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1.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 11(7): e35168, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization World Mental Health International College Student (WMH-ICS) initiative aims to screen for mental health and substance use problems among postsecondary students on a global scale as well as to develop and evaluate evidence-based preventive and ameliorative interventions for this population. This protocol paper presents the Canadian version of the WMH-ICS survey, detailing the adapted survey instrument, the unique weekly cross-sectional administration, the multitiered recruitment strategy, and the associated risk mitigation protocols. OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a methodological resource for researchers conducting cross-national comparisons of WMH-ICS data, as well as to serve as a useful guide for those interested in replicating the outlined cross-sectional methodology to better understand how mental health and substance use vary over time among university students. METHODS: The online survey is based on the WMH-ICS survey instrument, modified to the Canadian context by the addition of questions pertaining to Canadian-based guidelines and the translation of the survey to Canadian French. The survey is administered through the Qualtrics survey platform and is sent to an independent stratified random sample of 350 students per site weekly, followed by two reminder emails. Upon survey closure every week, a random subsample of 70 nonresponders are followed up with via phone or through a personal email in an effort to decrease nonresponder bias. The survey is accompanied by an extensive risk mitigation protocol that stratifies respondents by the level of need and provides tailored service recommendations, including a facilitated expedited appointment to student counseling services for those at increased risk of suicide. The anticipated sample size is approximately 5500 students per site per year. RESULTS: In February 2020, the Canadian survey was deployed at the University of British Columbia. This was followed by deployment at Simon Fraser University (November 2020), McMaster University (January 2021), and the University of Toronto (January 2022). Data collection at all 4 sites is ongoing. As of May 6, 2022, 29,503 responses have been collected. CONCLUSIONS: Based on international collaboration, the Canadian version of the WMH-ICS survey incorporates a novel methodological approach centered on the weekly administration of a comprehensive cross-sectional survey to independent stratified random samples of university students. After 27 months of consecutive survey administration, we have developed and refined a survey protocol that has proven effective in engaging students at four Canadian institutions, allowing us to track how mental health and substance use vary over time using an internationally developed university student survey based on the criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition). INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR1-10.2196/35168.

2.
Trials ; 23(1): 450, 2022 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1881291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are highly prevalent among university students and predict impaired college performance and later life role functioning. Yet most students do not receive treatment, especially in low-middle-income countries (LMICs). We aim to evaluate the effects of expanding treatment using scalable and inexpensive Internet-delivered transdiagnostic cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) among college students with symptoms of MDD and/or GAD in two LMICs in Latin America (Colombia and Mexico) and to investigate the feasibility of creating a precision treatment rule (PTR) to predict for whom iCBT is most effective. METHODS: We will first carry out a multi-site randomized pragmatic clinical trial (N = 1500) of students seeking treatment at student mental health clinics in participating universities or responding to an email offering services. Students on wait lists for clinic services will be randomized to unguided iCBT (33%), guided iCBT (33%), and treatment as usual (TAU) (33%). iCBT will be provided immediately whereas TAU will be whenever a clinic appointment is available. Short-term aggregate effects will be assessed at 90 days and longer-term effects 12 months after randomization. We will use ensemble machine learning to predict heterogeneity of treatment effects of unguided versus guided iCBT versus TAU and develop a precision treatment rule (PTR) to optimize individual student outcome. We will then conduct a second and third trial with separate samples (n = 500 per arm), but with unequal allocation across two arms: 25% will be assigned to the treatment determined to yield optimal outcomes based on the PTR developed in the first trial (PTR for optimal short-term outcomes for Trial 2 and 12-month outcomes for Trial 3), whereas the remaining 75% will be assigned with equal allocation across all three treatment arms. DISCUSSION: By collecting comprehensive baseline characteristics to evaluate heterogeneity of treatment effects, we will provide valuable and innovative information to optimize treatment effects and guide university mental health treatment planning. Such an effort could have enormous public-health implications for the region by increasing the reach of treatment, decreasing unmet need and clinic wait times, and serving as a model of evidence-based intervention planning and implementation. TRIAL STATUS: IRB Approval of Protocol Version 1.0; June 3, 2020. Recruitment began on March 1, 2021. Recruitment is tentatively scheduled to be completed on May 30, 2024. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04780542 . First submission date: February 28, 2021.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Depressive Disorder, Major , Anxiety/therapy , Anxiety Disorders/therapy , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy/methods , Depression/therapy , Humans , Internet , Latin America , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Students/psychology , Treatment Outcome , Universities
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(6): e2217223, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1888479

