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1.
J Physiol Pharmacol ; 73(3)2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2091455

ABSTRACT

Systemic inflammation is a hallmark of severe coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Anti-inflammatory therapy is considered crucial to modulate the hyperinflammatory response (cytokine storm) in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. There is currently no specific, conclusively proven, cost-efficient, and worldwide available anti-inflammatory therapy available to treat COVID-19 patients with cytokine storm. The present study aimed to investigate the treatment benefit of oral colchicine for hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine is an approved drug and possesses multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This was a pilot, open-label randomized controlled clinical trial comparing standard of care (SOC) plus oral colchicine (colchicine arm) vs. SOC alone (control arm) in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. Colchicine treatment was initiated within first 48 hours of admission delivered at 1.5 mg loading dose, followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. for next 6 days and 0.5 mg q.d. for the second week. A total of 96 patients were randomly allocated to the colchicine (n=48) and control groups (n=48). Both colchicine and control group patients experienced similar clinical outcomes by day 14 of hospitalization. Treatment outcome by day 14 in colchicine vs control arm: recovered and discharged alive: 36 (75.0%) vs. 37 (77.1%), remain admitted after 14-days: 4 (8.3%) vs. 5 (10.4%), ICU transferred: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%), and mortality: 4 (8.3%) vs. 3 (6.3%). The speed of improvement of COVID-19 acute symptoms including shortness of breath, fever, cough, the need of supplementary oxygen, and oxygen saturation level, was almost identical in the two groups. Length of hospitalization was on average 1.5 day shorter in the colchicine group. There was no evidence for a difference between the two groups in the follow-up serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), ferritin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-TnT) and N-terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT pro-BNP). According to the results of our study, oral colchicine does not appear to show clinical benefits in non-ICU hospitalized COVID-19 patients with suspected cytokine storm. It is possible that the anti-inflammatory pathways of colchicine are not crucially involved in the pathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Colchicine/therapeutic use , Hospitalization , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
2.
Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology ; JOUR:73, 64(Supplement 4).
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2088154

ABSTRACT

Background and Objective(s): Poverty is a key contributor to delayed diagnosis and limited access to early intervention and rehabilitation for children with cerebral palsy (CP) in rural Bangladesh. Earlier studies suggested that efforts to improve outcomes for children with disabilities in low-and middle-income countries should include combined measures to improve service provision and family economic/ social capital. This trial aimed to test the efficacy of an integrated microfinance/livelihood and community-based rehabilitation (CBR) (IMCBR) program in improving health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and motor function of children with CP from ultra-poor families and social capital gain to those families from such intervention in rural Bangladesh. Study Design: Cluster randomised controlled trial. Study Participants & Setting: Children with CP aged <=5 years from ultra-poor families in rural Bangladesh. Materials/Methods: Children with CP were randomly allocated in three arms;Arm-A: livelihood support and CBR (IMCBR), Arm-B: CBR only, and Arm-C: care-as- usual. Livestock (e.g. goat, lamb, chicken, etc.) or sewing machines were provided as livelihood support. As part of CBR, group-based goal directed training sessions and parent training sessions were organised weekly and home visits were made fortnightly. The CBR was stopped 2.5 months post-enrollment due to the COVID-19 pandemic and was replaced with phone follow-up. The primary outcome was HRQoL of children while Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level of children and social capital of their families were the secondary outcomes. Intention-to- treat analysis was performed. Result(s): Twenty-four clusters including 251 children-primary caregivers' dyads were assigned to three arms;Arm-A= 80, Arm-B= 82, and Arm-C= 89. Between baseline and endline, the percentage change in mean HRQoL was highest in Arm-A (30.0%) with significant mean differences between Arm-A and Arm-B (p=0.015). The GMFCS level significantly changed both in Arm-A (p=0.007) and Arm-C (p=0.011). Also, the improvement in mean total social capital score was significantly higher in Arm-A compared to Arm-B (p<0.001) and Arm-C (p<0.001). Conclusions/Significance: The findings suggest that IMCBR could improve HRQoL and motor functions of children with CP and the social capital of their ultra-poor families. Long-term follow-up of the trial participants and/ or future exploration of such interventions is essential.

