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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329525

ABSTRACT

Objectives Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at higher risk of contracting coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) than the general population. This study assessed the roles of various exposures and personal protective equipment (PPE) use on that risk for HCWs working in primary care, long-term-care facilities (LTCFs) or hospitals. Methods We conducted a matched case-control (1:1) study (10 April–9 July 2021). Cases (HCWs with confirmed COVID-19) and controls (HCWs without any COVID-19-positive test or symptoms) recruited by email were invited to complete an online questionnaire on their exposures and PPE use. Questions covered the 10 days preceding symptom onset for cases (or testing if asymptomatic) or inclusion for controls. Results A total of 4152 matched cases and controls were included. The multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis retained exposure to an infected person outside work (adjusted odds ratio, 19.9 [95% confidence intervaI, 12.4–31.9]), an infected colleague (2.26 [1.53–3.33]) or COVID-19 patients (2.37 [1.66–3.40]), as independent predictors of COVID-19 in HCWs, while partial or complete immunization was protective. Eye protection (0.57 [0.37–0.87]) and wearing a gown (0.58 [0.34–0.97]) during COVID-19 patient care were protective, while wearing an apron slightly increased the risk of infection (1.47 [1.00–2.18]). N95-respirator protection was comparable to that of surgical masks. Results were consistent across healthcare-facility categories. Conclusions HCWs were more likely to get COVID-19 in their personal sphere than during occupational activities. Our results suggest that eye protection for HCWs during patient care should be actively promoted.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324582

ABSTRACT

Background: Microvascular thrombosis, as well as arterial and venous thrombotic events, have been largely described during severe Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). Therapeutic anticoagulation has been proposed in critical patients, however mechanisms underlying hemostasis dysregulation remain unclear. Methods: : We explored two independent cross-sectional cohorts to identify soluble markers and gene-expression signatures that discriminated COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Results: : We found that elevated soluble (s) P-selectin at admission was associated with disease severity. Elevated sP-selectin was predictive of intubation and death (ROC AUC = 0.67, p = 0.028 and AUC = 0.74, p = 0.0047, respectively). An optimal cutoff value of 150 NC (normalized concentration) was predictive of intubation with 66% negative predictive value (NPV) and 61% positive predictive value (PPV), and of death with 90% NPV and 55% PPV. Next, an unbiased gene set enrichment analysis revealed that critically ill patients had increased expression of genes related to primary hemostasis. Hierarchical clustering identified ITG2AB , GP1BB , PPBP and SELPLG to be upregulated in a grade-dependent manner. ROC curve analysis for the prediction of mechanical ventilation was significant for SELPLG and PPBP (AUC = 0.8, p = 0.046 for both markers). An optimal cutoff value for PBPP was predictive of mechanical ventilation with 100% NPV and 45% PPV, and for SELPLG was predictive of mechanical ventilation with 100% NPV and 50% PPV. Conclusion: We provide evidence that platelets contribute to disease severity with the identification of sP-selectin as a biomarker for poor outcome. Transcriptional analysis identified PPBP and SELPLG RNA count as biomarkers for mechanical ventilation. These findings provide rationale for novel therapeutic approaches with antiplatelet agents.

