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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322366

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, and since then the frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfections has been continuously rising. While invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasingly being recognized in association with COVID-19, there is limited information with regards to COVID-19 associated mucormycosis. Here, we describe a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes who received systemic corticosteroids and remdesevir during her admission for COVID-19. Few days after discharge, the patient was readmitted due to facial swelling and numbness, and a diagnosis of COVID-19 associated rhinosinusitis mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus (formerly Rhizopus oryzae ) was confirmed with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA. This report aims to address the importance of short-term follow-up in COVID-19 patients who have received systemic corticosteroids, particularly those with predisposing conditions, as early detection and prompt, aggressive treatment is essential for the management of invasive fungal infections.

2.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 105(2): 449-453, 2021 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371040

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 first emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Since that time, the frequency of bacterial and fungal coinfections has been continuously increasing. Although invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is being increasingly recognized in association with COVID-19, there is limited information regarding COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with uncontrolled diabetes who received systemic corticosteroids and remdesevir during her admission for COVID-19. A few days after discharge, the patient was readmitted because of facial swelling and numbness, and a diagnosis of COVID-19-associated rhinosinusitis mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus arrhizus (formerly called Rhizopus oryzae) was confirmed with sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. This report aimed to address the importance of short-term follow-up for COVID-19 patients who have received systemic corticosteroids, particularly those with predisposing conditions, because early detection and prompt, aggressive treatment are essential for the management of invasive fungal infections.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , Rhinitis/etiology , Rhizopus oryzae/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sinusitis/etiology , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects , DNA, Fungal/genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Middle Aged , Mucormycosis , Rhinitis/diagnosis , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/microbiology
3.
J Diabetes Res ; 2021: 6666086, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk factors for acute kidney injury (AKI) development in patients with diabetes hospitalized for COVID-19 have not been fully studied yet. In this study, we aimed to estimate the rate of AKI among the hospitalized population with COVID-19 and to identify the risk factors associated with AKI among patients with diabetes. Material and Methods. This retrospective cohort study included 254 patients (127 with diabetes and 127 without diabetes) who were admitted for COVID-19 to a tertiary hospital in Tehran, Iran, between February and May 2020. Clinical characteristics and outcomes, radiological findings, and laboratory data, including data on AKI, hematuria, and proteinuria were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: Of 254 patients, 142 (55.9%) were male and the mean (± SD) age was 65.7 years (±12.5). In total, 58 patients (22.8%) developed AKI during hospitalization, of whom 36 patients had diabetes (p = 0.04); most patients (74.1%) had stage 1 or 2 AKI. Also, 8 patients (13.8%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT) after developing AKI. Regardless of diabetes status, patients who developed AKI had significantly higher mortality rates compared with patients who did not develop AKI (p = 0.02). Hematuria and proteinuria were observed in 38.1% and 55% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that invasive mechanical ventilation, proteinuria, HBA1c level, history of cardiovascular disease, and use of statins were independent risk factors for AKI development in patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Results of this study showed that AKI develops in a considerable percentage of patients with COVID-19, especially in those with diabetes, and is significantly associated with mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Aged , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Hematuria/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Prevalence , Proteinuria/epidemiology , Renal Replacement Therapy/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 21(4): 493-495, 2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1005375
5.
IDCases ; 22: e00981, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987961

ABSTRACT

The most common features of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia on chest computed tomography imaging are ground glass opacity and consolidation. Mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement are less frequently observed. Herein, we present an unexpected finding of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-avid hilar lymph node in an asymptomatic patient with COVID-19, and show that this is a transient phenomenon, subsiding on a follow-up FDG-PET/CT within 10 days.

6.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108286, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-912132

ABSTRACT

AIMS: We aimed to compare the clinical outcomes and imaging findings between COVID-19 patients with well-controlled diabetes and those with poorly-controlled diabetes. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, 117 patients with coexistent COVID-19 and type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. Patients were divided into two groups based on HbA1c values. Clinical data and laboratory parameters were collected from patients' medical records. Also, the chest computed tomography (CT) score was defined by the summation of individual scores from 5 lung lobes: scores of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were respectively assigned for each lobe if pulmonary involvement was 0%, less than 5%, 5%-25%, 26%-49%, 50%-75%, or more than 75% of each region. RESULTS: Among all patients with diabetes, 93 (79.5%) patients had poorly-controlled diabetes and 24 (20.5%) had well-controlled diabetes; 66 (56.4%) patients were male and the median age was 66 years (IQR, 55-75 years). The chest CT severity scores were not significantly different between patients with well-controlled diabetes and those with poorly-controlled diabetes (p = 0.33). Also, the mortality and recovery rates were similar between the two groups (p = 0.54 and p = 0.85, respectively). CONCLUSION: Based on the results, clinical outcomes and chest CT severity scores are similar between patients with well-controlled and poorly-controlled diabetes among the Iranian population with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/diagnostic imaging , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/physiopathology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Pathol Res Pract ; 216(10): 153228, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in December 2019, limited studies have investigated the histopathologic findings of patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 31 deceased patients who were hospitalized for COVID-19 in a tertiary hospital in Tehran, Iran. A total of 52 postmortem tissue biopsy samples were obtained from the lungs and liver of decedents. Clinical characteristics, laboratory data, and microscopic features were evaluated. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for SARS-CoV-2 was performed on specimens obtained from nasopharyngeal swabs and tissue biopsies. RESULTS: The median age of deceased patients was 66 years (range, 30-87 years) and 25 decedents (81 %) were male. The average interval from symptom onset to death was 13 days (range, 6-34 days). On histopathologic examination of the lung specimens, diffuse alveolar damage and thrombotic microangiopathy were the most common findings (80 % and 60 %, respectively). Liver specimens mainly showed macrovesicular steatosis, portal lymphoplasmacytic inflammation and passive congestion. No definitive viral inclusions were observed in any of the specimens. In addition, 92 % of lung tissue samples tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are needed to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 causes direct cytopathic changes in various organs of the human body.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pulmonary Alveoli/pathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/pathology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Betacoronavirus , Biopsy , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 198: 106217, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753769

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mainly invades respiratory epithelial cells by adhesion to angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) and thus, infected patients may develop mild to severe inflammatory responses and acute lung injury. Afferent impulses that result from the stimulation of pulmonary mechano-chemoreceptors, peripheral and central chemoreceptors by inflammatory cytokines are conducted to the brainstem. Integration and processing of these input signals occur within the central nervous system, especially in the limbic system and sensorimotor cortex, and importantly feedback regulation exists between O2, CO2, and blood pH. Despite the intensity of hypoxemia in COVID-19, the intensity of dyspnea sensation is inappropriate to the degree of hypoxemia in some patients (silent hypoxemia). We hypothesize that SARS-CoV-2 may cause neuronal damage in the corticolimbic network and subsequently alter the perception of dyspnea and the control of respiration. SARS-CoV-2 neuronal infection may change the secretion of numerous endogenous neuropeptides or neurotransmitters that distribute through large areas of the nervous system to produce cellular and perceptual effects. SARS-CoV-2 mainly enter to CNS via direct (neuronal and hematologic route) and indirect route. We theorize that SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced neuronal cell damage and may change the balance of endogenous neuropeptides or neurotransmitters that distribute through large areas of the nervous system to produce cellular and perceptual effects. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-associated neuronal damage may influence the control of respiration by interacting in neuromodulation. This would open up possible lines of study for the progress in the central mechanism of COVID-19-induced hypoxia. Future research is desirable to confirm or disprove such a hypothesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Central Nervous System Diseases/complications , Central Nervous System Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/virology , Hypoxia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BJR Case Rep ; 6(3): 20200089, 2020 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740389

ABSTRACT

The rapid global spread as well as the mortality and morbidity associated with COVID-19 has raised increasing concern around the globe. Studies have reported that patients infected with the novel coronavirus are prone to coagulopathy. However, information on portal vein thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 is scarce. In this case report, we depict the abdominal CT findings of a 26-year-old male patient with COVID-19 who developed severe abdominal pain during hospitalization and was later diagnosed with portal vein thrombosis. We also demonstrate the chest CT findings of the same patient, which revealed bilateral pleural effusion, a less common imaging finding, and multifocal patchy consolidations. This paper emphasizes that physicians, particularly radiologists, should be aware of thromboembolic events when examining any suspected patient during the current outbreak.

11.
Acad Radiol ; 27(7): 1044-1045, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-155477
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