Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 37
Filter
1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 2414, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830053

ABSTRACT

Safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines during pregnancy is a particular concern affecting vaccination uptake by this vulnerable group. Here we evaluated evidence from 23 studies including 117,552 COVID-19 vaccinated pregnant people, almost exclusively with mRNA vaccines. We show that the effectiveness of mRNA vaccination against RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection 7 days after second dose was 89·5% (95% CI 69·0-96·4%, 18,828 vaccinated pregnant people, I2 = 73·9%). The risk of stillbirth was significantly lower in the vaccinated cohort by 15% (pooled OR 0·85; 95% CI 0·73-0·99, 66,067 vaccinated vs. 424,624 unvaccinated, I2 = 93·9%). There was no evidence of a higher risk of adverse outcomes including miscarriage, earlier gestation at birth, placental abruption, pulmonary embolism, postpartum haemorrhage, maternal death, intensive care unit admission, lower birthweight Z-score, or neonatal intensive care unit admission (p > 0.05 for all). COVID-19 mRNA vaccination in pregnancy appears to be safe and is associated with a reduction in stillbirth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Premature Birth , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Placenta , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Stillbirth/epidemiology , Vaccination
2.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 4(5): 100654, 2022 May 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814040

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To systematically identify and critically assess the quality of clinical practice guidelines for the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Scopus, and ISI Web of Science databases were searched until February 15, 2022. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria were clinical practice guidelines on the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy. The risk of bias and quality assessments of the included clinical practice guidelines were performed using the Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II tool, which is considered the gold standard for quality assessment of clinical practice guidelines. To define a clinical practice guideline as of good quality, we adopted the cutoff score proposed by Amer et al: if the overall clinical practice guideline score was >60%, it was recommended. METHODS: The following clinical points related to the management of pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection were addressed: criteria for maternal hospitalization, recommendations for follow-up fetal growth scan, specific recommendations against invasive procedures, management of labor, timing of delivery, postpartum care, and vaccination strategy. RESULTS: A total of 28 clinical practice guidelines were included. All recommended hospitalization only for severe disease; 46.1% (6/13) suggested a fetal growth scan after SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas 23.1% (3/13) did not support this practice. Thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin was recommended in symptomatic women by 77.1% (7/9) of the clinical practice guidelines. None of the guidelines recommended administering corticosteroids only for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in preterm gestation, unless specific obstetrical indication exists. Elective induction of labor from 39 weeks of gestation was suggested by 18.1% (2/11) of the clinical practice guidelines included in the present review, whereas 45.4% (5/11) did not recommend elective induction unless other obstetrical indications coexisted. There were 27% (3/11) of clinical practice guidelines that suggested shortening of the second stage of labor, and active pushing was supported by 18.1% (2/11). There was general agreement among the clinical practice guidelines in not recommending cesarean delivery only for the presence of maternal infection and in recommending vaccine boosters at least 6 months after the primary series of vaccination. The Appraisal of Guidelines for REsearch and Evaluation II standardized domain scores for the first overall assessment of clinical practice guidelines had a mean of 50% (standard deviation±21.82%), and 9 clinical practice guidelines scored >60%. CONCLUSION: A significant heterogeneity was found in some of the main aspects of the management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy, as reported by the published clinical practice guidelines.

3.
iScience ; 25(5): 104295, 2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804379

ABSTRACT

A greater proportion of pregnant women with COVID-19 have mild disease compared with their non-pregnant counterparts. Paradoxically, however, they are at higher risk of developing severe disease, requiring respiratory support and admission to intensive care. The delta SARS-Cov-2 variant is associated with increased risk of hospitalization and morbidity in unvaccinated pregnant populations. However, it is not known whether the worse pregnancy outcomes associated with the delta variant are due to a direct effect of the virus on the pregnancy, or whether this effect is mediated through more severe maternal infection. Here, we synthesize studies of COVID-19 pregnancies, focusing on the different routes of SARS-CoV-2 infection of lung and placenta, and the mechanisms of syncytial formation for each SARS-CoV-2 variant. To delineate COVID-19 complications in pregnant women, future studies should explore whether the delta variant causes greater placental infection compared to other variants and contributes to increased syncytial formation.

4.
BMJ ; 376: e067696, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in babies born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the timing of mother-to-child transmission and perinatal outcomes, and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 status in offspring. DESIGN: Living systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Major databases between 1 December 2019 and 3 August 2021. STUDY SELECTION: Cohort studies of pregnant and recently pregnant women (including after abortion or miscarriage) who sought hospital care for any reason and had a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection, and also provided data on offspring SARS-CoV-2 status and risk factors for positivity. Case series and case reports were also included to assess the timing and likelihood of mother-to-child transmission in SARS-CoV-2 positive babies. DATA EXTRACTION: Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. A random effects model was used to synthesise data for rates, with associations reported using odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Narrative syntheses were performed when meta-analysis was inappropriate. The World Health Organization classification was used to categorise the timing of mother-to-child transmission (in utero, intrapartum, early postnatal). RESULTS: 472 studies (206 cohort studies, 266 case series and case reports; 28 952 mothers, 18 237 babies) were included. Overall, 1.8% (95% confidence interval 1.2% to 2.5%; 140 studies) of the 14 271 babies born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection tested positive for the virus with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Of the 592 SARS-CoV-2 positive babies with data on the timing of exposure and type and timing of tests, 14 had confirmed mother-to-child transmission: seven in utero (448 assessed), two intrapartum (18 assessed), and five during the early postnatal period (70 assessed). Of the 800 SARS-CoV-2 positive babies with outcome data, 20 were stillbirths, 23 were neonatal deaths, and eight were early pregnancy losses; 749 babies were alive at the end of follow-up. Severe maternal covid-19 (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.4), maternal death (14.1, 4.1 to 48.0), maternal admission to an intensive care unit (3.5, 1.7 to 6.9), and maternal postnatal infection (5.0, 1.2 to 20.1) were associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in offspring. Positivity rates using RT-PCR varied between regions, ranging from 0.1% (95% confidence interval 0.0% to 0.3%) in studies from North America to 5.7% (3.2% to 8.7%) in studies from Latin America and the Caribbean. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates were found to be low in babies born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Evidence suggests confirmed vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2, although this is likely to be rare. Severity of maternal covid-19 appears to be associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in offspring. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178076. READERS' NOTE: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(4): 459-474, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670128

ABSTRACT

Maternal vaccination is an effective means of protecting pregnant women, their fetuses, and infants from vaccine-preventable infections. Despite the availability of sufficient safety data to support the use of vaccines during pregnancy, maternal immunization remains an underutilized method of disease prevention, often because of concerns from both healthcare providers and pregnant women about vaccine safety. Such concerns have been reflected in the low uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine among pregnant women seen in many parts of the world. Here, we present an update of the current recommendations for the use of vaccines during pregnancy, including the evidence supporting the use of novel vaccine platforms. We also provide an overview of the data supporting the use of COVID-19 vaccines in pregnancy and an update of the status of vaccines that are currently under development for use in pregnant women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Vaccination
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(1): 100490, 2022 01 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665525

ABSTRACT

Neurofilament light (NFL) is a promising circulating biomarker in preeclampsia and COVID-19, even without evident neurological complications. Several pathways might contribute to the elevated serum NFL levels seen in both pathologies. Future studies will determine whether NFL is a long COVID marker and delineate NFL's role in COVID-19-associated preeclampsia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/blood , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Incidence , Pregnancy
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(6): 100468, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525659

