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Journal of NeuroInterventional Surgery ; 14:A146, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2005443


Introduction Middle meningeal artery embolization (MMAE) is a fundamental piece in the management of Chronic Subdural Hematoma (cSDH) that prevents recurrence and can serve as primary treatment for nonoperative candidates. MMAE offers time-effectiveness, since it may be performed in less than one hour under minimal sedation. As the COVID-19 pandemic makes inpatient beds scarce, MMAE could potentially become a same-day procedure which poses a potential economic benefit for both patients and health institutions alike. We reviewed MMAEs performed at our institution and measured the complication rates in an effort to determine if hospital admission after the procedure is necessary. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients who underwent MMAE for cSDH at the University of California, San Diego was performed. Data collected included post-procedural complications such as focal neurologic deficit, cognitive decline, and groin access-point hemorrhage identified within the first 4 hours, 24 hours, and delayed manner respectively. Success of treatment was defined as patient stability and return to baseline following the post-procedure assessment protocol performed routinely at our institution. We further characterized patients with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to identify higher risk populations that would require increased observation. The CCI was also used to determine a cut-off point for same-day discharge eligibility. Results We analyzed data from 95 patients that had 143 subdural hematomas treated at our institution. Of the 95 patients, 93 patients (98%) had no complications following our institution's standardized assessments after MMAE or at discharge the following day. Average SDH size was 12.9mm. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical drainage after MMAE. Following MMAE, two patients presented complications;one patient, an 83-year-old female, developed transient headache and blurry vision one day after MMAE and was discharged uneventfully;this patient had a CCI of 4 points. The other patient was a 77-year-old male with metastatic prostate carcinoma and had an SDH volume expansion one day after the procedure which required operative intervention with burr-hole craniotomy and drainage;this patient had a CCI of 9 points (0% estimated 10-year survival). The remaining 93 patients suffered no complications after MMAE. Conclusion Time-effectiveness and low complication rates make MMAE an ideal same-day procedure for patients with cSDH and a low CCI score. The grand majority of patients had no complications following MMAE, suggesting a large patient population that may benefit from the same-day procedure aspect of intervention. Although some patients underwent planned surgical drainage, the embolization component of management was uneventful. Our analysis provides evidence that MMAE could develop into an ambulatory procedure in patients with cSDH and a low comorbidity profile;this could have economic benefits for both the patients requiring and the institutions offering the procedure. Further prospective studies are needed to strengthen these findings.

American Journal of Gastroenterology ; 115(SUPPL):S1349, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-994480


INTRODUCTION: Esophagogastric varices are a common complication of portal hypertension and can present with life-threatening bleeding. Definitive endoscopic therapy is via band ligation or sclerotherapy. The former is preferred for esophageal varices, but efficacy is lower in gastric varices (GV). Sclerotherapy with cyanoacrylate (CA) has shown better efficacy and is now recommended as first line therapy for bleeding GV. Studies on long-term efficacy and complications remain limited. CASE DESCRIPTION/METHODS: A 62-year-old woman with NASH cirrhosis (MELD 11) presented with hematemesis. She denied any history of SBP, varices, or encephalopathy. She endorsed a previous history of COVID-19 and had reactive IgG but PCR probe for SARS-CoV-2 was negative. She underwent EGD and was found to have oozing GV along the lesser curvature, which were treated with 4cc of CA achieving hemostasis. The following night she had altered mentation and the blood lactate was increased to 7.2 mmol/L. AST and ALT were also increased. She received broad spectrum antibiotics, and a CT angiogram showed evidence of embolization of CA into the left lobe of the liver. On day 3 her level of consciousness declined and she was intubated for airway compromise. An MRCP confirmed the presence of CA within the left hepatic lobe with associated ischemia. The lactate increased to 20 mmol/L and the blood ammonia level to 700 mcg/dL, with MELD 45. Continuous hemodialysis was started for anuric renal failure. She underwent evaluation for liver transplantation, but cerebral edema and multiorgan failure with refractory acidosis occurred and she died on day 7. DISCUSSION: We present a case of GV treated with CA and the subsequent embolization of CA into the left lobe of the liver. This precipitated acute on chronic liver failure with features of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) complicated by severe hyperammonemia, cerebral edema, multiorgan failure, and death. Although she had a recent diagnosis of COVID-19, the time course, relatively normal initial inflammatory markers, and imaging suggest that CA embolization was likely the injury that led to fulminant hepatic failure. Given the lack of case reports of CA embolization to the liver causing infarction and few cases to the brain or distant vessels, further research on its long-term safety is warranted. Another novel aspect to this case is the development of FHF in a patient with known cirrhosis.