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Afr Health Sci ; 21(4): 1558-1566, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1703246


Background: The limitations and false-negative results of Real-time Polymerase chain reaction (RT PCR) in diagnosing COVID-19 infection demand the need for imaging modalities such as chest HRCT to improve the diagnostic accuracy and assess the severity of the infection. Objectives: The study aimed to compare the chest HRCT severity scores in RT-PCR positive and negative cases of COVID-19. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 50 clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. Chest HRCT and PCR testing of all 50 patients were done and the chest HRCT severity scores for each lung and bronchopulmonary segments were compared in patients with positive and negative PCR results. Chi-square and Mann Whitney U test were used to assess differences among study variables. Results: Chest HRCT severity score was more in PCR negative patients than in those with PCR positive results. However, the difference was not significant (p=0.11). There was a significant association in severity scores of the anterior basal segment of the left lung (p=0.022) and posterior segment upper lobe of right lung (p=0.035) with PCR results. This association was insignificant for other bronchopulmonary segments (p>0.05). Conclusion: CR negativity does not rule out infection in clinically suspected COVID-19 patients. The use of chest HRCT helps to determine the extent of lung damage in clinically suspected patients irrespective of PCR results. Guidelines that consider clinical symptoms, chest HRCT severity score and PCR results for a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in suspected patients are needed.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
Cureus ; 12(7): e9373, 2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732676


Objective The objective of the present study is to describe high-resolution CT (HRCT) chest manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients presenting to a tertiary healthcare facility in Punjab, Pakistan, and to analyze the distribution of the disease in lung fields. Additionally, we assess the role of chest CT severity scoring (CT-SS) in determining the severity of pneumonia. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from March 30, 2020, to May 30, 2020, 87 confirmed COVID-19 patients undergoing HRCT scan in a tertiary care facility in Punjab, Pakistan were included. The HRCT chest was performed on the patients using a standard protocol. Each study was evaluated for the presence of ground-glass opacities (GGOs), consolidation, mixed pattern, distribution, crazy paving, reverse halo sign, nodules, pleural effusion, and other findings. Additionally, CT-SS was calculated by dividing each lung into 20 zones. Each zone was scored as 0, 1, and 2, representing no involvement, <50% involvement, and >50% involvement of one zone respectively (total score: 0-40 for each patient). The patients were classified into mild, moderate, and severe cases (mild: CT-SS of <20, moderate: CT-SS of 20-30, and severe: CT-SS of >30). Results GGO was the most common finding, as seen in 88.5% of the patients, followed by consolidations (52.8%) and crazy paving (33.3%). The majority of the patients showed the bilateral and peripheral distribution of the disease process. Vascular dilatation and bronchiectasis were seen in 10 patients; pleural effusions were observed in only two study patients, while no patient exhibited reverse halo sign or pulmonary nodules. The superior segment of lower lobes was the most commonly involved segment bilaterally. According to CT-SS, 78 (89.6%), six (6.9%), and three (3.45%) patients had mild, moderate, and severe disease respectively. Conclusion The typical imaging findings of COVID-19 on HRCT are GGOs with multilobe involvement and bilateral, peripheral, and basal predominance. CT-SS is helpful in categorizing pneumonia into mild, moderate, and severe types, thereby helping to identify patients with severe disease. This is particularly helpful in settings where fast triage is required.