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to report the spectrum of placental pathology findings in pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Web of Science databases were searched up to August 11, 2021. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Histopathologic anomalies included maternal vascular malperfusion, fetal vascular malperfusion, acute inflammatory pathology, chronic inflammatory pathology, increased perivillous fibrin, and intervillous thrombosis. Moreover, subanalyses of symptomatic women only and high-risk pregnancies were performed. METHODS: Histopathologic analysis of the placenta included gross examination, histopathology on hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on placental tissue, and transmission electron microscope. Random-effect meta-analyses were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 56 studies (1008 pregnancies) were included. Maternal vascular malperfusion was reported in 30.7% of placentas (95% confidence interval, 20.3-42.1), whereas fetal vascular malperfusion was observed in 27.08 % of cases (95% confidence interval, 19.2-35.6). Acute and chronic inflammatory pathologies were reported in 22.68% (95% confidence interval, 16.9-29.0) and 25.65% (95% confidence interval, 18.4-33.6) of cases, respectively. Increased perivillous fibrin was observed in 32.7% (95% confidence interval, 24.1-42.0) of placentas undergoing histopathologic analysis, whereas intervillous thrombosis was observed in 14.6% of cases (95% confidence interval, 9.7-20.2). Other placental findings, including a basal plate with attached myometrial fibers, microscopic accretism, villous edema, increased circulating nucleated red blood cells, or membranes with hemorrhage, were reported in 37.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 28.0-47.5), whereas only 17.5% of cases (95% confidence interval, 10.9-25.2) did not present any abnormal histologic findings. The subanalyses according to maternal symptoms owing to SARS-CoV-2 infection or the presence of a high-risk pregnancy showed a similar distribution of the different histopathologic anomalies to that reported in the main analysis. Moreover, the risk of placental histopathologic anomalies was higher when considering only case-control studies comparing women with SARS-CoV-2 infection with healthy controls. CONCLUSION: In pregnant women with SARS-CoV-2 infection, a significant proportion of placentas showed histopathologic findings, suggesting placental hypoperfusion and inflammation. Future multicenter prospective blinded studies are needed to correlate these placental lesions with pregnancy outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Placenta , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Outcome , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257516, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's "Coordinated Global Research Roadmap: 2019 Novel Coronavirus" outlined the need for research that focuses on the impact of COVID-19 on pregnant women and children. More than one year after the first reported case significant knowledge gaps remain, highlighting the need for a coordinated approach. To address this need, the Maternal, Newborn and Child Health Working Group (MNCH WG) of the COVID-19 Clinical Research Coalition conducted an international survey to identify global research priorities for COVID-19 in maternal, reproductive and child health. METHOD: This project was undertaken using a modified Delphi method. An electronic questionnaire was disseminated to clinicians and researchers in three different languages (English, French and Spanish) via MNCH WG affiliated networks. Respondents were asked to select the five most urgent research priorities among a list of 17 identified by the MNCH WG. Analysis of questionnaire data was undertaken to identify key similarities and differences among respondents according to questionnaire language, location and specialty. Following elimination of the seven lowest ranking priorities, the questionnaire was recirculated to the original pool of respondents. Thematic analysis of final questionnaire data was undertaken by the MNCH WG from which four priority research themes emerged. RESULTS: Questionnaire 1 was completed by 225 respondents from 29 countries. Questionnaire 2 was returned by 49 respondents. The four priority research themes which emerged from the analysis were 1) access to healthcare during the COVID-19 pandemic, 2) the direct and 3) indirect effects of COVID-19 on pregnant and breastfeeding women and children and 4) the transmission of COVID-19 and protection from infection. CONCLUSION: The results of these questionnaires indicated a high level of concordance among continents and specialties regarding priority research themes. This prioritized list of research uncertainties, developed to specifically highlight the most urgent clinical needs as perceived by healthcare professionals and researchers, could help funding organizations and researchers to answer the most pressing questions for clinicians and public health professionals during the pandemic. It is hoped that these identified priority research themes can help focus the discussion regarding the allocation of limited resources to enhance COVID-19 research in MNCH globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Child Health , Maternal Health , Pandemics , Reproductive Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy
13.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(3): 403.e1-403.e13, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant women are at an increased risk of mortality and morbidity owing to COVID-19. Many studies have reported on the association of COVID-19 with pregnancy-specific adverse outcomes, but prediction models utilizing large cohorts of pregnant women are still lacking for estimating the risk of maternal morbidity and other adverse events. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to quantify the risk of progression to critical COVID-19 and intensive care unit admission in pregnant women with symptomatic infection. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multicenter retrospective cohort study including 8 hospitals from 4 countries (the United Kingdom, Austria, Greece, and Turkey). The data extraction was from February 2020 until May 2021. Included were consecutive pregnant and early postpartum women (within 10 days of birth); reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The primary outcome was progression to critical illness requiring intensive care. The secondary outcomes included maternal death, preeclampsia, and stillbirth. The association between the primary outcome and 12 candidate predictors having a known association with severe COVID-19 in pregnancy was analyzed with log-binomial mixed-effects regression and reported as adjusted risk ratios. All the potential predictors were evaluated in 1 model and only the baseline factors in another. The predictive accuracy was assessed by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. RESULTS: Of the 793 pregnant women who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were symptomatic, 44 (5.5%) were admitted to intensive care, of whom 10 died (1.3%). The 'mini-COvid Maternal Intensive Therapy' model included the following demographic and clinical variables available at disease onset: maternal age (adjusted risk ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.95; P=.015); body mass index (adjusted risk ratio, 1.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.66; P=.010); and diagnosis in the third trimester of pregnancy (adjusted risk ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.78-8.46; P=.001). The optimism-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.73. The 'full-COvid Maternal Intensive Therapy' model included body mass index (adjusted risk ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.95; P=.015), lower respiratory symptoms (adjusted risk ratio, 5.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.81-21.4; P=.007), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (adjusted risk ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.36-1.89; P<.001); and serum C-reactive protein (adjusted risk ratio, 1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-1.44; P<.001), with an optimism-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.85. Neither model showed signs of a poor fit. Categorization as high-risk by either model was associated with a shorter diagnosis to intensive care unit admission interval (log-rank test P<.001, both), higher maternal death (5.2% vs 0.2%; P<.001), and preeclampsia (5.7% vs 1.0%; P<.001). A spreadsheet calculator is available for risk estimation. CONCLUSION: At presentation with symptomatic COVID-19, pregnant and recently postpartum women can be stratified into high- and low-risk for progression to critical disease, even where resources are limited. This can support the nature and place of care. These models also highlight the independent risk for severe disease associated with obesity and should further emphasize that even in the absence of other comorbidities, vaccination is particularly important for these women. Finally, the model also provides useful information for policy makers when prioritizing national vaccination programs to quickly protect those at the highest risk of critical and fatal COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnant Women , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(5): 522.e1-522.e11, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, but these associations are still not clear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the association between SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth and maternal and perinatal outcomes. STUDY DESIGN: This is a population-based cohort study in England. The inclusion criteria were women with a recorded singleton birth between May 29, 2020, and January 31, 2021, in a national database of hospital admissions. Maternal and perinatal outcomes were compared between pregnant women with a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection recorded in the birth episode and those without. Study outcomes were fetal death at or beyond 24 weeks' gestation (stillbirth), preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation), small for gestational age infant (small for gestational age; birthweight at the .05) in the rate of other maternal outcomes. The risk of neonatal adverse outcome (adjusted odds ratio, 1.45; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-1.66; P<.001), need for specialist neonatal care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.51; P=.03), and prolonged neonatal admission after birth (adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.75; P<.001) were all significantly higher for infants with mothers with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. When the analysis was restricted to pregnancies delivered at term (≥37 weeks), there were no significant differences in neonatal adverse outcome (P=.78), need for specialist neonatal care after birth (P=.22), or neonatal readmission within 4 weeks of birth (P=.05). Neonates born at term to mothers with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to have prolonged admission after birth (21.1% compared with 14.6%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.75; P<.001). CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection at the time of birth is associated with higher rates of fetal death, preterm birth, preeclampsia, and emergency cesarean delivery. There were no additional adverse neonatal outcomes, other than those related to preterm delivery. Pregnant women should be counseled regarding risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and should be considered a priority for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Cohort Studies , Female , Fetal Death , Humans , Pre-Eclampsia/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Young Adult
15.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(8)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376473