3.
Pakistan Journal of Public Health ; 12(1):8-11, 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2081497

ABSTRACT

Background: The objective is to determine the impact of lockdown in TB care services in Pakistan and to provide suggestion for future recommendations.

4.
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology ; 15(8), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080808

ABSTRACT

Background: Despite several challenges, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is still not over. Rapid mass-scale immunization is critical to prevent further COVID-19-associated deaths. Objectives: Herein, we aimed to evaluate the rapid ramp-up effects of spike antibodies in response to Sputnik V, Sinopharm, and SinoVac first dose administration in the general public of Pakistan. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 2000 participants to examine Sputnik V, Sinopharm, and SinoVac first dose effects 21 days post-administration. From 1200 real-time PCR negative subjects, the samples were subjected to SARS-CoV-2 spike antibody levels using electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) (Elecsys, # 09289267190 Roche, USA). Results: SARS-CoV-2 spike protein positivity was detected highest at 87% among participants receiving SputnikV with SARS-CoV-2 spike protein antibodies > 1.5 AU/mL compared to 47.6% and 25% in individuals receiving Sinopharm and SinoVac, respectively. Also, 36.04% of the Sputnik-administered individuals depicted antibody levels > 250 AU/mL. Of the participants, 55% had a previous history of COVID-19. Also, 14.86%, 4.76%, and 0% of the SputnikV, Sinopharm, and SinoVac administered subjects showed antibodies > 100 AU/mL, respectively, while > 25 AU/mL antibodies were found in 10.70% of SputnikV, 19.04% of Sinopharm and 10.71% of SinoVac administered individuals. Moreover, > 1.5-2.5 AU/mL antibodies levels were found in 25.10%, 23.80%, and 14.28% of participants with SputnikV, Sinopharm, and SinoVac administered vaccines, respectively. The antibody titers of < 1.5 AU/mL were detected among 13.30%, 52.38%, and 46.42% of subjects administered with SputnikV, Sinopharm, and SinoVac vaccines, respectively. Conclusions: Even before administrating the second booster dose of SputnikV, a significantly higher number of patients depicted rapid ramp-up of SARS-CoV-2 specific spike antibodies, which can significantly contribute to rapid mass-immunization. Despite all challenges, persistent antibody plateau monitoring is critical to attaining humoral immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infections. © 2022, Author(s).

5.
Frontiers in Energy Research ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080125

ABSTRACT

The motivation behind conducting this research is to study the association between oil prices and Islamic and conventional stock indexes’ performance in the Malaysian market during COVID-19 using the wavelet analysis technique. The daily data on selected variables were collected from 1 January 2020, to 10 June 2021. Empirical investigation was made with wavelet analysis along with the Toda-Yamamoto test. The results revealed the significant response of both indexes to the oil price. Such response was negative for the short- and medium terms;however, it became positive in the long run. Our research has several important implications and recommendations for asset managers and policymakers. Policymakers and regulators should promote awareness and adopt effective action plans to minimize the risk of change in oil prices during the COVID-19 period. This research will enable investors, scholars, and policymakers to improve their current structure and prepare them for any potential future crisis. Copyright © 2022 Khan, Sharif, Islam, Ali, Fareed and Zulfaqar.

6.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10:5-11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072556

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The immune response to SARS-CoV-2 can play an important role in disease pathogenesis and clinical manifestations. Considering the antiviral, immuno-modulatory, anxiolytic, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties, this open labelled, controlled, interventional, prophylactic study was conducted on individuals at risk in containment zones of different cities of India, viz., Lucknow, Aligarh, New Delhi, Srinagar, Mumbai and Bengaluru. The study focuses on number of patients turning COVID-19 positive, change in ISQ and WHOQOL-BREF scales in both the groups. Apparently, healthy individuals at risk in containment zones were divided into intervention and control groups. The intervention group was further divided into two subgroups. The first subgroup received Unani regimen- I including Unani Joshanda with Khamira Marwareed (KM), the second subgroup received Unani regimen- II including Unani Joshanda with Tiryaq Arba (TA). The control group did not receive any intervention. The duration of intervention was 20 days;follow ups were planned on day 10, day 20 and day 35. A total number of 33021 participants were enrolled in the study, of which 30,931 participants completed the study. It was observed that individuals receiving Unani regimen-I demonstrated lower risk of developing COVID-19 by 74% and those receiving Unani regimen-II by 62% in comparison to the control group. Interventional groups showed highly significant (p<0.001) effect on the quality of life.