ABSTRACT

Importance: Claims of dramatic increases in clinically significant anxiety and depression early in the COVID-19 pandemic came from online surveys with extremely low or unreported response rates. Objective: To examine trend data in a calibrated screening for clinically significant anxiety and depression among adults in the only US government benchmark probability trend survey not disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a monthly state-based trend survey conducted over the telephone. Participants were adult respondents in the 50 US states and District of Columbia who were surveyed March to December 2020 compared with the same months in 2017 to 2019. Exposures: Monthly state COVID-19 death rates. Main Outcomes and Measures: Estimated 30-day prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and depression based on responses to a single BRFSS item calibrated to a score of 6 or greater on the 4-item Patient Health Questionnaire (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84). All percentages are weighted based on BRFSS calibration weights. Results: Overall, there were 1 429 354 respondents, with 1 093 663 in 2017 to 2019 (600 416 [51.1%] women; 87 153 [11.8%] non-Hispanic Black; 826 334 [61.5%] non-Hispanic White; 411 254 [27.8%] with college education; and 543 619 [56.8] employed) and 335 691 in 2020 (182 351 [51.3%] women; 25 517 [11.7%] non-Hispanic Black; 250 333 [60.5%] non-Hispanic White; 130 642 [29.3%] with college education; and 168 921 [54.9%] employed). Median within-state response rates were 45.9% to 49.4% in 2017 to 2019 and 47.9% in 2020. Estimated 30-day prevalence of clinically significant anxiety and depression was 0.4 (95% CI, 0.0 to 0.7) percentage points higher in March to December 2020 (12.4%) than March to December 2017 to 2019 (12.1%). This estimated increase was limited, however, to students (2.4 [95% CI, 0.8 to 3.9] percentage points) and the employed (0.9 [95% CI, 0.5 to 1.4] percentage points). Estimated prevalence decreased among the short-term unemployed (-1.8 [95% CI, -3.1 to -0.5] percentage points) and those unable to work (-4.2 [95% CI, -5.3 to -3.2] percentage points), but did not change significantly among the long-term unemployed (-2.1 [95% CI, -4.5 to 0.5] percentage points), homemakers (0.8 [95% CI, -0.3 to 1.9] percentage points), or the retired (0.1 [95% CI, -0.6 to 0.8] percentage points). The increase in anxiety and depression prevalence among employed people was positively associated with the state-month COVID-19 death rate (1.8 [95% CI, 1.2 to 2.5] percentage points when high and 0.0 [95% CI, -0.7 to 0.6] percentage points when low) and was elevated among women compared with men (2.0 [95% CI, 1.4 to 2.5] percentage points vs 0.2 [95% CI, -0.1 to 0.6] percentage points), Non-Hispanic White individuals compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black individuals (1.3 [95% CI, 0.6 to 1.9] percentage points vs 1.1 [95% CI, -0.2 to 2.5] percentage points and 0.7 [95% CI, -0.1 to 1.5] percentage points), and those with college educations compared with less than high school educations (2.5 [95% CI, 1.9 to 3.1] percentage points vs -0.6 [95% CI, -2.7 to 1.4] percentage points). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, clinically significant US adult anxiety and depression increased less during 2020 than suggested by online surveys. However, this modest aggregate increase could mask more substantial increases in key population segments (eg, first responders) and might have become larger in 2021 and 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
4.
Psychiatr Clin North Am ; 45(1): 1-28, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712928

ABSTRACT

The authors review trend and cohort surveys and administrative data comparing prevalence of mental disorders during, versus, and before the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in mental health disparities. Best evidence suggests clinically significant anxiety-depression point prevalence increased by relative-risk (RR) = 1.3 to 1.5 during the pandemic compared with before. This level of increase is much less than the implausibly high RR = 5.0 to 8.0 estimates reported in trend studies early in the pandemic based on less-appropriate comparisons. Changes in prevalence also occurred during the pandemic, but relative prevalence appears not to have changed substantially over this time.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Disorders , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(10): 68, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450002

