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1.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-297073

ABSTRACT

Wastewater-based epidemiology is an emerging tool to monitor COVID-19 infection levels by measuring the concentration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA in wastewater. There remains a need to improve wastewater RNA extraction methods' sensitivity, speed, and reduce reliance on often expensive commercial reagents to make wastewater-based epidemiology more accessible. We present a kit-free wastewater RNA extraction method, titled "Sewage, Salt, Silica and SARS-CoV-2" (4S), that employs the abundant and affordable reagents sodium chloride (NaCl), ethanol and silica RNA capture matrices to recover 6-fold more SARS-CoV-2 RNA from wastewater than an existing ultrafiltration-based method. The 4S method concurrently recovered pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) and human 18S ribosomal subunit rRNA, both suitable as fecal concentration controls. The SARS-CoV-2 RNA concentrations measured in three sewersheds corresponded to the relative prevalence of COVID-19 infection determined via clinical testing. Lastly, controlled experiments indicate that the 4S method prevented RNA degradation during storage of wastewater samples, was compatible with heat pasteurization, and could be performed in approximately 3 hours. Overall, the 4S method is promising for effective, economical, and accessible wastewater-based epidemiology for SARS-CoV-2, providing another tool to fight the global pandemic. SYNOPSIS: The 4S method for measuring SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater is promising for effective, economical, and accessible wastewater-based epidemiology. Abstract art:

2.
Sleep ; 44(SUPPL 2):A76, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1402570

ABSTRACT

Introduction: It was expected COVID-19 would result in changes that could impact sleep hygiene and sleep. We examined sleep hygiene and symptoms of disrupted sleep through late April and May and demographic and psychological variables related to vulnerability/ resilience to negative outcomes. Methods: Participants (Part1: N=180, Part2: N=64;ages 18-85) solicited from a college (students, faculty/staff, alumni, parents) and local community (churches, community centers, libraries) completed a 30-minute survey (measures: sleep hygiene (SH), symptoms of sleep disruption, mental health, personality, social distancing, COVID-19 impact/experience, and demographics) for possible prizes. Part 1, April 20th-May 12th, participants answered trait questionnaires and state questionnaires for before and during social distancing, then repeated state questionnaires two weeks later (Part 2). Results: Following initial COVID related changes, 66.1% of participants reported worsening symptoms of sleep disruption, 27.9% reported no change, and 6.3% reported improvements. 40.3% reported worsening SH, 53.5% no change, and 6.3% improvements. At 2-week follow-up, 30.4% of participants shifted from reporting no change to SH improvements over baseline. Overall, participants showed significant worsening of symptoms of sleep disruption (sleepiness, moodiness, avolition, cognitive impairments) and SH behaviors (less consistent bed- and wake-times, more frequently staying too long in bed, more pre-bed alerting activities, more bedtime negative emotion, more use of bed for purposes other than sleep, more active technology use) (d's from .23-1.00). Worsening sleep hygiene with COVID-19 was significantly predicted by younger age (r(157)=.164, p<.05), more avoidant coping (r(151)= -.337, p<.05), lower life satisfaction (r(156)=.200, p<.05) and greater impact/experience of COVID-19 (r(150)= -.270, p<.05). Symptoms of sleep disruption showed similar, but larger, relationships. Conclusion: Initial social distancing may have disrupted routines, added stress, and resulted in worsened sleep and sleep hygiene. Over time some adapted and improved, but most did not. Our results suggest change, especially crises such as a pandemic, may alter established behavior for the worse and/or add significant stress. Without intervention, even the robust, i.e., young, may suffer. Variables identifying those more vulnerable to disrupted sleep following change and those more likely to experience worsening sleep may help identify targets for future interventions.

3.
European Journal of American Studies ; 15(4), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1069894

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and the protests in solidarity with those protesting the death of George Floyd in the US constitute a conjunctural crisis in Europe, exposing the hollowness of grand narratives and geopolitical fantasies-not least those of "the West" and "transatlanticism." In the interregnum of the present, as a new world order takes form, the pandemic and race emergencies not only intensify European rejection of the US, they reveal the frailty of the "European project" and anxiety about the future of Europe. This article examines ways in which these emergencies signal an uncomfortable European disinvestment from the fantasy of America as a liberal and redemptive power. © 2020, Markéta Hajská.

4.
J Laryngol Otol ; 135(1): 21-27, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065743

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the feasibility of continuing cochlear implantation during the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis and to report on trends of referrals via the neonatal hearing screening programme. METHODS: A prospective case series was conducted on children who underwent cochlear implantation during the coronavirus disease 2019 crisis in the UK and a sample of referrals via the neonatal hearing screening programme. A step-by-step description of peri-operative management is included. RESULTS: Regionally, between February and May 2020, 106 babies were referred via the neonatal hearing screening programme to paediatric audiology. Eleven children were operated on during the coronavirus disease 2019 study period. None of the 11 children developed coronavirus symptoms. DISCUSSION: It is widely recognised that the demands of managing the current pandemic may compromise screening, clinical assessment and elective surgery. Time-sensitive issues such as cancer management have gained prominence, but a similar need exists for timely paediatric cochlear implantation. CONCLUSION: Implantation in the paediatric population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic is feasible with careful planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cochlear Implantation , Deafness/surgery , Neonatal Screening , Child, Preschool , Cochlear Implantation/statistics & numerical data , Feasibility Studies , Female , Hearing Tests , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation/trends , United Kingdom
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