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1.
Interact J Med Res ; 11(2): e38935, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic have led to unprecedented global research activity. The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) continues to contribute to COVID-19 research driven by the unique challenges of the region, including the protracted conflicts, already stressed health systems, and serious health and social inequalities. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide an overview of the publication activities and trends in COVID-19 research in the EMR from the onset of the disease to early 2022 using bibliometric methods. METHODS: A literature search using Scopus was conducted from December 1, 2019, to January 31, 2022, using keywords relevant to COVID-19 and the World Health Organization (WHO) EMR country list. Data were exported and analyzed using Microsoft Excel and the Citation Overview function on Scopus. The quality of journals was determined using SCImago Journal Rank and CiteScore. VOSviewer software was used to visualize the relationships between authors, countries, and key terms used in the retrieved documents. RESULTS: A total of 6880 documents were retrieved, of which 1805 (26.24%) were from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and 1782 (25.90%) from Iran, followed by Pakistan, Egypt, and Jordan. Most published documents were affiliated with EMR universities, primarily the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran and King Saud University in KSA (396/6880, 5.76%, and 370/6880, 5.4%, respectively), while only 407 (5.92%) of 6880 documents were associated with universities outside the EMR. For most of the identified publications (5020/6880, 72.97%), no funding source was reported, while King Saud University contributed the largest share (282/1860, 15.16%) of funded publications. Retrieved documents were cited 53,516 times, with an average of 7.78 (SD 34.30). Iran was the EMR country with the most links to other countries (77 links and total link strength of 1279). The 5 authors with the most publications were from KSA, Qatar, and Jordan. There were 290 high-frequency keywords that occurred ≥10 times and were linked in 7 different clusters. The cluster with the most linked keywords was related to epidemiology and mortality. Recent topics included vaccines, vaccination, machine learning, and online learning. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show trends in and project future developments of COVID-19 research activity in the EMR. Authors and institutions who led research on COVID-19 in the region were from Iran and KSA. There were multiple regional collaborative efforts; however, international collaboration was limited. Recently, interest has been shifting toward topics related to vaccination, machine learning, and online learning. Understanding the current state of research is instrumental to future research production, and our study will inform regional research initiatives on emerging concepts, as well as opportunities for collaboration and funding.

2.
Inform Med Unlocked ; 31: 101000, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907209

ABSTRACT

Aim: To evaluate parents' attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccination for their children and determine predictors of parents' attitudes towards their children receiving the Vaccine against COVID-19. Method: This study used a cross-sectional design. The subjects were Jordanian parents with a child less than 18 years old. The survey was made available on different social media platforms and other networks such as community organizations, academic posts, and private groups. Results: There was a difference in the attitude of parents toward COVID-19 vaccination for their children according to their demographic and personal characteristics (p = .05). Attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for their own children was more likely to be significant and impacted by gender, nationality, job status, level of income and if their child had previously received influenza vaccine. Conclusion: This is a large national study regarding the attitude of parents toward vaccination against COVID-19 for their own children in Jordan. This study found that more than fifty percent of the parents were hesitant to allow their children to receive COVID-19 vaccination.

3.
Work ; 72(3): 797-805, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted the importance of knowledge and awareness of healthcare practitioners regarding infection control. OBJECTIVE: To explore Jordanian physiotherapists' knowledge and perception of COVID-19, awareness about protection measures, and attitude towards infection prevention. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was used. Data were collected from licensed physiotherapists currently living in Jordan. A structured survey was used to collect the data consisting of five parts: 1) General information about the physiotherapists including sociodemographic, academic training, and employment setting, 2) General knowledge about COVID-19, 3) Infection protection in the workplace, 4) Perception of COVID-19, and 5) Attitude towards COVID-19 in daily life and during work. RESULTS: A total of 147 physiotherapists completed the survey with a mean age of 30.56 (7.70) and years of experience of 7.28 (7.21). The mean of the total knowledge score was 17.18 (2.32)/ 26. There was a significant difference in the total knowledge score between COVID-19 trained physiotherapists and untrained (t = 2.895, p = 0.004). About 70.8% of the physiotherapists perceived COVID-19 as a very dangerous disease, 69.4% considered physiotherapy a high-risk profession, and 41% perceived COVID-19 does not require any special treatment. Approximately 85% of physiotherapists avoided going to crowded places and wore a mask when leaving home. 75-86.6% of physiotherapists would consider appropriate protective measures during their work. CONCLUSIONS: Physiotherapists showed suboptimal knowledge, perception, and attitude towards COVID-19. There is a need for training courses to increase physiotherapists' knowledge about COVID-19 and improve their perception and attitude towards COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Jordan , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Physical Therapists/education , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 15: 571-582, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855214

