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1.
J Clin Invest ; 2022 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932902

ABSTRACT

Respiratory viruses such as influenza do not typically cause viremia; however, SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients with mild and severe symptoms. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in blood raises questions about its role in pathogenesis as well as transfusion safety concerns. Blood donor reports of symptoms or a diagnosis of COVID-19 after donation (post-donation information, PDI) preceded or coincided with increased general population COVID-19 mortality. Plasma samples from 2,250 blood donors who reported possible COVID-19 related PDI were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Detection of RNAemia peaked at 9-15% of PDI donors in late 2020 to early 2021 and fell to ~4% after implementation of widespread vaccination in the population. RNAemic donors were 1.2 to 1.4-fold more likely to report cough or shortness of breath and 1.8-fold more likely to report change in taste or smell compared to infected donors without detectable RNAemia. No infectious virus was detected in plasma from RNAemic donors; inoculation onto permissive cell lines showed <0.7-7 plaque forming units (PFU)/mL and into susceptible mice <100 PFU/mL in RNA positive plasma based on limits of detection in these models. These findings suggest that blood transfusions are highly unlikely to transmit SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 1317, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528032

ABSTRACT

As Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to spread, characterization of its antibody epitopes, emerging strains, related coronaviruses, and even the human proteome in naturally infected patients can guide the development of effective vaccines and therapies. Since traditional epitope identification tools are dependent upon pre-defined peptide sequences, they are not readily adaptable to diverse viral proteomes. The Serum Epitope Repertoire Analysis (SERA) platform leverages a high diversity random bacterial display library to identify proteome-independent epitope binding specificities which are then analyzed in the context of organisms of interest. When evaluating immune response in the context of SARS-CoV-2, we identify dominant epitope regions and motifs which demonstrate potential to classify mild from severe disease and relate to neutralization activity. We highlight SARS-CoV-2 epitopes that are cross-reactive with other coronaviruses and demonstrate decreased epitope signal for mutant SARS-CoV-2 strains. Collectively, the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 mutants towards reduced antibody response highlight the importance of data-driven development of the vaccines and therapies to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Epitope Mapping , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , Humans
3.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
4.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391515

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2374-2383, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Convalescent plasma (CP) is an important initial treatment in pandemics and the New York (NY) metropolitan area is likely to remain a hotspot for collection and distribution of such units. This study reports characteristics of coronavirus disease 19 CP (CCP) donors and their donations to the New York Blood Center (NYBC). STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All CCP data from our first day of collection on March 26th through July 7th, 2020 are included in this retrospective analysis. Donor and donation data were extracted from NYBC electronic databases. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing was initially performed by the NY State Department of Health, and later by NYBC using Ortho and Abbott platforms. RESULTS: CCP donor age and ABO distributions were consistent with reported lower COVID-19 susceptibility in O blood types. CCP versus whole blood donors had similar on-site deferrals, but higher post-donation deferral rates. CCP versus routine plasmapheresis donations had higher vasovagal reactions but similar product rejection rates. Changes in antibody (Ab) test platforms resulted in significant changes in the percent of donors regarded as antibody positive. Donor correlates with higher anti-spike total Ig S/CO ratios were Hispanic ethnicity, overweight body mass index, and longer symptom duration; and with higher anti-nucleocapsid IgG S/CO ratios were male gender, older age, Hispanic ethnicity, and fewer days between symptom onset and first donation. DISCUSSION: We identify donor characteristics not previously reported to correlate with Ab titer. Our analysis should assist with donor outreach strategies, blood center operating logistics, and recruitment of high titer donors.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , COVID-19/therapy , ABO Blood-Group System/blood , ABO Blood-Group System/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
6.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2384-2391, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 RNA prevalence in blood donors from large geographic areas of high community transmission is limited. We tested residual donor plasma minipools (MPs) to determine SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia prevalence in six United States areas. STUDY DESIGN/METHODS: Blood donations collected from 7 March 2020 to 25 September 2020 were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA (vRNA) in MP of 6 or 16 donations using the Grifols Procleix SARS-CoV-2 research-use only (RUO) transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) assay. Reactive results were confirmed using an alternate target region TMA assay. Reactive MPs were tested by TMA after serial dilution to estimate viral load. Testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and infectivity was performed. RESULTS: A total of 17,995 MPs corresponding to approximately 258,000 donations were tested for vRNA. Three confirmed reactive MP16 were identified. The estimated prevalence of vRNA reactive donations was 1.16/100,000 (95% CI 0.40, 3.42). The vRNA-reactive samples were non-reactive for antibody, and the estimated viral loads of the (presumed single) positive donations within each MP ranged from <1000 to <4000 copies/ml. When tested, no infectivity was observed in inoculated permissive cell cultures. DISCUSSION: Blood donation MP-nucleic acid testing (NAT) indicated that SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is infrequent and, when detected, the vRNA was at low concentrations. Only one RNA-reactive MP could be tested for infectivity for operational reasons and was not infectious in cell culture. These findings support current recommendations from international and national regulatory agencies to not screen donors by NAT.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Safety , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Humans , United States
9.
Transfusion ; 60(9): 1987-1997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-796294

ABSTRACT

Risk assessments of transfusion-transmitted emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are complicated by the fact that blood donors' demographics and behaviors can be different from the general population. Therefore, when assessing potential blood donor exposure to EIDs, the use of general population characteristics, such as U.S. travel statistics, may invoke uncertainties that result in inaccurate estimates of blood donor exposure. This may, in turn, lead to the creation of donor deferral policies that do not match actual risk. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This article reports on the development of a system to rapidly assess EID risks for a nationally representative portion of the U.S. blood donor population. To assess the effectiveness of this system, a test survey was developed and deployed to a statistically representative sample frame of blood donors from five blood collecting organizations. Donors were directed to an online survey to ascertain their recent travel and potential exposure to Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). RESULTS: A total of 7128 responses were received from 54 256 invitations. The age-adjusted estimated total number of blood donors potentially exposed to MERS-CoV was approximately 15 640 blood donors compared to a lower U.S. general population-based estimate of 9610 blood donors. CONCLUSION: The structured donor demographic sample-based data provided an assessment of blood donors' potential exposure to an emerging pathogen that was 63% larger than the U.S. population-based estimate. This illustrates the need for tailored blood donor-based EID risk assessments that provide more specific demographic risk intelligence and can inform appropriate regulatory decision making.


Subject(s)
Blood Donors , Blood Transfusion , Blood-Borne Infections/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Imported/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Environmental Exposure , Risk Assessment/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Travel-Related Illness , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Banks , Blood Donors/statistics & numerical data , Blood-Borne Infections/blood , Blood-Borne Infections/prevention & control , Blood-Borne Infections/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/blood , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Imported/blood , Communicable Diseases, Imported/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Imported/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Middle East , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Sample Size , Sampling Studies , Transfusion Reaction/prevention & control , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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