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1.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 5(2): 100796, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129787

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: For some vaccine-preventable diseases, the immunologic response to vaccination is altered by a pregnant state. The effect of pregnancy on SARS-CoV-2 vaccine response remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize the peak and longitudinal anti-S immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin A responses to messenger RNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnant persons and compare them with those in nonpregnant, reproductive-aged persons. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted 2 parallel prospective cohort studies among pregnant and nonpregnant persons who received SARS-CoV-2 messenger RNA vaccinations. Blood was collected at the time of first and second vaccine doses, 2 weeks post second dosage, and with serial longitudinal follow-up up to 41.7 weeks post vaccination initiation. Anti-S immunoglobulin M, immunoglobulin G, and immunoglobulin A were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We excluded those with previous evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection by history or presence of antinucleocapsid antibodies. In addition, for this study, we did not include individuals who received a third or booster vaccine dosage during the study period. We also excluded pregnant persons who were not fully vaccinated (14 days post receipt of the second vaccine dosage) by time of delivery and nonpregnant persons who became pregnant through the course of the study. We studied the effect of gestational age at vaccination on the anti-S response using Spearman correlation. We compared the peak anti-S antibody responses between pregnant and nonpregnant persons using a Mann-Whitney U test. We visualized and studied the longitudinal anti-S antibody response using locally weighted scatterplot smoothing, Mann-Whitney U test, and mixed analysis of variance test. RESULTS: Data from 53 pregnant and 21 nonpregnant persons were included in this analysis. The median (interquartile range) age of the pregnant and nonpregnant participants was 35.0 (33.3-37.8) years and 36.0 (33.0-41.0) years, respectively. Six (11.3%) participants initiated vaccination in the first trimester, 23 (43.3%) in the second trimester, and 24 (45.3%) in the third trimester, with a median gestational age at delivery of 39.6 (39.0-40.0) weeks. The median (interquartile range) follow-up time from vaccine initiation to the last blood sample collected was 25.9 (11.9) weeks and 28.9 (12.9) weeks in the pregnant and nonpregnant cohort, respectively. Among pregnant persons, anti-S immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M responses were not associated with gestational age at vaccine initiation (all P>.05). The anti-S immunoglobulin G response at 2 weeks post second dosage was not statistically different between pregnant and nonpregnant persons (P>.05). However, the anti-S immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A responses at 2 weeks post second dosage were significantly higher in nonpregnant persons (P<.001 for both). The anti-S immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M levels 6 to 8 months after vaccine initiation fell to comparable proportions of the peak 2 weeks post second dosage antibody levels between pregnant and nonpregnant persons (immunoglobulin G P=.77; immunoglobulin M P=.51). In contrast, immunoglobulin A levels 6 to 8 months after vaccine initiation fell to statistically significantly higher proportions of peak 2 weeks post second dosage antibody levels in pregnant compared with nonpregnant persons (P=.002). Maternal anti-S immunoglobulin G levels were strongly correlated with umbilical cord anti-S immunoglobulin G levels (R=0.8, P<.001). CONCLUSION: The anti-S immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, and immunoglobulin G response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in pregnancy is independent of gestational age of vaccine initiation. Maintenance of the immunoglobulin G response is comparable between pregnant and nonpregnant persons. The differential peak response of immunoglobulin M and immunoglobulin A and the differential decline of anti-S immunoglobulin A between pregnant and nonpregnant persons requires further investigation.

3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(9): 2454-2458, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435936

ABSTRACT

Not all persons recovering from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection develop SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We show that nonseroconversion is associated with younger age and higher reverse transcription PCR cycle threshold values and identify SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in the nasopharynx as a major correlate of the systemic antibody response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Humans , Nasopharynx , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion
4.
Pathog Immun ; 6(1): 116-134, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389907

ABSTRACT

The approved Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines are well known to induce serum antibody responses to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S)-protein. However, their abilities to elicit mucosal immune responses have not been reported. Saliva antibodies represent mucosal responses that may be relevant to how mRNA vaccines prevent oral and nasal SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Here, we describe the outcome of a cross-sectional study on a healthcare worker cohort (WELCOME-NYPH), in which we assessed whether IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies to the S-protein and its receptor-binding domain (RBD) were present in serum and saliva samples. Anti-S-protein IgG was detected in 14/31 and 66/66 of saliva samples from uninfected participants after vaccine doses-1 and -2, respectively. IgA antibodies to the S-protein were present in 40/66 saliva samples after dose 2. Anti-S-protein IgG was present in every serum sample from recipients of 2 vaccine doses. Vaccine-induced antibodies against the RBD were also frequently present in saliva and sera. These findings may help our understanding of whether and how vaccines may impede SARS-CoV-2 transmission, including to oral cavity target cells.

6.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2025-e2034, 2021 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199961

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Comorbidities making up metabolic syndrome (MetS), such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular disease can lead to increased risk of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with a higher morbidity and mortality. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are higher in severely or critically ill COVID-19 patients, but studies have not focused on levels in convalescent patients with MetS, which this study aimed to assess. METHODS: This retrospective study focused on adult convalescent outpatients with SARS-CoV-2 positive serology during the COVID-19 pandemic at NewYork Presbyterian/Weill Cornell. Data collected for descriptive and correlative analysis included SARS-COV-2 immunoglobin G (IgG) levels and history of MetS comorbidities from April 17, 2020 to May 20, 2020. Additional data, including SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels, body mass index (BMI), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and lipid levels were collected and analyzed for a second cohort from May 21, 2020 to June 21, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were measured in a subset of the study cohort. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in convalescent individuals with MetS comorbidities. When adjusted for age, sex, race, and time duration from symptom onset to testing, increased SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels remained significantly associated with obesity (P < 0.0001). SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c ≥6.5% compared to those with HbA1c <5.7% (P = 0.0197) and remained significant on multivariable analysis (P = 0.0104). A positive correlation was noted between BMI and antibody levels [95% confidence interval: 0.37 (0.20-0.52) P < 0.0001]. Neutralizing antibody titers were higher in COVID-19 individuals with BMI ≥ 30 (P = 0.0055). CONCLUSION: Postconvalescent SARS-CoV-2 IgG and neutralizing antibodies are elevated in obese patients, and a positive correlation exists between BMI and antibody levels.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Metabolic Syndrome/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/blood , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/virology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Metabolic Syndrome/blood , Metabolic Syndrome/virology , Middle Aged , Obesity/blood , Obesity/immunology , Obesity/virology , Retrospective Studies
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 178: 113008, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039297

ABSTRACT

The association of mortality with the early humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 infection within the first few days after onset of symptoms (DAOS) has not been thoroughly investigated partly due to a lack of sufficiently sensitive antibody testing methods. Here we report two sensitive and automated testing-on-a-probe (TOP) biosensor assays for SARS-CoV-2 viral specific total antibodies (TAb) and surrogate neutralizing antibodies (SNAb), which are suitable for clinical use. The TOP assays employ an RBD-coated quartz probe using a Cy5-Streptavidin-polysacharide conjugate to improve sensitivity and minimize interference. Disposable cartridges containing pre-dispensed reagents require no liquid manipulation or fluidics during testing. The TOP-TAb assay exhibited higher sensitivity in the 0-7 DAOS window than a widely used FDA-EUA assay. The rapid and automated TOP-SNAb correlated well with two well-established SARS-CoV-2 virus neutralization tests. The clinical utility of the TOP assays was demonstrated by evaluating early antibody responses in 120 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive adult hospitalized patients. Higher TAb and SNAb positivity rates and more robust antibody responses at patient's initial hospital presentation were seen in inpatients who survived COVID-19 than those who died in the hospital. Survival analysis using the Cox Proportional Hazards Model showed that patients who had negative TAb and/or SNAb at initial hospital presentation were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality. Furthermore, TAb and SNAb levels at presentation were inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 viral load based on concurrent RT-PCR testing. Overall, the sensitive and automated TAb and SNAb assays allow the detection of early SARS-CoV-2 antibodies which associate with mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 Serological Testing/instrumentation , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Biosensing Techniques/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Equipment Design , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests/statistics & numerical data , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
8.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(1): 100164, 2021 01 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957488

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma (CP) is widely used to treat COVID-19, but without formal evidence of efficacy. Here, we report the beneficial effects of CP in a severely ill COVID-19 patient with prolonged pneumonia and advanced chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), who was unable to generate an antiviral antibody response of her own. On day 33 after becoming symptomatic, the patient received CP containing high-titer (ID50 > 5,000) neutralizing antibodies (NAbs), defervesced, and improved clinically within 48 h and was discharged on day 37. Hence, when present in sufficient quantities, NAbs to SARS-CoV-2 have clinical benefit even if administered relatively late in the disease course. However, analysis of additional CP units revealed widely varying NAb titers, with many recipients exhibiting endogenous NAb responses far exceeding those of the administered units. To obtain the full therapeutic benefits of CP immunotherapy, it will thus be important to determine the neutralizing activity in both CP units and transfusion candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/administration & dosage , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunocompromised Host , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/complications , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/pathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
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