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To identify areas that need improvement in Jordanian health centers regarding infection prevention and control (IPC) programs; water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services; and other protective measures, especially in the context of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Methods: This is a national assessment study that comprised hospitals of different sectors in Jordan, including, Ministry of Health (MoH), private, and military hospitals. The study included 23 Jordanian hospitals. Assessment tools were developed and adapted mainly from the WASH Facility Improvement Tool (WASH FIT) and other tools. Hospitals were assessed to meet targets based on whether indicators were fully met, partially met, or not met. Results: The mean percentage of the 150 indicators that met the standards was 83.2% (72.6% for MoH, 84.5% for private, and 90.4% for military hospitals). The percentage of indicators, both WASH/IPC and training and education indicators, that met the targets were higher in military hospitals than in MoH and private hospitals. However, in context of COVID-19, only 64.7% of indicators related to precautionary measures were met by all hospitals. Conclusion: The data available on WASH/IPC in Jordan are scarce, and the study findings will help in preventing severe consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. There is scope for improvement in many WASH/IPC aspects, and urgent actions should be taken, especially to fill the gaps in COVID-19 precautionary measures.

5.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 893, 2022 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833299

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public acceptance of governmental measures are key to controlling the spread of infectious diseases. The COVID-19 pandemic has placed a significant burden on healthcare systems for high-income countries as well as low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The ability of LMICs to respond to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic has been limited and may have affected the impact of governmental strategies to control the spread of COVID-19. This study aimed to evaluate and compare public opinion on the governmental COVID-19 response of high and LMICs in the Middle East and benchmark it to international countries. METHODS: An online, self-administered questionnaire was distributed among different Middle Eastern Arab countries. Participants' demographics and level of satisfaction with governmental responses to COVID-19 were analyzed and reported. Scores were benchmarked against 19 international values. RESULTS: A total of 7395 responses were included. Bahrain scored highest for satisfaction with the governmental response with 38.29 ± 2.93 on a scale of 40, followed by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (37.13 ± 3.27), United Arab Emirates (36.56 ± 3.44), Kuwait (35.74 ± 4.85), Jordan (23.08 ± 6.41), and Lebanon (15.39 ± 5.28). Participants' country of residence was a significant predictor of the satisfaction score (P < 0.001), and participants who suffered income reduction due to the pandemic, had a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and held higher educational degrees had significantly lower satisfaction scores (P < 0.001). When benchmarked with other international publics, countries from the Gulf Cooperation Council had the highest satisfaction level, Jordan had an average score, and Lebanon had one of the lowest satisfaction scores. CONCLUSION: The political crisis in Lebanon merged with the existing corruption were associated with the lowest public satisfaction score whereas the economical instability of Jordan placed the country just before the lowest position. On the other hand, the solid economy plus good planning and public trust in the government placed the other countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council on top of the scale. Further investigation is necessary to find out how the governments of other low-income countries may have handled the situation wisely and gained the trust of their publics. This may help convey a clearer picture to Arab governments that have suffered during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Arabs , COVID-19/epidemiology , Government , Humans , Lebanon/epidemiology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Fam Relat ; 71(3): 865-875, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819896