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309301

ABSTRACT

Background: Mass indoor gatherings were banned in early 2020 to prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread. We aimed to assess, under controlled conditions, whether systematic antigen-screening within 3 days, medical mask-wearing and optimized ventilation could prevent SARS-CoV-2 spread during a large, indoor gathering without physical distancing.Methods: The non-inferiority, prospective, open-label, randomized (2:1)-controlled SPRING trial was conducted on May 29, 2021 in Paris, France. Participants, 18–45 years old, had no comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms and recent case contact, and a negative rapid antigen diagnostic test within 3 days before the concert. Participants were randomly allocated to the experimental arm (attendees) or to the control arm (non-attendees). The primary outcome measure was the number of SARS-CoV-2–positive RT-PCR on self-collected saliva 7 days (D7) post-gathering. An artificial intelligence tool analyzing anonymised, continuous video-capture data evaluated participants’ mask-wearing compliance. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04872075.Findings: Among 6678 randomized participants (median age 28 years;59% women), 88% of each group complied with follow-up requirements. The D7 RT-PCR was positive for eight of the 3917 attendees (observed incidence, 0.20%;95% Confidence Interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.40) and 3 of the 1,947 non-attendees (0.15%;0.03 to 0.45) (absolute difference, 95%CI, –0.26% to +0.28%), findings that met the non-inferiority criterion (margin <0.35%) for the primary endpoint. Global facemask-wearing compliance (i.e., covering nose and mouth) was estimated at 91.4% (95%CI, 87.7 to 95.4).Interpretation: Participation in a large, indoor, live gathering without physical distancing was not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2–transmission risk, provided a comprehensive preventive intervention was implemented.Trial Registration: This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04872075).Funding: French Ministry of HealthDeclaration of Interest: All authors declare no competing interestsEthical Approval: The trial protocol was approved by the Scientific Ethics Committee of the Sud-Ouest and Outremer Regions of France and the French Data-Protection Agency

4.
Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses Formation ; 1(1):2-12, 2022.
Article in French | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1678653

ABSTRACT

Des progrès remarquables ont été obtenus dans notre compréhension de la transmission du SARS-CoV-2 et la réduction de sa propagation. La prise en compte du risque majeur des formes asymptomatiques par le port universel du masque est une de ces avancées. Les données épidémiologiques (taux d'attaque et R0) ainsi que l'accumulation de données en contexte clinique suggèrent une similitude de transmission du SARS-CoV-2 avec celle des autres virus respiratoires comme la grippe ou le SARS-CoV-1, un mode de transmission principal direct de personne à personne, à courte distance par les gouttelettes. La transmission aéroportée est possible mais rare, et ne semble se produire que dans des circonstances opportunistes, notamment lors de procédures médicales sur la sphère respiratoire de patients infectés, ou dans des conditions d'excrétion virale élevée en zone confinée mal ventilée. L'hygiène des mains et le port du masque sont les deux armes essentielles de prévention dans le contexte de la COVID-19.

5.
M�decine et Maladies Infectieuses Formation ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1630464

ABSTRACT

Résumé Des progrès remarquables ont été obtenus dans notre compréhension de la transmission du SARS-CoV-2 et la réduction de sa propagation. La prise en compte du risque majeur des formes asymptomatiques par le port universel du masque est une de ces avancées. Les données épidémiologiques (taux d'attaque et R0) ainsi que l'accumulation de données en contexte clinique suggèrent une similitude de transmission du SARS-CoV-2 avec celle des autres virus respiratoires comme la grippe ou le SARS-CoV-1, un mode de transmission principal direct de personne à personne, à courte distance par les gouttelettes. La transmission aéroportée est possible mais rare, et ne semble se produire que dans des circonstances opportunistes, notamment lors de procédures médicales sur la sphère respiratoire de patients infectés, ou dans des conditions d'excrétion virale élevée en zone confinée mal ventilée. L'hygiène des mains et le port du masque sont les deux armes essentielles de prévention dans le contexte de la COVID-19. Large progresses have been made in our understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and the reduction of its spread. The consideration of the major risk of asymptomatic cases by the universal face masking is one of these advances. Epidemiological data (attack rate and R0) as well as the accumulation of data in clinical context suggest a similarity of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 with that of other respiratory viruses such as influenza or SARS-CoV-1: a primary direct person-to-person mode of transmission at short range by droplets. Airborne transmission is possible but rare, and appears to occur only under opportunistic circumstances, particularly during procedures on the respiratory tract of infected patients, or under conditions of high viral excretion in a poorly ventilated environment. Hand hygiene and facemask wearing are the two main prevention measures in the context of COVID-19.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Approximately 15-30% of hospitalized COVID-19 patients develop acute respiratory distress syndrome, systemic tissue injury, and/or multi-organ failure leading to death in around 45% of cases. There is a clear need for biomarkers which quantify tissue injury, predict clinical outcomes and guide the clinical management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: We herein report the quantification by droplet-based digital PCR (ddPCR) of the SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia and the plasmatic release of a ubiquitous human intracellular marker, the ribonuclease P (RNase P) in order to evaluate tissue injury and cell lysis in the plasma of 139 COVID-19 hospitalized patients at admission. RESULTS: We confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was associated with clinical severity of COVID-19 patients. In addition, we showed that plasmatic RNase P RNAemia at admission was also highly correlated with disease severity (P<0.001) and invasive mechanical ventilation status (P<0.001) but not with pulmonary severity. Altogether, these results indicate a consequent cell lysis process in severe and critical patients but not systematically due to lung cell death. Finally, the plasmatic RNase P RNA value was also significantly associated with overall survival. CONCLUSION: Viral and ubiquitous blood biomarkers monitored by ddPCR could be useful for the clinical monitoring and the management of hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Moreover, these results could pave the way for new and more personalized circulating biomarkers in COVID-19, and more generally in infectious diseases, specific from each patient organ injury profile.

