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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 231: 109233, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: At the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, HIV experts suggested that an increase in mental health diagnoses and substance use among people living with HIV (PLHIV) may be an unintended consequence of COVID-19 mitigation efforts (e.g., limiting social contact). We evaluated short-term trajectories in binge drinking, marijuana, and recreational drug use in a prospective cohort of PLHIV. METHODS: Data (N = 2121 PLHIV) consist of survey responses on substance use behaviors from two pre-COVID-19 (October 2018-September 2019) and one COVID-19-era (April 2020-September 2020) timepoints within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). We conducted group-based trajectory models, triangulated with generalized linear mixed models, to assess changes in binge drinking, daily marijuana use, and recreational drug use at the start of the pandemic. Controlling for age and race/ethnicity, we tested whether trajectories differed by sex and early-pandemic depressive symptoms, loneliness, and social support. RESULTS: Group-based trajectory models yielded two trajectory groups for binge drinking (none vs. any), marijuana (none/infrequent vs. daily), and recreational drug use (none vs. any). Binge drinking and recreational drug use decreased at the beginning of the pandemic. Generalized linear mixed model supported these trends. Consistent with prior research, male sex and having depressive symptoms early pandemic were positively associated with each substance use outcomes. Social support was inversely associated with recreational drug use. CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to hypotheses, problematic substance use behaviors decreased from pre-pandemic to the post-pandemic follow-up in our sample of PLHIV. Ongoing surveillance is needed to assess whether this pattern persists as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , Cannabis , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Recreational Drug Use , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 426-438, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). METHODS: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 prevention efforts, social disruptions (loss of employment, childcare, health insurance, and financial supports), experiences of abuse, and psychosocial health. Interviews were performed between April and June 2020. Associations between social disruptions and psychosocial health were explored using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and HIV status. RESULTS: Almost all (97.4%) participants reported COVID-19 prevention behavior; 40.1% participants reported social disruptions, and 34.3% reported health care appointment disruption. Men living with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative men to experience social disruptions (40.6% vs. 32.9%; P < 0.01), whereas HIV-negative women were more likely than women with HIV to experience social disruptions (51.1% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced ≥2 social disruptions had significantly higher odds of depression symptoms [aOR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.56], anxiety (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27), and social support dissatisfaction (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the psychosocial health impact related to the COVID-19 pandemic by providing context specific to PLHIV. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease social disruption and address psychosocial health needs among the most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms among people living with HIV (PLWH) are not well described. SETTING: Longitudinal survey within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) of PLWH compared with similar HIV-seronegative (SN) individuals. METHODS: Telephone-administered survey of MWCCS participants at 13 clinical research sites across the United States addressing COVID-19 symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pandemic impact on social distancing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Primary data collection occurred during May (wave 1), June-July (wave 2), and August-September, 2020 (wave 3). RESULTS: One-third of MWCCS participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection; 10% was tested ≥2 times. Similar proportions of PLWH and SN participants were tested, but SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher among PLWH than among SN individuals (9.4% vs 4.8%, P = 0.003). Odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained higher among PLWH after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 3.2). SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with CD4 cell counts among PLWH. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 9% had no symptoms, 7% had 1-2 mild symptoms, and 84% had ≥3 symptoms. Most of the (98%) participants reported physical distancing during all survey waves; self-reported ART adherence among PLWH was not adversely affected during the pandemic compared with the previous year (similar adherence in 89% of participants, improved in 9% of participants, and decreased in 2% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pharyngitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Cough , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
4.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chills/epidemiology , Chills/virology , Coinfection , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
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