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 impacted global maternal, neonatal and child health outcomes. We hypothesised that the early, strict lockdown that restricted individuals' movements in Uganda limited access to services. METHODS: An observational study, using routinely collected data from Electronic Medical Records, was carried out, in Kawempe district, Kampala. An interrupted time series analysis assessed the impact on maternal, neonatal, child, sexual and reproductive health services from July 2019 to December 2020. Descriptive statistics summarised the main outcomes before (July 2019-March 2020), during (April 2020-June 2020) and after the national lockdown (July 2020-December 2020). RESULTS: Between 1 July 2019 and 31 December 2020, there were 14 401 antenatal clinic, 33 499 deliveries, 111 658 childhood service and 57 174 sexual health attendances. All antenatal and vaccination services ceased in lockdown for 4 weeks.During the 3-month lockdown, the number of antenatal attendances significantly decreased and remain below pre-COVID levels (370 fewer/month). Attendances for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV dropped then stabilised. Increases during lockdown and immediately postlockdown included the number of women treated for high blood pressure, eclampsia and pre-eclampsia (218 more/month), adverse pregnancy outcomes (stillbirths, low-birth-weight and premature infant births), the rate of neonatal unit admissions, neonatal deaths and abortions. Maternal mortality remained stable. Immunisation clinic attendance declined while neonatal death rate rose (from 39 to 49/1000 livebirths). The number of children treated for pneumonia, diarrhoea and malaria decreased during lockdown. CONCLUSION: The Ugandan response to COVID-19 negatively impacted maternal, child and neonatal health, with an increase seen in pregnancy complications and fetal and infant outcomes, likely due to delayed care-seeking behaviour. Decreased vaccination clinic attendance leaves a cohort of infants unprotected, affecting all vaccine-preventable diseases. Future pandemic responses must consider impacts of movement restrictions and access to preventative services to protect maternal and child health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Reproductive Health Services , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Uganda/epidemiology
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(11): e14670, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376403