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim was to assess the reported family relationships during the COVID-19 pandemic and the association between these relationships and individual, interpersonal, and country-level income in eight Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. Background: COVID-19 causes fear of infection, loss of loved ones, and economic problems that may affect family relationships. Methods: Data were collected from eight MENA countries using an online survey (July-August 2020). The dependent variable was change in family relationship during COVID-19, and the independent variables were individual, interpersonal, and country-level factors represented by sociodemographic factors, COVID-19 status, financial impact (whether participants lost or had reduced wages) and country income. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: There were 1854 responses, mean (SD) age of 30.6 (9.9) years, 65.8% were female, 3.4% tested COVID-19 positive, and 20.8% reported lost/reduced wages. Family relationships were more likely to improve or remain unchanged (84.3%) for participants who had a history of COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [1.25, 10.01]). However, family relationships were more likely to not improve for those who knew someone who died of COVID-19 (AOR = 0.76, 95% CI [0.58, 0.99]) and those with lost/reduced wages (AOR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.52, 0.94]). Conclusion: Family relationship improved or remained unchanged for those who tested positive for COVID-19 and did not improve for those who lost wages or lost someone due to COVID-19. Implications: Policy makers should develop strategies to provide social and financial support to employees to reduce the losses and adverse social impact caused by the pandemic.

7.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320304

ABSTRACT

Background: Chest CT scan and chest x-rays show characteristic radiographic findings in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. The study aims at describing the chest x-ray findings and temporal radiographic changes in COVID-19 patients. Methods: : From March 15 to April 20, 2020 patients with positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for COVID-19 were retrospectively studied. Patients’ demographics, clinical characteristics, and chest x-ray findings were reported. Radiographic findings were correlated with the course of the illness and patients’ symptoms. Results: : A total of 88 patients (50 (56.8%) females and 38 (43.2%) males) were admitted to the hospital with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Their age ranged from 3-80 years (35.2 ±18.2 years). 48/88 (45%) were symptomatic, only 13/88 (45.5%) showed abnormal chest x-ray findings. A total of 190 chest x-rays were obtained for the 88 patients with a total of 59/190 (31%) abnormal chest x-rays. The most common finding on chest x-rays was peripheral ground glass opacities (GGO) affecting the lower lobes. In the course of illness, the GGO progressed into consolidations peaking around 6-11 days (GGO 70%, consolidations 30%). The consolidations regressed into GGO towards the later phase of the illness at 12-17 days (GGO 80%, consolidations 10%). There was increase in the frequency of normal chest x-rays from 9% at days 6- 11 up to 33% after 18 days indicating a healing phase. The majority (12/13, 92.3%) of patients with abnormal chest x-rays were symptomatic (P=0.005). Conclusion: The chest x-ray findings were similar to those reported on chest CT scan in patients with COVID-19, Chest x-ray can be used in diagnosis and follow up in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314009

ABSTRACT

Background: Jordan Stillbirths and Neonatal Deaths Surveillance system (JSANDS) is a newly developed system and is currently implemented in five large hospitals in Jordan. This study aimed at exploring the healthcare professionals’ perception about the usability of JSANDS. Methods: : A descriptive qualitative approach, using focus group discussions, was adopted. A total of 5 focus groups including 23 focal points were conducted in five participating hospitals in Jordan. Results: : Data analysis identified nine main issues related to the JSANDS system: the system usefulness, the system performance, data quality, the system limitations, human rights, female empowerment, nurses’ competencies strengthened, the sustainability of the JSANDS, and COVID-19 impact on the system. Users reported that JSANDS data were useful, the system was simple and easy to use, and the data were accurate and complete. However, some users reported that some technical issues need to be enhanced. Conclusions: : JSANDS was perceived positively by the current users. According to them, it provides a formative and comprehensive data on stillbirths and neonatal deaths and their causes, and therefore, was recommended to be adopted by its users and scaled up.

