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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(1): ofab619, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids use in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) improves survival; however, the optimal dose is not established. We aim to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving high-dose corticosteroids (HDC) versus low-dose corticosteroids (LDC). METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study conducted at a large, quaternary care center in Michigan. A corticosteroid dose change was implemented in the standardized institutional treatment protocol on November 17, 2020. All patients admitted with severe COVID-19 that received corticosteroids were included. Consecutive patients in the HDC group (September 1 to November 15, 2020) were compared to the LDC group (November 30, 2020 to January 20, 2021). High-dose corticosteroids was defined as 80 mg of methylprednisolone daily in 2 divided doses, and LDC was defined as 32-40 mg of methylprednisolone daily in 2 divided doses. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included progression to mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay (LOS), discharge on supplemental oxygen, and corticosteroid-associated adverse events. RESULTS: Four-hundred seventy patients were included: 218 (46%) and 252 (54%) in the HDC and LDC groups, respectively. No difference was observed in 28-day mortality (14.5% vs 13.5%, P = .712). This finding remained intact when controlling for additional variables (odds ratio, 0.947; confidence interval, 0.515-1.742; P = .861). Median hospital LOS was 6 and 5 days in the HDC and LDC groups, respectively (P < .001). No differences were noted in any of the other secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose methylprednisolone had comparable outcomes including mortality to high-dose methylprednisolone for the treatment of severe COVID-19.

2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602100

ABSTRACT

Background Corticosteroids use in severe COVID-19 improves survival;however, the optimal dose is not established. We aim to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with severe COVID-19 receiving high-dose corticosteroids (HDC) versus low-dose corticosteroids (LDC). Methods This was a quasi-experimental study conducted at a large, quaternary care center in Michigan. A corticosteroid dose change was implemented in the standardized institutional treatment protocol on 17 November 2020. All patients admitted with severe COVID-19 that received corticosteroids were included. Consecutive patients in the HDC group (1 September to 15 November 2020) were compared to the LDC group (30 November 2020 to 20 January 2021). HDC was defined as methylprednisolone 80 mg daily in two divided doses and LDC was defined as methylprednisolone 32-40 mg daily in two divided doses. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included progression to mechanical ventilation, hospital length of stay (LOS), discharge on supplemental oxygen, and corticosteroid-associated adverse events. Results Four-hundred and seventy patients were included;218 (46%) and 252 (54%) in the HDC and LDC groups, respectively. No difference was observed in 28-day mortality (14.5% vs 13.5%, p=0.712). This finding remained intact when controlling for additional variables (OR 0.947, [CI 0.515-1.742], p=0.861). Median hospital LOS was 6 and 5 days in the HDC and LDC groups, respectively (p<0.001). No differences were noted in any of the other secondary outcomes. Conclusions Low-dose methylprednisolone had comparable outcomes including mortality to high-dose methylprednisolone for the treatment of severe COVID-19.

3.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(Supplement_1):S474-S474, 2021.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1570027
5.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S474-S474, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564880

ABSTRACT

Background It is estimated that the majority of hospitalized COVID-19 patients around the world received antibiotics despite the fact that bacterial co-infections are rare. This can lead to increased antimicrobial resistance and Clostridioides difficile infections (CDI). Gastrointestinal symptoms of COVID-19 may also contribute to increased testing. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our healthcare facility-onset (HO) CDI rates. Methods This was a retrospective cross-sectional study comparing CDI rate per 1,000 patient days, C. diff order rate per 1,000 patient days, Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (SAAR), and Standardized Infection Ratio (SIR) in the pre-COVID-19 period from January 1, 2019 to December 31, 2019 to the COVID-19 period from April 1, 2020 to March 31, 2021 at a 877-bed tertiary care hospital in Detroit, Michigan. CDI and order rates were extracted from the electronic medical record (Epic™ Bugsy). SAAR and SIR data were extracted from National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Results The average CDI rate per 1,000 patient days was 4.29 pre-COVID-19 compared to 1.98 during COVID-19 with a 54% reduction, and the C. diff order rate per 1,000 patient days also decreased from 130.89 to 93.03, resulting in a 29% reduction (Figure 1). The SIR was 0.383 compared to 0.308 during COVID-19 (P-value 0.404). SAAR decreased from 1.095 to 0.945 (P-value < 0.001). However, our institution experienced three COVID-19 waves, with peaks in April 2020, November 2020 and March 2021, that correlated with high risk CDI antibiotic utilization in intensive care unit (ICU) (Figure 2). The average hand hygiene rate increased from 82% to 92%. Figure 1. Clostridioides difficile order and infection rates pre-and during COVID-19 pandemic. Figure 2. Standardized Antimicrobial Administration Ratio (SAAR) pre-and during COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusion Despite the COVID-19 pandemic, the HO-CDI and C. diff order rates and overall SAAR decreased;however, antibiotic utilization increased in the ICU during the COVID-19 waves. The overall decrease may be multifactorial and related to increased hand hygiene compliance, isolation and personal protective equipment use and overall decreased antibiotic use and C. diff orders. Disclosures Rachel Kenney, PharmD, Medtronic, Inc. (Other Financial or Material Support, spouse is an employee and shareholder)

6.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):350-350, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564324

ABSTRACT

Background The early administration of corticosteroids (CS) in patients with severe COVID-19 (hospitalized with need for supplemental oxygen) has been the only therapy to improve survival. However, the optimal dosing of CS remains unclear. Beginning March 2020 methylprednisolone (MP) in a dose of 40mg twice daily (high dose CS - HDC) was adopted at our institution. Based on emerging trials, this dose of MP was reduced to 16mg twice daily (moderate dose CS – MDC) in November 2020. The study aims to evaluate the outcome difference in patients receiving HDC versus MDC. Methods This pre-post quasi-experimental study was done at Henry Ford Hospital, an 877-bed tertiary care hospital in Detroit, Michigan. Consecutive patients in the HDC group from September 1, 2020 to November 15, 2020 were compared to the MDC group from November 30, 2020 to January 20, 2021. Only hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 were included. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included progression to mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, discharge on supplemental oxygen and CS-associated adverse events. Patient demographics were evaluated using descriptive statistics. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was planned to test the association between primary outcome and exposure. Results 470 patients were evaluated, 218 and 252 in the HDC and MDC groups respectively. Clinical characteristics and severity of illness on admission were comparable in both groups (Table 1). Among comorbidities - lung disease, cardiovascular disease and hypertension were higher in MDC. Antibiotic and tocilizumab use were lower in MDC. Significantly more patients in MDC group received oral CS. There was no difference in mortality between HDC and MDC through bivariate and multivariate analysis (14.7% and 13.5%, p < 0.712, adjusted OR 0.913 [0.514-1.619]) (Table 2,3). Median length of hospital stay was 5 and 6 days in HDC and MDC respectively (p < 0.001). There was no difference in CS-associated adverse events. Conclusion The survival in severe COVID-19 patients treated with MDC is comparable to HDC. Oral corticosteroids are an equally effective option. Disclosures Rachel Kenney, PharmD, Medtronic, Inc. (Other Financial or Material Support, spouse is an employee and shareholder)

8.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(Supplement_3): S76-S82, 2021 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Patients with a reported ß-lactam allergy (BLA) are often given alternative perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, increasing risk of surgical site infections (SSIs), acute kidney injury (AKI), and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a pharmacist-led BLA clarification interview service in the preoperative setting. METHODS: A pharmacist performed BLA clarification telephone interviews before elective procedures from November 2018 to March 2019. On the basis of allergy history and a decision algorithm, first-line preoperative antibiotics, alternative antibiotics, or allergy testing referral was recommended. The pharmacist intervention (PI) group was compared to a standard of care (SOC) group who underwent surgery from November 2017 to March 2018. RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients were included, with 50 (57%) and 37 (43%) in the SOC and PI groups, respectively. The most common surgeries included orthopedic surgery in 41 patients (47%) and neurosurgery in 17 patients (20%). In the PI group, all BLA labels were updated after interview. Twenty-three patients were referred for allergy testing, 12 of the 23 (52%) completed BLA testing, and penicillin allergies were removed for 9 of the 12 patients. Overall, 28 of the 37 (76%) pharmacy antibiotic recommendations were accepted. Cefazolin use significantly increased from 28% to 65% after the intervention (P = 0.001). SSI occurred in 5 (10%) patients in the SOC group and no patients in the PI group (P = 0.051). All of these SSIs were associated with alternative antibiotics. Incidence of AKI and CDI was similar between the groups. No allergic reactions occurred in either group. CONCLUSION: Implementation of a pharmacy-driven BLA reconciliation significantly increased ß-lactam preoperative use without negative safety outcomes.


Subject(s)
Drug Hypersensitivity , Pharmacy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Drug Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Drug Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Drug Hypersensitivity/prevention & control , Humans , Lactams , Retrospective Studies , beta-Lactams/adverse effects
9.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123228

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: COVID-19 has several distinct clinical phases: a viral replication phase, an inflammatory phase, and in some patients, a hyper-inflammatory phase. High mortality is associated with patients developing cytokine storm syndrome. Treatment of hyper-inflammation in these patients using existing, approved therapies with proven safety profiles could address the immediate need to reduce mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed the changes in the gene expression, pathways and putative mechanisms induced by SARS-CoV2 in NHBE, and A549 cells, as well as COVID-19 lung vs. their respective controls. We used these changes to identify FDA approved drugs that could be repurposed to help COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms related to hyper-inflammation. We identified methylprednisolone (MP) as a potential leading therapy. The results were then confirmed in five independent validation data sets including Vero E6 cells, lung and intestinal organoids, as well as additional patient lung sample vs. their respective controls. Finally, the efficacy of MP was validated in an independent clinical study. Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred at a significantly lower rate in the MP-treated group compared to control group (29.6% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.027). Clinical results confirmed the in silico prediction that MP could improve outcomes in severe cases of COVID-19. A low number needed to treat (NNT = 5) suggests MP may be more efficacious than dexamethasone or hydrocortisone. AVAILABILITY: iPathwayGuide is available at https://ipathwayguide.advaitabio.com/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

10.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S264-S265, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-1010463
11.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S107-S108, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-1010419
12.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(Supplement_1):S28-S29, 2020.
Article in English | Oxford Academic | ID: covidwho-1010416
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