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Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol X ; 15: 100153, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1851100


Objectives: This study aims to provide a semi-qualitative histopathological report of the dual SARS-CoV-2 and HIV infected placentae in the third trimester of Advanced Abdominal Pregnancy (AAP). Study design: Four AAP placentae in the third trimester of pregnancy (two positive for HIV-1 and two positives for SARS-CoV-2) were histologically examined. Results: The SARS-CoV-2+ HIV+ placentae were dysmorphic in shape compared to the flattened disc-like shape noted in the SARS-CoV-2+HIV-, SARS-CoV-2-HIV+and SARS-CoV-2-HIV- placentae. Diffused syncytial knots and syncytial degeneration were observed in all placentae. Intermittent cytotrophoblast increase, perivillous and intravillous fibrin deposition, mononuclear inflammatory cells with widespread degeneration/necrosis of the syncytiotrophoblast and microcalcification were pronounced in the SARS-CoV-2+HIV+ compared to the SARS-CoV-2+HIV- placentae. Vascular pathological changes included thrombi, ectasis, mural hypertrophy and atherotic vessels. Conclusion: Elevated syncytial trophoblast injury, villitis, microcalcifications and mineralisation of the syncytial basement membrane in the AAP placentae may be due to SARS-CoV-2 viral transgression instead of HIV infection alone. Vascular malperfusion is suggestive of a hypoxic insult arising from a compensatory response to meet the fetal oxygen and nutrient demands of an AAP. Placentae from HIV infected women on antiretroviral treatment were characterised by vascular malperfusion.

South African Medical Journal ; 111(6):567-569, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1264649


In view of the continuing worldwide spread of COVID-19 infection, the increased morbidity and mortality from the disease during pregnancy, and the current efficacy and safety of vaccines in non-pregnant individuals, vaccines should not be withheld from women simply because of pregnancy or lactation. All pregnant women, especially healthcare professionals, should be offered vaccination and counselled about its advantages and disadvantages by their maternity care providers. Complete eradication of COVID-19 infection will be possible if potential niduses of the infection, which may act as sources for future outbreaks, are protected against the pathogen. However, if a hypothetical medication is the only means yet proven of limiting severe compromise to maternal health, access to the medication should be at the pregnant woman’s discretion. Shared decision-making requires physicians to actively engage with their patients and share their knowledge about the subject matter.