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305521

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a global pandemic affecting all aspects of life in all countries. We assessed COVID-19 knowledge and associated factors among dental academics in 26 countries. Methods: : We invited dental academics to participate in a cross-sectional, multi-country, online survey from March to April 2020. The survey collected data on knowledge of COVID-19 regarding the mode of transmission, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, protection, and dental treatment precautions as well as participants’ background variables. Multilevel linear models were used to assess the association between dental academics’ knowledge of COVID-19 and individual level (personal and professional) and country-level (number of COVID-19 cases/ million population) factors accounting for random variation among countries. Results: : Two thousand forty-five academics participated in the survey (response rate 14.3%, with 54.7% female and 67% younger than 46 years of age). The mean (SD) knowledge percent score was 73.2 (11.2) %, and the score of knowledge of symptoms was significantly lower than the score of knowledge of diagnostic methods (53.1% and 85.4%;P< 0.0001). Knowledge score was significantly higher among those living with a partner/spouse than among those living alone (regression coefficient (B)= 0.48);higher among those with PhD degrees than among those with Bachelor of Dental Science degrees (B= 0.48);higher among those seeing 21 to 30 patients daily than among those seeing no patients (B= 0.65);and higher among those from countries with a higher number of COVID-19 cases/million population (B= 0.0007). Conclusions: : Dental academics had poorer knowledge of COVID-19 symptoms than of COVID-19 diagnostic methods. Living arrangements, academic degrees, patient load, and magnitude of the epidemic in the country were associated with COVD-19 knowledge among dental academics. Training of dental academics on COVID-19 can be designed using these findings to recruit those with the greatest need.

11.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii1-iii11, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding COVID-19 between public health workers (PHWs) attended field epidemiology training program (FETP-trained) and those who did not attend FETP (non-FETP trained). METHODS: Multi-country cross-sectional survey was conducted among PHWs who participated in COVID-19 pandemic in 10 countries at EMR. Online questionnaire that included demographic information, KAP regarding COVID-19 pandemic was distributed among HCWs. Scoring system was used to quantify the answers, bivariate and Multivariate analysis performed to compare FETP-trained with non-FETP trained PHWs. RESULTS: Overall, 1337 PHWs participated, with 835 (62.4%) < 40 years of age, and 851 (63.6%) males. Of them, 423 (31.6%) had FETP, including that 189 (44.7%) had advanced level, 155 (36.6%) intermediate and 79 (18.7%) basic level training. Compared with non-FETP trained, FETP trained were older, having higher KAP scores. FETP participation was low in infection control, and PH laboratories. KAP mean scores for intermediate level attendees are comparable to advanced level. CONCLUSIONS: FETP-trained are having better KAP than non-FETP PHWs. Expanding the intermediate level, maintain the Rapid Response training and introduce the laboratory component are recommended to maximize the benefit from FETP. Infection control, antimicrobial resistance and coordination are areas where training should include.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii12-iii18, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605198

