negative status (mean QTc, with COVID-19: 450.45 [95% CI, 441.6 to 459.3] milliseconds; without COVID-19: 423.13 [95% CI, 403.25 to 443.01] milliseconds; P = .01). More patients with COVID-19 not receiving hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19 (34 of 136 [25.0%] vs 17 of 158 [10.8%], P = .002). Multivariable analysis revealed that age 80 years and older compared with those younger than 50 years (mean difference in QTc, 11.91 [SE, 4.69; 95% CI, 2.73 to 21.09]; P = .01), severe chronic kidney disease compared with no chronic kidney disease (mean difference in QTc, 12.20 [SE, 5.26; 95% CI, 1.89 to 22.51; P = .02]), elevated high-sensitivity troponin levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.05 [SE, 1.19; 95% CI, 2.72 to 7.38]; P < .001), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels (mean difference in QTc, 5.31 [SE, 2.68; 95% CI, 0.06 to 10.57]; P = .04) were associated with QTc prolongation. Torsades de pointes occurred in 1 patient (0.1%) with COVID-19. Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, COVID-19 infection was independently associated with significant mean QTc prolongation at days 5 and 2 of hospitalization compared with day 0. More patients with COVID-19 had QTc of 500 milliseconds or greater compared with patients without COVID-19.

Azithromycin , COVID-19 , Electrocardiography , Hydroxychloroquine , Long QT Syndrome , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Infective Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Infective Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Drug Therapy, Combination/statistics & numerical data , Electrocardiography/methods , Electrocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Long QT Syndrome/chemically induced , Long QT Syndrome/diagnosis , Long QT Syndrome/epidemiology , Long QT Syndrome/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors