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1.
Critical care explorations ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The multifaceted long-term impairments resulting from critical illness and COVID-19 require interdisciplinary management approaches in the recovery phase of illness. Operational insights into the structure and process of recovery clinics (RCs) from heterogeneous health systems are needed. This study describes the structure and process characteristics of existing and newly implemented ICU-RCs and COVID-RCs in a subset of large health systems in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Thirty-nine RCs, representing a combined 156 hospitals within 29 health systems participated. PATIENTS: None. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: RC demographics, referral criteria, and operating characteristics were collected, including measures used to assess physical, psychologic, and cognitive recoveries. Thirty-nine RC surveys were completed (94% response rate). ICU-RC teams included physicians, pharmacists, social workers, physical therapists, and advanced practice providers. Funding sources for ICU-RCs included clinical billing (n = 20, 77%), volunteer staff support (n = 15, 58%), institutional staff/space support (n = 13, 46%), and grant or foundation funding (n = 3, 12%). Forty-six percent of RCs report patient visit durations of 1 hour or longer. ICU-RC teams reported use of validated scales to assess psychologic recovery (93%), physical recovery (89%), and cognitive recovery (86%) more often in standard visits compared with COVID-RC teams (psychologic, 54%;physical, 69%;and cognitive, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Operating structures of RCs vary, though almost all describe modest capacity and reliance on volunteerism and discretionary institutional support. ICU- and COVID-RCs in the United States employ varied funding sources and endorse different assessment measures during visits to guide care coordination. Common features include integration of ICU clinicians, interdisciplinary approach, and focus on severe critical illness. The heterogeneity in RC structures and processes contributes to future research on the optimal structure and process to achieve the best postintensive care syndrome and postacute sequelae of COVID outcomes.

2.
Front Psychol ; 13: 770459, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731831

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Previous studies of post-acute COVID-19 syndrome have focused on critical cases with severe disease. However, most cases are mild to moderate in disease severity. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine cognitive outcomes in cases of non-critical, mild-to-moderate COVID-19. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 72 adults aged 22 to 65 years in Central Texas who had non-critical, mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection between 13 January 2021 and 20 April 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: We remotely administered cognitive-behavioral testing to determine the frequency of cognitive impairment and examine demographic, clinical, and psychosocial contributors to impairment. RESULTS: The frequency of objective cognitive impairment was 40%. The largest number of participants (24%) showed impairment on a measure of executive functioning. Attention and processing speed was more impaired in males (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 0.23-2.9). Males endorsed lower adherence to social distancing guidelines (U = 590, p = 0.01), which was in turn associated with cognitive impairment across participants (r = -0.30, p = 0.01). Younger age was correlated with impairment (r = -0.26, p = 0.03) but was also associated with racial/ethnic minority status (r = -0.31, p = 0.01) and increased psychological symptoms (p < 0.04). Greater number of COVID-19 symptoms was correlated with lower subjective cognitive function (r = -0.38, p = 0.001) as well as psychosocial function (r > 0.24, p < 0.05). Moderate COVID-19 severity was associated with attention/processing speed impairment (r = 0.27, p = 0.03), increased pain (r = 0.31, p = 0.01), and higher number of COVID-19 symptoms (r = 0.32, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Mild or moderate COVID-19 infection may be associated with cognitive impairments, especially in the domain of executive functioning. A subgroup of younger individuals may be more vulnerable to cognitive and psychosocial effects of COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS: Question: How frequent is cognitive impairment among non-critical, mild-to-moderate COVID-19 survivors? FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional study of 72 adults, 40% demonstrated cognitive impairment, particularly in executive function. MEANING: Neurologic sequelae, such as cognitive impairment, may be common following COVID-19 infection.

3.
Nurs Res ; 71(2): 84-89, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Because multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease and many individuals with MS take disease-modifying drugs that suppress immune response, serious concerns have been expressed about the potential effect of COVID-19 on those with this chronic condition. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this research was to utilize the most recent 5 years of data from an ongoing longitudinal study of health promotion and quality of life (QoL) among people with long-standing MS to investigate changes across time in functional limitations, health promotion, and health-related QoL. METHODS: Participants are mailed an annual survey to complete about their health promotion, depressive symptoms, health status, social support, MS-related functional limitations, and QoL. Differences across time were analyzed with repeated measures of analysis of variances and planned contrasts. RESULTS: In 2021, the 141 participants had a mean age of 69 years and had been diagnosed with MS for 34 years, on average. Most had attended college, were married/partnered women, and reported adequate economic resources. Thirty-seven percent reported they were in poor to fair health. Physical activity and health responsibility scores decreased significantly during 2020-2021 compared with 2017-2019. Significant changes in depressive symptoms, social support, and functional limitation scores followed a different pattern, with the largest changes occurring between 2018 and 2019. QoL and other health promotion scores did not change significantly across time. DISCUSSION: The relatively small changes in health indicators revealed here suggest that older people with long-standing MS may have generally been able to maintain their health promotion, functional abilities, and QoL from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, nurses and other providers should support them to resume their physical activity and regular provider contact as COVID-19 restrictions are eased. The patterns observed here demonstrate the importance of examining changes across an extended period, rather than simply looking at 1 year before and 1 year after a major event, such as COVID-19. These findings can help nurses understand how to help their patients with chronic health conditions maximize their health as they move forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Aged , Female , Health Promotion , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Am Assoc Nurse Pract ; 2021 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological and psychological symptoms are increasingly realized in the post-acute phase of COVID-19. PURPOSE: To examine and characterize cognitive and related psychosocial symptoms in adults (21-75 years) who tested positive for or were treated as positive for COVID-19. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, data collection included a cognitive testing battery (Trails B; Digit Symbol; Stroop; Immediate and Delayed Verbal Learning) and surveys (demographic/clinical history; self-reported cognitive functioning depressive symptoms, fatigue, anxiety, sleep disturbance, social role performance, and stress). Results were compared with published norms, rates of deficits (more than 1 standard deviation (SD) from the norm) were described, and correlations were explored. RESULTS: We enrolled 52 participants (mean age 37.33 years; 78.85% female) who were, on average, 4 months post illness. The majority had a history of mild or moderate COVID-19 severity. Forty percent of participants demonstrated scores that were 1 SD or more below the population norm on one or more of the cognitive tests. A subset had greater anxiety (21.15%), depressive symptoms (23.07%), and sleep disturbance (19.23%) than population norms. Age differences were identified in Stroop, Digit Symbol, and Trails B scores by quartile (p < .01), with worse performance in those 28-33 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive dysfunction and psychological symptoms may be present in the weeks or months after COVID-19 diagnosis, even in those with mild to moderate illness severity. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Clinicians need to be aware and educate patients about the potential late/long-term cognitive and psychological effects of COVID-19, even in mild to moderate disease.

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