7.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(3): 341-348, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537188

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass indoor gatherings were banned in early 2020 to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2. We aimed to assess, under controlled conditions, whether infection rates among attendees at a large, indoor gathering event would be similar to those in non-attendees, given implementation of a comprehensive prevention strategy including antigen-screening within 3 days, medical mask wearing, and optimised ventilation. METHODS: The non-inferiority, prospective, open-label, randomised, controlled SPRING trial was done on attendees at a live indoor concert held in the Accor Arena on May 29, 2021 in Paris, France. Participants, aged 18-45 years, recruited via a dedicated website, had no comorbidities, COVID-19 symptoms, or recent case contact, and had had a negative rapid antigen diagnostic test within 3 days before the concert. Participants were randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to the experimental group (attendees) or to the control group (non-attendees). The allocation sequence was computer-generated by means of permuted blocks of sizes three, six, or nine, with no stratification. The primary outcome measure was the number of patients who were SARS-CoV-2-positive by RT-PCR test on self-collected saliva 7 days post-gathering in the per-protocol population (non-inferiority margin <0·35%). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04872075. FINDINGS: Between May 11 and 25, 2021, 18 845 individuals registered on the dedicated website, and 10 953 were randomly selected for a pre-enrolment on-site visit. Among 6968 who kept the appointment and were screened, 6678 participants were randomly assigned (4451 were assigned to be attendees and 2227 to be non-attendees; median age 28 years; 59% women); 88% (3917) of attendees and 87% (1947) of non-attendees complied with follow-up requirements. The day 7 RT-PCR was positive for eight of the 3917 attendees (observed incidence, 0·20%; 95% CI 0·09-0·40) and three of the 1947 non-attendees (0·15%; 0·03-0·45; absolute difference, 95% CI -0·26% to 0·28%), findings that met the non-inferiority criterion for the primary endpoint. INTERPRETATION: Participation in a large, indoor, live gathering without physical distancing was not associated with increased SARS-CoV-2-transmission risk, provided a comprehensive preventive intervention was implemented. FUNDING: French Ministry of Health. TRANSLATION: For the French translation of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/therapy , Female , France , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Saliva/cytology
8.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology ; 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1519110

ABSTRACT

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by impaired type I interferon activity and a state of hyperinflammation leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The complement system has recently emerged as a key player in triggering and maintaining the inflammatory state, but the role of this molecular cascade in severe COVID-19 is still poorly characterized. Objective We aimed at assessing the contribution of complement pathways at both protein and transcriptomic levels. Methods To this end, we systematically assessed RNA levels of 28 complement genes in circulating whole blood of COVID-19 patients and healthy controls, including genes of the alternative pathway, for which data remain scarce. Results We found differential expression of genes involved in the complement system, yet with various expression patterns: while patients displaying moderate disease had elevated expression of classical pathway genes, severe disease was associated with increased lectin and alternative pathway activation, which correlated with inflammation and coagulopathy markers. Additionally, properdin, a pivotal positive regulator of the alternative pathway, showed high RNA expression but was found at low protein concentrations in severe and critical patients, suggesting its deposition at the sites of complement activation. Notably, low properdin levels were significantly associated with the use of mechanical ventilation (AUC = 0.82, p = 0.002). Conclusion This study sheds light on the role of the alternative pathway in severe COVID-19 and provides additional rationale for the testing of drugs inhibiting the alternative pathway of the complement system. We show that activation of the alternative complement pathway characterizes COVID-19 severity. Specifically, low properdin levels were associated with use of mechanical ventilation. This work provides a rationale for the specific inhibition of the alternative complement pathway.

