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1.
Transplant Direct ; 6(7): e572, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The early effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on transplantation are dramatic: >75% of kidney and liver programs are either suspended or operating under major restrictions. To resume transplantation, it is important to understand the prevalence of COVID-19 among transplant recipients, donors, and healthcare workers (HCWs) and its associated mortality. METHODS: To investigate this, we studied severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 diagnostic test results among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplants from the Johns Hopkins Health System (n = 235), and screening test results from deceased donors from the Southwest Transplant Alliance Organ Procurement Organization (n = 27), and donors, candidates, and HCWs from the National Kidney Registry and Viracor-Eurofins (n = 253) between February 23 and April 15, 2020. RESULTS: We found low rates of COVID-19 among donors and HCWs (0%-1%) who were screened, higher rates of diagnostic tests among patients with end-stage renal disease or kidney transplant (17%-20%), and considerable mortality (7%-13%) among those who tested positive. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest the threat of COVID-19 for the transplant population is significant and ongoing data collection and reporting is critical to inform transplant practices during and after the pandemic.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 21(5): 1838-1847, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892189

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has profoundly affected the American health care system; its effect on the liver transplant (LT) waitlist based on COVID-19 incidence has not been characterized. Using SRTR data, we compared observed LT waitlist registrations, waitlist mortality, deceased donor LTs (DDLT), and living donor LTs (LDLT) 3/15/2020-8/31/2020 to expected values based on historical trends 1/2016-1/2020, stratified by statewide COVID-19 incidence. Overall, from 3/15 to 4/30, new listings were 11% fewer than expected (IRR = 0.84 0.890.93 ), LDLTs were 49% fewer (IRR = 0.37 0.510.72 ), and DDLTs were 9% fewer (IRR = 0.85 0.910.97 ). In May, new listings were 21% fewer (IRR = 0.74 0.790.84 ), LDLTs were 42% fewer (IRR = 0.39 0.580.85 ) and DDLTs were 13% more (IRR = 1.07 1.151.23 ). Centers in states with the highest incidence 3/15-4/30 had 59% more waitlist deaths (IRR = 1.09 1.592.32 ) and 34% fewer DDLTs (IRR = 0.50 0.660.86 ). By August, waitlist outcomes were occurring at expected rates, except for DDLT (13% more across all incidences). While the early COVID-affected states endured major transplant practice changes, later in the pandemic the newly COVID-affected areas were not impacted to the same extent. These results speak to the adaptability of the transplant community in addressing the pandemic and applying new knowledge to patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Liver Transplantation/trends , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
3.
Clin Transplant ; 34(12): e14086, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-751771

ABSTRACT

In our first survey of transplant centers in March 2020, >75% of kidney and liver programs were either suspended or operating under restrictions. To safely resume transplantation, we must understand the evolving impact of COVID-19 on transplant recipients and center-level practices. We therefore conducted a six-week follow-up survey May 7-15, 2020, and linked responses to the COVID-19 incidence map, with a response rate of 84%. Suspension of live donor transplantation decreased from 72% in March to 30% in May for kidneys and from 68% to 52% for livers. Restrictions/suspension of deceased donor transplantation decreased from 84% to 58% for kidneys and from 73% to 42% for livers. Resuming transplantation at normal capacity was envisioned by 83% of programs by August 2020. Exclusively using local recovery teams for deceased donor procurement was reported by 28%. Respondents reported caring for a total of 1166 COVID-19-positive transplant recipients; 25% were critically ill. Telemedicine challenges were reported by 81%. There was a lack of consensus regarding management of potential living donors or candidates with SARS-CoV-2. Our findings demonstrate persistent heterogeneity in center-level response to COVID-19 even as transplant activity resumes, making ongoing national data collection and real-time analysis critical to inform best practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Organ Transplantation/trends , Organizational Policy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Tissue and Organ Procurement/trends , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Decision-Making , Follow-Up Studies , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/trends , Organ Transplantation/methods , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/virology , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration , United States/epidemiology
4.
Am J Transplant ; 20(11): 3131-3139, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-618776

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread rapidly nationally, causing widespread emergent changes to the health system. Our goal was to understand the impact of the epidemic on kidney transplantation (KT), at both the national and center levels, accounting statistically for waitlist composition. Using Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients data, we compared data on observed waitlist registrations, waitlist mortality, and living-donor and deceased-donor kidney transplants (LDKT/DDKT) March 15-April 30, 2020 to expected events calculated from preepidemic data January 2016-February 2020. There were few changes before March 15, at which point the number of new listings/DDKT/LDKT dropped to 18%/24%/87% below the expected value (all P < .001). Only 12 centers performed LDKT March 15-31; by April 30, 40 centers had resumed LDKT. The decline in new listings and DDKT was greater among states with higher per capita confirmed COVID-19 cases. The number of waitlist deaths was 2.2-fold higher than expected in the 5 states with highest COVID-19 burden (P < .001). DCD DDKT and regional/national imports declined nationwide but most steeply in states with the highest COVID-19 burden. The COVID-19 epidemic has resulted in substantial changes to KT; we must adapt and learn rapidly to continue to provide safe access to transplantation and limit the growing indirect toll of an already deadly disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Living Donors/supply & distribution , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue and Organ Procurement/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Insufficiency/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists , Young Adult
5.
Am J Transplant ; 20(7): 1809-1818, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47733

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel, rapidly changing pandemic: consequently, evidence-based recommendations in solid organ transplantation (SOT) remain challenging and unclear. To understand the impact on transplant activity across the United States, and center-level variation in testing, clinical practice, and policies, we conducted a national survey between March 24, 2020 and March 31, 2020 and linked responses to the COVID-19 incidence map. Response rate was a very high 79.3%, reflecting a strong national priority to better understand COVID-19. Complete suspension of live donor kidney transplantation was reported by 71.8% and live donor liver by 67.7%. While complete suspension of deceased donor transplantation was less frequent, some restrictions to deceased donor kidney transplantation were reported by 84.0% and deceased donor liver by 73.3%; more stringent restrictions were associated with higher regional incidence of COVID-19. Shortage of COVID-19 tests was reported by 42.5%. Respondents reported a total of 148 COVID-19 recipients from <1 to >10 years posttransplant: 69.6% were kidney recipients, and 25.0% were critically ill. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was used by 78.1% of respondents; azithromycin by 46.9%; tocilizumab by 31.3%, and remdesivir by 25.0%. There is wide heterogeneity in center-level response across the United States; ongoing national data collection, expert discussion, and clinical studies are critical to informing evidence-based practices.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Organ Transplantation/trends , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Critical Illness , Evidence-Based Medicine , Health Policy , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Incidence , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Transplantation/trends , Liver Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Liver Transplantation/trends , Living Donors , Organ Transplantation/legislation & jurisprudence , Organ Transplantation/statistics & numerical data , Resource Allocation , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients , United States
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