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To describe demographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of pregnant and nonpregnant women with confirmed COVID-19 at reproductive age and determine risk factors of COVID-19 severe outcomes during pregnancy. METHODS: A retrospective study for females aged 18-49 with confirmed COVID-19 by RT-PCR in Egypt, February-July 2020. Data were obtained from Egypt National Surveillance, bivariate and multivariate analysis for demographic and clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 between pregnant and nonpregnant women including ICU admission, need for ventilator and death was performed. RESULTS: A total of 23 095 females were identified, with mean (SD) age of 35.1 (8.1) year. Of those, 408 (1.8%) were pregnant, with mean (SD) age of 29.3 (8.1) years. Compared to nonpregnant, pregnant patients were more likely to be admitted to hospital (OR = 1.7 CI = 1.4-2.1), ICU (OR = 2.4, CI = 1.3-4.3), need ventilator (OR = 3.9, CI = 2.1-7.4) and have severe outcome (OR = 3.0, CI = 1.9-4.7). Factors associated with severe outcome included: pregnancy, age > 30 years, underlying medical conditions, and living in rural areas. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women with COVID-19 are at higher risk of severe symptoms and outcome including ICU admission, requiring ventilator and death. To reduce risk of severe outcome, counseling about for seeking medical care and health education about COVID-19 preventive measures should be performed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , Egypt/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii34-iii42, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic are under incredible pressure, which puts them at risk of developing mental health problems. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among HCWs responding to COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: A multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted during July-August 2020 among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in nine Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. Data were collected using an online questionnaire administered using KoBo Toolbox. Mental problems were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: A total of 1448 HCWs from nine EMR countries participated in this study. About 51.2% were male and 52.7% aged ≤ 30 years. Of all HCWs, 57.5% had depression, 42.0% had stress, and 59.1% had anxiety. Considering the severity, 19.2%, 16.1%, 26.6% of patients had severe to extremely severe depression, stress, and anxiety, respectively. Depression, stress, anxiety, and distress scores were significantly associated with participants' residency, having children, preexisting psychiatric illness, and being isolated for COVID-19. Furthermore, females, those working in a teaching hospital, and specialists had significantly higher depression and stress scores. Married status, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, having a friend who died with COVID-19, and high COVID-19 worry scores were significantly associated with higher distress scores. CONCLUSIONS: Mental problems were prevalent among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in EMR. Therefore, special interventions to promote mental well-being among HCWs responding to COVID-19 need to be immediately implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
J Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12(1): 7-12, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children vaccination is a key intervention for their survival, especially among refugees. Yet, children vaccination registration is done manually in refugees camps and there is no possibility to send reminders to parents to come back on time. We aimed to boost the parental registration of children's vaccination records on a Children Immunization app (CIMA) while also availing the parents with useful parenting skills under COVID-19-related stress. METHODS: We incorporated United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) Parenting Skills under COVID-19 information material, through CIMA in Arabic and English languages. We recruited 1100 children in February-March 2021, through a community health promotion dissemination approach. A team of two nurses from the local population and two volunteers (one trained nurse and one trained social worker), from the camp, was formed. They promoted the CIMA app at two clinics and through households visits in Zaatari refugee camp. Qualitative data on impressions and observations of the interactions with the Zaatari camp community were also collected. RESULTS: A total of 1100 children, up to 15 months of age, eligible for vaccination were enrolled in CIMA, whereby the staff explained the content of the app in terms of vaccination schedule, health promotion materials for vaccination and parenting skills to their caregivers. During the household visits, the volunteers identified a total of 70 children that have incomplete history of vaccination records (n = 42/70 girls, 60%). Also, opportunities and challenges for scaling the app were documented. CONCLUSION: The scaling of CIMA as an innovative means of dissemination of risk and health information in challenging context such as refugee camps was feasible. In the context of vaccination needs for children, in refugee settings, such a need is more eminent, particularly in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Refugees , Social Capital , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Female , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Vaccination
15.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(4): 1677-1683, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593890

ABSTRACT

The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has become an unprecedented global public health crisis and a pandemic associated with vicarious psychosocial and economic stresses. Such stresses were reported to lead to behavioral and emotional disturbances in individuals not infected with the COVID-19 virus. It is largely unknown if these stresses can trigger acute cardiovascular events (CVE) in such individuals. Covid-19-neagtive adults presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan from March 15, 2020 through March 14, 2021 were enrolled in the study if they reported exposure to psychosocial or economic stresses related to the pandemic lockdown. Of 300 patients enrolled (mean age 58.7 ± 12.9 years), AMI was diagnosed in 269 (89.7%) patients, CVA in 15 (5.0%) patients, and OHCA in 16 (5.3%) patients. Triggering events were psychosocial in 243 (81.0%) patients and economic stressors in 157 (52.3%) patients. The psychosocial stresses included loneliness, hopelessness, fear of COVID-19 infection, anger, and stress-related to death of a significant person. The economic stressors included financial hardships, job loss or insecurity, volatile or loss of income. Exposure to more than one trigger was reported in 213 (71.0%) patients. In-hospital mortality of the patients admitted for AMI or CVA was 2.1%, and none of the OHCA survived the event. The COVID-19 pandemic continues to be a source of significant psychosocial and economic hardships that can trigger life-threatening acute CVE among individuals not infected with the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Jordan , Middle Aged , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/diagnosis , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/epidemiology , Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 690570, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1591006

ABSTRACT

Research is essential for evidence-based decision making. This study aimed to identify research priorities in the areas of field epidemiology and public health in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) from the perspectives of public health professionals. A Delphi technique, using online survey, was employed to reach 168 public health professionals who have experience in the EMR countries. The study took place between November 2019 and January 2020. Consensus on the research priorities was reached after two-round online questionnaires. A list of top 10 field epidemiology and public health research priorities in the EMR was developed. Of those priorities, four fell under health in emergency, war and armed conflict, two under communicable diseases, two under immunization, one under digital health, and one under sexual, reproductive, and adolescent health. Availability, adequacy, and quality of health services in crisis settings were scored as a top priority (mean = 4.4, rank 1), followed by use of technology to improve the collection, documentation, and analysis of health data (mean = 4.28, rank 2), and capacity of countries in the region to respond to emergencies (mean = 4.25, rank 3). This study was conducted prior to COVID-19 pandemic and, thus, it did not capture COVID-19 research as a priority area. Nevertheless, identified priorities under communicable diseases including outbreak investigation of infectious diseases, epidemics and challenges related to communicable diseases in the EMR were still notable. In conclusion, the field epidemiology and public health research priorities identified in this study through a systematic inclusive process could be useful to make informed decisions and gear the research efforts to improve the health of people in the EMR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public Health , Adolescent , Delphi Technique , Humans , Pandemics , Research , SARS-CoV-2
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e32203, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 became a pandemic rapidly after its emergence in December 2019. It belongs to the coronavirus family of viruses, which have struck a few times before in history. Data based on previous research regarding etiology and epidemiology of other viruses from this family helped played a vital role in formulating prevention and precaution strategies during the initial stages of this pandemic. Data related to COVID-19 in Pakistan were not initially documented on a large scale. In addition, due to a weak health care system and low economic conditions, Pakistan's population, in general, already suffers from many comorbidities, which can severely affect the outcome of patients infected with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infections are coupled with a manifestation of various notable outcomes that can be documented and characterized clinically. The aim of this study was to examine these clinical manifestations, which can serve as indicators for early detection as well as severity prognosis for COVID-19 infections, especially in high-risk groups. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving abstraction of demographic features, presenting symptoms, and adverse clinical outcomes for 1812 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients were admitted to the four major hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan, and the study was conducted from February to August 2020. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify significant indicators of COVID-19 severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator aid, and mortality. The study not only relates COVID-19 infection with comorbidities, but also examines other related factors, such as age and gender. RESULTS: This study identified fever (1592/1812, 87.9%), cough (1433/1812, 79.1%), and shortness of breath (998/1812, 55.1%) at the time of hospital admission as the most prevalent symptoms for patients with COVID-19. These symptoms were common but not conclusive of the outcome of infection. Out of 1812 patients, 24.4% (n=443) required ICU admission and 21.5% (n=390) required ventilator aid at some point of disease progression during their stay at the hospital; 25.9% (n=469) of the patients died. Further analysis revealed the relationship of the presented symptoms and comorbidities with the progression of disease severity in these patients. Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and asthma, were significantly affected in higher proportions, resulting in requirement of ICU admission and ventilator aid in some cases and, in many cases, even mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and chronic kidney disease, are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections, with an increased likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(7): e27621, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505428