9.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522216

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2890-e2897, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global public health problem that has already caused more than 662 000 deaths worldwide. Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients present other severe damage such as cardiovascular, renal and liver injury, and/or multiple organ failure, suggesting a spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in blood. Recent ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology now allows absolute quantification of nucleic acids in plasma. We intend to use the droplet-based digital PCR technology to obtain sensitive detection and precise quantification of plasma SARS-CoV-2 viral load (SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Fifty-eight consecutive COVID-19 patients with pneumonia 8 to 12 days after onset of symptoms and 12 healthy controls were analyzed. Disease severity was categorized as mild to moderate in 17 patients, severe in 16, and critical in 26. Plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was quantified by droplet digital Crystal Digital PCR next-generation technology (Stilla Technologies, Villejuif, France). RESULTS: Overall, SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia was detected in 43 (74.1%) patients. Prevalence of positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlated with disease severity, ranging from 53% in mild-to-moderate patients to 88% in critically ill patients (P = .036). Levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia were associated with severity (P = .035). Among 9 patients who experienced clinical deterioration during follow-up, 8 had positive SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at baseline, whereas only 1 critical patient with undetectable SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia at the time of analysis died at day 27. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia measured by droplet-based digital PCR constitutes a promising prognosis biomarker in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Critical Illness , Humans , RNA, Viral , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21126, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493210

ABSTRACT

Rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals is a cornerstone for the control of virus spread. The sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection by RT-PCR is similar in saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs. Rapid molecular point-of-care tests in saliva could facilitate, broaden and speed up the diagnosis. We conducted a prospective study in two community COVID-19 screening centers to evaluate the performances of a CE-marked RT-LAMP assay (EasyCoV) designed for the detection of SARS-CoV2 RNA from fresh saliva samples, compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, to saliva RT-PCR and to nasopharyngeal antigen testing. Overall, 117 of the 1718 participants (7%) tested positive with nasopharyngeal RT-PCR. Compared to nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, the sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay in saliva were 34% and 97%, respectively. The Ct values of nasopharyngeal RT-PCR were significantly lower in the 40 true positive subjects with saliva RT-LAMP (Ct 25.9) than in the 48 false negative subjects with saliva RT-LAMP (Ct 28.4) (p = 0.028). Considering six alternate criteria for reference tests, including saliva RT-PCR and nasopharyngeal antigen, the sensitivity of saliva RT-LAMP ranged between 27 and 44%. The detection of SARS-CoV-2 in crude saliva samples with an RT-LAMP assay had a lower sensitivity than nasopharyngeal RT-PCR, saliva RT-PCR and nasopharyngeal antigen testing.Registration number: NCT04578509.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva/metabolism , Adult , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , False Negative Reactions , False Positive Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Molecular Medicine , Nasopharynx/virology , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques , Point-of-Care Systems , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
13.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1428-1439, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392873