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present biological and psychological factors implicated in psychiatric manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its neuroinvasive capability and immune pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Preexisting mental illness leads to worse clinical outcomes in COVID-19. The presence of the virus was reported in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue post-mortem. Most common psychiatric manifestations include delirium, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. "Long-COVID" non-syndromal presentations include "brain-fogginess," autonomic instability, fatigue, and insomnia. SARS-CoV-2 infection can trigger prior vulnerabilities based on the priming of microglia and other cells, induced or perpetuated by aging and mental and physical illnesses. COVID-19 could further induce priming of neuroimmunological substrates leading to exacerbated immune response and autoimmunity targeting structures in the central nervous system (CNS), in response to minor immune activating environmental exposures, including stress, minor infections, allergens, pollutants, and traumatic brain injury.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Brain , Central Nervous System , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 30(3): e1885, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293275

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A small country in the Arabian Peninsula, Qatar experienced rapid economic growth in the last 3 decades accompanied by major socio-demographic shifts towards a younger and more highly educated population. To date, no national epidemiological study has examined the prevalence, associated factors, or sequelae of mental disorders in Qatar's general population. METHODS: The World Mental Health Qatar (WMHQ) is a national mental health needs assessment survey and is the first carried out in collaboration with the World Mental Health Survey initiative to assess the prevalence and burden of psychiatric illnesses among the full Arabic speaking population (nationals and non-nationals) within the same country. RESULTS: Standard translation and harmonization procedures were used to develop the WMHQ instrument. A survey quality control system with standard performance indicators was developed to ensure interviewer adherence to standard practices. A pilot study was then carried out just prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Endorsement from public health authorities and sequential revision of the interview schedule led to full survey completion (as opposed to partial completion) and good overall response rate. CONCLUSIONS: The WMHQ survey will provide timely and actionable information based on quality enhancement procedures put in place during the development and piloting of the study.


Subject(s)
Health Surveys/methods , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Developing Countries/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Qatar/epidemiology , Risk Factors
7.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) ; 14(2): 90-105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270632

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain. METHODS: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders. RESULTS: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95). CONCLUSIONS: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Mental Health , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Prevalence , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 329-336, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253249

ABSTRACT

We examined the manifestation of major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and panic attacks among health care professionals during the first COVID-19 wave (n = 6409) by means of mental disorder screening instruments. Logistic regressions were used to gauge individual risk factors; population attributable risk proportions (PARP) were inferred to identify the most important risk factors at the societal level. Data were weighted to represent general profiles of Belgian health care professionals. Lifetime, pre-pandemic emotional problems and work-related factors during the first wave of COVID-19 were strongly associated (mean adjusted odds ratios of 3.79 and 1.47, respectively) with positive screens for current mental disorders (occurrence of 29.3%). Most prominently, the data suggest that disruptions of work-life balance account for more than a quarter of the observed mental health problems due to the combination of widespread occurrence and strong association.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Depressive Disorder, Major , Mental Disorders , Belgium/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 4: 100071, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104123

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Self-report data on mental distress indicate a deterioration of population mental health in many countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. A Norwegian epidemiological diagnostic psychiatric interview survey was conducted from January to September 2020, allowing for comparison of mental disorder and suicidal ideation prevalence from before through different pandemic periods. Prevalence of suicide deaths were compared between 2020 and 2014-2018. METHODS: Participants from the Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT) in Trondheim were recruited through repeated probability sampling. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 5.0) (n = 2154), current prevalence of mental disorders and suicidal ideation was examined in repeated cross-sectional analyzes. Data on suicide deaths was retrieved from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry and compared for the months March to May in 2014-2018 and 2020. FINDINGS: Prevalence of current mental disorders decreased significantly from the pre-pandemic period (January 28th to March 11th 2020; 15•3% (95% CI 12•4-18•8)) to the first pandemic period (March 12th - May 31st; 8•7% (6•8-11•0)). Prevalences were similar between the pre-pandemic period and the interim (June 1st July 31st; 14•2% (11•4-17•5)) and second periods (August 1st-September 18th; 11•9% (9•0-15•6)). No significant differences were observed in suicidal ideation or in suicide deaths. INTERPRETATION: Except for a decrease in mental disorders in the first pandemic period, the findings suggest stable levels of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide deaths during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-pandemic levels. Potential methodological and contextual explanations of these findings compared with findings from other studies are discussed. FUNDING: None.

11.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 66-70, 2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019193

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevalence estimates of suicidal thoughts and behaviours (STB) among clinically active healthcare professionals during the first wave of COVID19 pandemic are non-existing. The main aim of this study was to investigate the 30-day prevalence of STB and associated risk factors. METHODS: As part of the Recovering Emotionally from COVID study (RECOVID), 30-day STB among healthcare professionals (N = 6,409) was assessed in an e-survey in healthcare settings in Belgium. The prevalence of STB and associated risk factors were estimated in multivariable models with individual-level and society-level measures of association. We used post-stratification weights to make the data representative for the entire clinical workforce in Belgium. RESULTS: Prevalence was 3.6% death wish, 1.5% suicide ideation, 1.0% suicide plan, and 0.0% suicide attempt. Thirty-day STB was (a) increased among respondents with lifetime and current mental disorders (mostly depression) and those hospitalized for COVID19 infection, (b) decreased among respondents with social support, and (c) unrelated to work environment. LIMITATIONS: This is an explorative cross-sectional study using multivariate models that generates specific hypotheses on the prevalence of and risk factors for STB during the COVID19 pandemic rather than testing specific pathways that lead to STB onset. CONCLUSIONS: Across age, gender, professional discipline, and exposure to COVID, lifetime and current mental disorders were highly associated with STB. These factors could guide governments and healthcare organizations in taking up responsibilities in preventing emotional problems and developing resilience among healthcare professionals during, but probably beyond, the current COVID19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Belgium , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Suicidal Ideation
12.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(5): 528-544, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006391

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are a key occupational group at risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors (STB). We investigated the prevalence and correlates of STB among hospital workers during the first wave of the Spain COVID-19 outbreak (March-July 2020). METHODS: Data come from the baseline assessment of a cohort of Spanish hospital workers (n = 5450), recruited from 10 hospitals just after the height of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak (May 5-July 23, 2020). Web-based self-report surveys assessed 30-day STB, individual characteristics, and potentially modifiable contextual factors related to hospital workers' work and financial situation. RESULTS: Thirty-day STB prevalence was estimated at 8.4% (4.9% passive ideation only, 3.5% active ideation with or without a plan or attempt). A total of n = 6 professionals attempted suicide in the past 30 days. In adjusted models, 30-day STB remained significantly associated with pre-pandemic lifetime mood (odds ratio [OR] = 2.92) and anxiety disorder (OR = 1.90). Significant modifiable factors included a perceived lack of coordination, communication, personnel, or supervision at work (population-attributable risk proportion [PARP] = 50.5%), and financial stress (PARP = 44.1%). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Thirty-day STB among hospital workers during the first wave of the Spain COVID-19 outbreak was high. Hospital preparedness for virus outbreaks should be increased, and strong governmental policy response is needed to increase financial security among hospital workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidal Ideation , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Students , Suicide, Attempted
13.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment (Engl Ed) ; 14(2): 90-105, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965207

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers are vulnerable to adverse mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. We assessed prevalence of mental disorders and associated factors during the first wave of the pandemic among healthcare professionals in Spain. METHODS: All workers in 18 healthcare institutions (6 AACC) in Spain were invited to web-based surveys assessing individual characteristics, COVID-19 infection status and exposure, and mental health status (May 5 - September 7, 2020). We report: probable current mental disorders (Major Depressive Disorder-MDD- [PHQ-8≥10], Generalized Anxiety Disorder-GAD- [GAD-7≥10], Panic attacks, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder -PTSD- [PCL-5≥7]; and Substance Use Disorder -SUD-[CAGE-AID≥2]. Severe disability assessed by the Sheehan Disability Scale was used to identify probable "disabling" current mental disorders. RESULTS: 9,138 healthcare workers participated. Prevalence of screen-positive disorder: 28.1% MDD; 22.5% GAD, 24.0% Panic; 22.2% PTSD; and 6.2% SUD. Overall 45.7% presented any current and 14.5% any disabling current mental disorder. Workers with pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders had almost twice the prevalence than those without. Adjusting for all other variables, odds of any disabling mental disorder were: prior lifetime disorders (TUS: OR=5.74; 95%CI 2.53-13.03; Mood: OR=3.23; 95%CI:2.27-4.60; Anxiety: OR=3.03; 95%CI:2.53-3.62); age category 18-29 years (OR=1.36; 95%CI:1.02-1.82), caring "all of the time" for COVID-19 patients (OR=5.19; 95%CI: 3.61-7.46), female gender (OR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.27-1.96) and having being in quarantine or isolated (OR= 1.60; 95CI:1.31-1.95). CONCLUSIONS: One in seven Spanish healthcare workers screened positive for a disabling mental disorder during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Workers reporting pre-pandemic lifetime mental disorders, those frequently exposed to COVID-19 patients, infected or quarantined/isolated, female workers, and auxiliary nurses should be considered groups in need of mental health monitoring and support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Prevalence , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
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