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The national severe acute respiratory illness (SARI) surveillance system in Yemen was established in 2010 to monitor SARI occurrence in humans and provide a foundation for detecting SARI outbreaks. OBJECTIVE: To ensure that the objectives of national surveillance are being met, this study aimed to examine the level of usefulness and the performance of the SARI surveillance system in Yemen. METHODS: The updated Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines were used for the purposes of our evaluation. Related documents and reports were reviewed. Data were collected from 4 central-level managers and stakeholders and from 10 focal points at 4 sentinel sites by using a semistructured questionnaire. For each attribute, percent scores were calculated and ranked as follows: very poor (≤20%), poor (20%-40%), average (40%-60%), good (60%-80%), and excellent (>80%). RESULTS: As rated by the evaluators, the SARI surveillance system achieved its objectives. The system's flexibility (percent score: 86%) and acceptability (percent score: 82%) were rated as "excellent," and simplicity (percent score: 74%) and stability (percent score: 75%) were rated as "good." The percent score for timeliness was 23% in 2018, which indicated poor timeliness. The overall data quality percent score of the SARI system was 98.5%. Despite its many strengths, the SARI system has some weaknesses. For example, it depends on irregular external financial support. CONCLUSIONS: The SARI surveillance system was useful in estimating morbidity and mortality, monitoring the trends of the disease, and promoting research for informing prevention and control measures. The overall performance of the SARI surveillance system was good. We recommend expanding the system by promoting private health facilities' (eg, private hospitals and private health centers) engagement in SARI surveillance, establishing an electronic database at central and peripheral sites, and providing the National Central Public Health Laboratory with the reagents needed for disease confirmation.


Subject(s)
Sentinel Surveillance , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , United States , Yemen/epidemiology
19.
Electronic Journal of e-Learning ; 19(4):252-261, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1507355

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus outbreak is now shifting the way educational institutions operate around the world. This study aims to assess the online learning experience during the pandemic and recognize its perceived barriers according to university professors in Jordan. Methods: This is a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional, and descriptive study. A web-based survey was distributed to all university professors and lecturers in public universities across Jordan. Results: A total of 508 educators responded to this study. Males (67.5%, n=343) dominated the study population compared to females (32.5%, n=165). Educators spent an average of 20.2 ± 15.9 hours/week using the internet for educational purposes during the pandemic. Positive attitudes towards online teaching were seen, as 65.7% reported being prepared for online teaching, while 40.8% were comfortable communicating with students via online platforms. Institutional support for online learning also appears to have increased following the coronavirus outbreak. An overwhelming majority (81.9%, n=416) stated that their universities supported online education during the pandemic, compared to 56.5% (n=287) before. The main recognized barriers for online teaching were poor internet connection (78.3%, n=398), disadvantages in old learning tools (e.g., uploading capacity) (70.9%, n=360), and family atmosphere (69.3%, n=352). Participants also recognized technical (74.0%, n=376) and computer skills (49.2%, n=250) as areas requiring development. Conclusion: Despite the positive attitudes of educators towards online teaching, many barriers need to be overcome before the shift from traditional learning is implemented. Faculty training and inter-departmental communication are warranted for the success of online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic.

20.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 761, 2021 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing spread coronavirus disease worldwide has caused major disruptions and led to lockdowns. Everyday lifestyle changes and antenatal care inaccessibility during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have variable results that affect pregnancy outcomes. This study aimed to assess the alterations in stillbirth, neonatal-perinatal mortality, preterm birth, and birth weight during the COVID-19 national lockdown. METHODS: We used the data from the Jordan stillbirths and neonatal death surveillance system to compare pregnancy outcomes (gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, stillbirth, neonatal death, and perinatal death) between two studied periods (11 months before the pandemic (May 2019 to March 2020) vs. 9 months during the pandemic (April 2020 to March 1st 2020). Separate multinomial logistic and binary logistic regression models were used to compare the studied outcomes between the two studied periods after adjusting for the effects of mother's age, income, education, occupation, nationality, health sector, and multiplicity. RESULTS: There were 31106 registered babies during the study period; among them, 15311 (49.2%) and 15795 (50.8%) births occurred before and during the COVID-19 lockdown, respectively. We found no significant differences in preterm birth and stillbirth rates, neonatal mortality, or perinatal mortality before and during the COVID-19 lockdown. Our findings report a significantly lower incidence of extreme low birth weight (ELBW) infants (<1kg) during the COVID-19 lockdown period than that before the lockdown (adjusted OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.3-0.5: P value <0.001) CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 lockdown period, the number of infants born with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) decreased significantly. More research is needed to determine the impact of cumulative socio-environmental and maternal behavioral changes that occurred during the pandemic on the factors that contribute to ELBW infants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant Mortality , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Jordan , Perinatal Mortality , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Stillbirth/epidemiology
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