ABSTRACT

Coordinated local mucosal and systemic immune responses following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection either protect against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathologies or fail, leading to severe clinical outcomes. To understand this process, we performed an integrated analysis of SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies, cytokines, viral load and bacterial communities in paired nasopharyngeal swabs and plasma samples from a cohort of clinically distinct patients with COVID-19 during acute infection. Plasma viral load was associated with systemic inflammatory cytokines that were elevated in severe COVID-19, and also with spike-specific neutralizing antibodies. By contrast, nasopharyngeal viral load correlated with SARS-CoV-2 humoral responses but inversely with interferon responses, the latter associating with protective microbial communities. Potential pathogenic microorganisms, often implicated in secondary respiratory infections, were associated with mucosal inflammation and elevated in severe COVID-19. Our results demonstrate distinct tissue compartmentalization of SARS-CoV-2 immune responses and highlight a role for the nasopharyngeal microbiome in regulating local and systemic immunity that determines COVID-19 clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Microbiota/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute Disease , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Mucosal , Interferons/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Load , Young Adult
14.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(8): ofab369, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352260

ABSTRACT

Cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) acquisition after vaccination with BNT162b2 have been described, but the risk of secondary transmission from fully vaccinated individuals remains ill defined. Herein we report a confirmed transmission of SARS-CoV-2 alpha variant (B.1.1.7) from a symptomatic immunocompetent woman 4 weeks after her second dose of BNT162b2, despite antispike seroconversion.

15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343328

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/therapy , Healthy Lifestyle , Obesity/therapy , Risk Reduction Behavior , Weight Loss , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Diet, Healthy , Exercise , Female , France/epidemiology , Habits , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nutritive Value , Obesity/diagnosis , Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Smoking Cessation , Time Factors , Weight Gain
16.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11886, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1341009

ABSTRACT

The cholinergic system has been proposed as a potential regulator of COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia. We investigated whole-blood expression of cholinergic system members and correlated it with COVID-19 severity. Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and healthy aged-matched controls were included in this non-interventional study. A whole blood sample was drawn between 9-11 days after symptoms onset, and peripheral leukocyte phenotyping, cytokines measurement, RNA expression and plasma viral load were determined. Additionally, whole-blood expression of native alpha-7 nicotinic subunit and its negative dominant duplicate (CHRFAM7A), choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine esterase (AchE) were determined. Thirty-seven patients with COVID-19 (10 moderate, 11 severe and 16 with critical disease) and 14 controls were included. Expression of CHRFAM7A was significantly lower in critical COVID-19 patients compared to controls. COVID-19 patients not expressing CHRFAM7A had higher levels of CRP, more extended pulmonary lesions and displayed more pronounced lymphopenia. COVID-19 patients without CHRFAM7A expression also showed increased TNF pathway expression in whole blood. AchE was also expressed in 30 COVID-19 patients and in all controls. COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia is associated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory dominant negative duplicate CHRFAM7A. Expression of this duplicate might be considered before targeting the cholinergic system in COVID-19 with nicotine.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics
17.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 40(11): 2379-2388, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338227

ABSTRACT

Nasopharyngeal sampling for nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is the standard diagnostic test of coronavirus disease 2019. Our objectives were to assess, in real-life conditions, the diagnostic accuracy of a nasopharyngeal point-of-care antigen (Ag) test and of saliva NAAT for detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in ambulatory care. This was a prospective cohort study from 19 October through 18 December 2020 in two community COVID-19 screening centers in Paris, France. Two nasopharyngeal swabs and one saliva sample were simultaneously collected. Diagnostic accuracies of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of three saliva NAAT methods were assessed as compared to nasopharyngeal NAAT. A total of 1452 ambulatory children and adults were included. Overall, 129/1443 (9%) participants tested positive on nasopharyngeal NAAT (102/564 [18%] in symptomatic and 27/879 [3%] in asymptomatic participants). Sensitivity was 94%, 23%, 96%, and 94% for the three different protocols of saliva NAAT and for the nasopharyngeal Ag test, respectively. Estimates of specificity were above 95% for all methods. Diagnostic accuracy was similar in symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal Ag testing and of saliva NAAT is similar to that of nasopharyngeal NAAT, subject to compliance with specific protocols for saliva. Registration number: NCT04578509.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Paris , Point-of-Care Testing , Prospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Infect Dis ; 224(9): 1489-1499, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317919

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a complex antibody response that varies by orders of magnitude between individuals and over time. METHODS: We developed a multiplex serological test for measuring antibodies to 5 SARS-CoV-2 antigens and the spike proteins of seasonal coronaviruses. We measured antibody responses in cohorts of hospitalized patients and healthcare workers followed for up to 11 months after symptoms. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics was used to quantify the duration of antibody responses. Antibody response data were used to train algorithms for estimating time since infection. RESULTS: One year after symptoms, we estimate that 36% (95% range, 11%-94%) of anti-Spike immunoglobulin G (IgG) remains, 31% (95% range, 9%-89%) anti-RBD IgG remains, and 7% (1%-31%) of anti-nucleocapsid IgG remains. The multiplex assay classified previous infections into time intervals of 0-3 months, 3-6 months, and 6-12 months. This method was validated using data from a seroprevalence survey in France, demonstrating that historical SARS-CoV-2 transmission can be reconstructed using samples from a single survey. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to diagnosing previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, multiplex serological assays can estimate the time since infection, which can be used to reconstruct past epidemics.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Serologic Tests/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation , Antibody Specificity , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
19.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 113, 2021 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microvascular, arterial and venous thrombotic events have been largely described during severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). However, mechanisms underlying hemostasis dysregulation remain unclear. METHODS: We explored two independent cross-sectional cohorts to identify soluble markers and gene-expression signatures that discriminated COVID-19 severity and outcomes. RESULTS: We found that elevated soluble (s)P-selectin at admission was associated with disease severity. Elevated sP-selectin was predictive of intubation and death (ROC AUC = 0.67, p = 0.028 and AUC = 0.74, p = 0.0047, respectively). An optimal cutoff value was predictive of intubation with 66% negative predictive value (NPV) and 61% positive predictive value (PPV), and of death with 90% NPV and 55% PPV. An unbiased gene set enrichment analysis revealed that critically ill patients had increased expression of genes related to platelet activation. Hierarchical clustering identified ITG2AB, GP1BB, PPBP and SELPLG to be upregulated in a grade-dependent manner. ROC curve analysis for the prediction of intubation was significant for SELPLG and PPBP (AUC = 0.8, p = 0.046 for both). An optimal cutoff value for PBPP was predictive of intubation with 100% NPV and 45% PPV, and for SELPLG with 100% NPV and 50% PPV. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence that platelets contribute to COVID-19 severity. Plasma sP-selectin level was associated with severity and in-hospital mortality. Transcriptional analysis identified PPBP/CXCL7 and SELPLG as biomarkers for intubation. These findings provide additional evidence for platelet activation in driving critical COVID-19. Specific studies evaluating the performance of these biomarkers are required.

20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11886, 2021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275949

ABSTRACT

The cholinergic system has been proposed as a potential regulator of COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia. We investigated whole-blood expression of cholinergic system members and correlated it with COVID-19 severity. Patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and healthy aged-matched controls were included in this non-interventional study. A whole blood sample was drawn between 9-11 days after symptoms onset, and peripheral leukocyte phenotyping, cytokines measurement, RNA expression and plasma viral load were determined. Additionally, whole-blood expression of native alpha-7 nicotinic subunit and its negative dominant duplicate (CHRFAM7A), choline acetyltransferase and acetylcholine esterase (AchE) were determined. Thirty-seven patients with COVID-19 (10 moderate, 11 severe and 16 with critical disease) and 14 controls were included. Expression of CHRFAM7A was significantly lower in critical COVID-19 patients compared to controls. COVID-19 patients not expressing CHRFAM7A had higher levels of CRP, more extended pulmonary lesions and displayed more pronounced lymphopenia. COVID-19 patients without CHRFAM7A expression also showed increased TNF pathway expression in whole blood. AchE was also expressed in 30 COVID-19 patients and in all controls. COVID-19-induced hypercytokinemia is associated with decreased expression of the pro-inflammatory dominant negative duplicate CHRFAM7A. Expression of this duplicate might be considered before targeting the cholinergic system in COVID-19 with nicotine.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/genetics , Down-Regulation , Female , Humans , Inflammation/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/genetics
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