ABSTRACT

AIM: To evaluate the clinical factors associated with false-negative RT-PCR results and to report the outcome of a cohort of pregnant women with COVID-19. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral pandemic hospital and included 56 pregnant women. A study including pregnant women with either a laboratory or clinical diagnosis for COVID-19 were included in the study. The primary outcome was clinical factors associated with false-negative RT-PCR results defined as a positive immunoglobulin M assessed by rapid testing in clinically diagnosed patients. Clinical outcomes of laboratory diagnosed patients were also reported. RESULTS: In total, 56 women with either RT-PCR or clinical COVID-19 diagnosis were included in the study. Forty-three women either had RT-PCR positivity or IgM positivity. The clinical outcome of these pregnancies was as follows: mean maternal age 27.7, immunoglobulin M positive patients 76.7%, RT-PCR positive patients 55.8%, maternal comorbidities 11.5%, complications in patients below 20 weeks 34.8%, complications in patients above 20 weeks 65.1%, elevated CRP 83.7%, lymphopenia 30.2%, time from hospital admission to final follow-up days 37 and stillbirth 8.3%. The proportion of women who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M was 100% in the RT-PCR positive group and 56.5% in the clinical diagnosis group (P = .002). The symptom onset to RT-PCR testing interval longer than a week (risk ratio: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.14-5.40, P = .003) and presence of dyspnoea (risk ratio: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.14-0.89, P = .035) were associated with false-negative RT-PCR tests. The area under the curve of these parameters predicting false-negative RT-PCR was 0.73 (95% CI: 0.57-0.89). CONCLUSIONS: Symptomatic women with a negative RT-PCR should not be dismissed as potential COVID-19 patients, especially in the presence of prolonged symptom onset-test interval and in women without dyspnoea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 226(2): 236.e1-236.e14, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns have been raised regarding a potential surge of COVID-19 in pregnancy, secondary to the rising numbers of COVID-19 in the community, easing of societal restrictions, and vaccine hesitancy. Although COVID-19 vaccination is now offered to all pregnant women in the United Kingdom; limited data exist on its uptake and safety. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the uptake and safety of COVID-19 vaccination among pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cohort study of pregnant women who gave birth at St George's University Hospitals National Health Service Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom, between March 1, 2020, and July 4, 2021. The primary outcome was uptake of COVID-19 vaccination and its determinants. The secondary outcomes were perinatal safety outcomes. Data were collected on COVID-19 vaccination uptake, vaccination type, gestational age at vaccination, and maternal characteristics, including age, parity, ethnicity, index of multiple deprivation score, and comorbidities. Further data were collected on perinatal outcomes, including stillbirth (fetal death at ≥24 weeks' gestation), preterm birth, fetal and congenital abnormalities, and intrapartum complications. Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of women who received the vaccine were compared with that of a matched cohort of women with balanced propensity scores. Effect magnitudes of vaccination on perinatal outcomes were reported as mean differences or odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Factors associated with antenatal vaccination were assessed with logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Data were available for 1328 pregnant women of whom 140 received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine before giving birth and 1188 women who did not; 85.7% of those vaccinated received their vaccine in the third trimester of pregnancy and 14.3% in the second trimester of pregnancy. Of those vaccinated, 127 (90.7%) received a messenger RNA vaccine and 13 (9.3%) a viral vector vaccine. There was evidence of reduced vaccine uptake in younger women (P=.001), women with high levels of deprivation (ie, fifth quintile of the index of multiple deprivation; P=.008), and women of Afro-Caribbean or Asian ethnicity compared with women of White ethnicity (P<.001). Women with prepregnancy diabetes mellitus had increased vaccine uptake (P=.008). In the multivariable model the fifth deprivation quintile (most deprived) (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.10; P=.003) and Afro-Caribbean ethnicity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.85; P=.044) were significantly associated with lower antenatal vaccine uptake, whereas prepregnancy diabetes mellitus was significantly associated with higher antenatal vaccine uptake (adjusted odds ratio, 10.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.74-83.2; P=.014). In a propensity score-matched cohort, the rates of adverse pregnancy outcomes of 133 women who received at least 1 dose of the COVID-19 vaccine in pregnancy were similar to that of unvaccinated pregnant women (P>.05 for all): stillbirth (0.0% vs 0.2%), fetal abnormalities (2.2% vs 2.5%), postpartum hemorrhage (9.8% vs 9.0%), cesarean delivery (30.8% vs 34.1%), small for gestational age (12.0% vs 12.8%), maternal high-dependency unit or intensive care admission (6.0% vs 4.0%), or neonatal intensive care unit admission (5.3% vs 5.0%). Intrapartum pyrexia (3.7% vs 1.0%; P=.046) was significantly increased but the borderline statistical significance was lost after excluding women with antenatal COVID-19 infection (P=.079). Mixed-effects Cox regression showed that vaccination was not significantly associated with birth at <40 weeks' gestation (hazard ratio, 0.93; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.23; P=.624). CONCLUSION: Of pregnant women eligible for COVID-19 vaccination, less than one-third accepted COVID-19 vaccination during pregnancy, and they experienced similar pregnancy outcomes with unvaccinated pregnant women. There was lower uptake among younger women, non-White ethnicity, and lower socioeconomic background. This study has contributed to the body of evidence that having COVID-19 vaccination in pregnancy does not alter perinatal outcomes. Clear communication to improve awareness among pregnant women and healthcare professionals on vaccine safety is needed, alongside strategies to address vaccine hesitancy. These strategies include postvaccination surveillance to gather further data on pregnancy outcomes, particularly after first-trimester vaccination, and long-term infant follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , /therapeutic use , Adult , Age Factors , Caribbean Region , Case-Control Studies , Cesarean Section/statistics & numerical data , Congenital Abnormalities/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Small for Gestational Age , Intensive Care Units , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Logistic Models , Obstetric Labor Complications/epidemiology , Postpartum Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Propensity Score , Proportional Hazards Models , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , Stillbirth/epidemiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
20.
EClinicalMedicine ; 37: 100947, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on healthcare systems globally, with a worrying increase in adverse maternal and foetal outcomes. We aimed to assess the changes in maternity healthcare provision and healthcare-seeking by pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of the effects of the pandemic on provision of, access to and attendance at maternity services (CRD42020211753). We searched MEDLINE and Embase in accordance with PRISMA guidelines from January 1st, 2020 to April 17th 2021 for controlled observational studies and research letters reporting primary data comparing maternity healthcare-seeking and healthcare delivery during compared to before the COVID-19 pandemic. Case reports and series, systematic literature reviews, and pre-print studies were excluded. Meta-analysis was performed on comparable outcomes that were reported in two or more studies. Data were combined using random-effects meta-analysis, using risk ratios (RR) or incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). FINDINGS: Of 4743 citations identified, 56 were included in the systematic review, and 21 in the meta-analysis. We identified a significant decrease in the number of antenatal clinic visits (IRR 0614, 95% CI 0486-0776, P<00001, I2=54.6%) and unscheduled care visits (IRR 0741, 95% CI 0602-0911, P = 00046, I2=00%) per week, and an increase in virtual or remote antenatal care (IRR 4656 95% CI 7762-2794, P<00001, I2=90.6%) and hospitalisation of unscheduled attendees (RR 1214, 95% CI 1118-1319, P<00001, I2=00%). There was a decrease in the use of GA for category 1 Caesarean sections (CS) (RR 0529, 95% CI 0407-0690, P<00001, I2=00%). There was no significant change in intrapartum epidural use (P = 00896) or the use of GA for elective CS (P = 079). INTERPRETATION: Reduced maternity healthcare-seeking and healthcare provision during the COVID-19 pandemic has been global, and must be considered as potentially contributing to worsening of pregnancy outcomes observed during the pandemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL