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1.
SLAS Discov ; 2021 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1641663

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 responsible for COVID-19 remains a persistent threat to mankind, especially for the immunocompromised and elderly for which the vaccine may have limited effectiveness. Entry of SARS-CoV-2 requires a high affinity interaction of the viral spike protein with the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. Novel mutations on the spike protein correlate with the high transmissibility of new variants of SARS-CoV-2, highlighting the need for small molecule inhibitors of virus entry into target cells. We report the identification of such inhibitors through a robust high-throughput screen testing 15,000 small molecules from unique libraries. Several leads were validated in a suite of mechanistic assays, including whole cell SARS-CoV-2 infectivity assays. The main lead compound, calpeptin, was further characterized using SARS-CoV-1 and the novel SARS-CoV-2 variant entry assays, SARS-CoV-2 protease assays and molecular docking. This study reveals calpeptin as a potent and specific inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 and some variants.

2.
Rural Remote Health ; 21(4): 6724, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513370

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Despite UN recommendations to monitor food insecurity using the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES), to date there are no published reports of its validity for The Bahamas, nor have prevalence rates of moderate or severe food insecurity been reported for the remote island nation. At the same time, food security is a deep concern, with increasing incidence of natural disasters and health concerns related to diet-related disease and dietary quality plaguing the nation and its food system. This article aims to examine the validity of the FIES for use in The Bahamas, the prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity, and the sociodemographic factors that contribute to increased food insecurity. METHODS: The FIES survey was administered by randomized and weighted landline telephone survey in Nassau in The Bahamas to 1000 participants in June and July 2017. The Rasch modelling procedure was applied to examine tool validity and prevalence of food insecurity. Equating procedures calibrated this study's results to the global FIES reference scale and computed internationally comparable prevalence rates of both moderate and severe food insecurity. A regression analysis assessed the relationship between household variables and food security. RESULTS: The FIES met benchmarks for fit statistics for all eight items and the overall Rasch reliability is 0.7. As of 2017, Bahamians' prevalence of moderate and severe food insecurity was 21%, and the prevalence of severe food insecurity was 10%. Statistically significant variables that contribute to food insecurity included education, age, gender, and presence of diabetes, high blood pressure, or heart disease. Results also indicated that Bahamians experience food insecurity differently than populations across the globe, likely due in large part to the workings of an isolated food system heavily dependent on foreign imports. Responses showed that by the time a Bahamian worries they will not have enough food to eat, they have already restricted their meals to a few kinds of foods and begun to limit their intake of vegetables and fruits. CONCLUSION: This study, which is among the first to comprehensively measure food security in The Bahamas, provides a baseline for further research and evaluation of practices aimed at mitigating food insecurity in small island developing states. Further, this study provides a benchmark for future research, which may seek to understand the impacts of Hurricane Dorian and COVID-19, disasters further isolating the remote island nation. Post-disaster food security data are needed to further understand the extent to which food security is impacted by natural disasters and identify which sectors and stakeholders are most vital in restructuring the agricultural sector and improving food availability following catastrophic events.


Subject(s)
Food Insecurity , Food Supply/statistics & numerical data , Hunger , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , Bahamas , Humans , Prevalence , Reproducibility of Results , Socioeconomic Factors
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