7.
Cogent Economics & Finance ; 10(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070060

ABSTRACT

This study analyzes the trilateral relationship between macroeconomic variables of oil prices, stock market index, and exchange rate to demonstrate their behavior and inter-relationship in the economic setup of Pakistan. The investigated period includes daily time series data ranging from 4 January 2016 to 30 April 2021. The study consists of three sub-periods: the pre-COVID-19 period ranging from 4 January 2016 to 31 December 2019, COVID-19 period ranging from 1 January 2020 to 30 April 2021, and overall period ranging from 4 January 2016 to 30 April 2021 by using a Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. The results illustrate that oil prices changes, and stock index have an insignificant direct relationship both in pre-COVID-19 and overall sub-periods of study while a positive and statistically significant relationship during the COVID-19 period. This research also suggests that stock index has a direct and statistically significant but negative impact on the exchange rate in all sub-periods of study. This research also gives practical implications for forex investors and traders to analyze the inflating and deflating stock market patterns for future investment opportunities. However, most of the previous studies emphasized on the direct influence of exchange rate on the stock market and no effort is made on vice versa association. Furthermore, this research presents a practical relevance for the stock market investors that health uncertainty regime affected the insignificant association between oil price and stock market indices and this relation turns out to be significant during the crisis regime.

8.
Results Phys ; 43: 106038, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069655

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we explore local behavior at fixed points, chaos and bifurcations of a discrete COVID-19 epidemic model in the interior of R + 5 . It is explored that for all involved parametric values, COVID-19 model has boundary fixed point and also it has an interior fixed point under certain parametric condition(s). We have investigated local behavior at boundary and interior fixed points of COVID-19 model by linear stability theory. It is also explored the existence of possible bifurcations at respective fixed points, and proved that at boundary fixed point there exists no flip bifurcation but at interior fixed point it undergoes both flip and hopf bifurcations, and we have explored said bifurcations by explicit criterion. Moreover, chaos in COVID-19 model is also investigated by feedback control strategy. Finally, theoretical results are verified numerically.

9.
Tran, K. B.; Lang, J. J.; Compton, K.; Xu, R. X.; Acheson, A. R.; Henrikson, H. J.; Kocarnik, J. M.; Penberthy, L.; Aali, A.; Abbas, Q.; Abbasi, B.; Abbasi-Kangevari, M.; Abbasi-Kangevari, Z.; Abbastabar, H.; Abdelmasseh, M.; Abd-Elsalam, S.; Abdelwahab, A. A.; Abdoli, G.; Abdulkadir, H. A.; Abedi, A.; Abegaz, K. H.; Abidi, H.; Aboagye, R. G.; Abolhassani, H.; Absalan, A.; Abtew, Y. D.; Ali, H. A.; Abu-Gharbieh, E.; Achappa, B.; Acuna, J. M.; Addison, D.; Addo, I. Y.; Adegboye, O. A.; Adesina, M. A.; Adnan, M.; Adnani, Q. E. S.; Advani, S. M.; Afrin, S.; Afzal, M. S.; Aggarwal, M.; Ahinkorah, B. O.; Ahmad, A. R.; Ahmad, R.; Ahmad, S.; Ahmadi, S.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, L. A.; Ahmed, M. B.; Rashid, T. A.; Aiman, W.; Ajami, M.; Akalu, G. T.; Akbarzadeh-Khiavi, M.; Aklilu, A.; Akonde, M.; Akunna, C. J.; Al Hamad, H.; Alahdab, F.; Alanezi, F. M.; Alanzi, T. M.; Alessy, S. A.; Algammal, A. M.; Al-Hanawi, M. K.; Alhassan, R. K.; Ali, B. A.; Ali, L.; Ali, S. S.; Alimohamadi, Y.; Alipour, V.; Aljunid, S. M.; Alkhayyat, M.; Al-Maweri, S. A. A.; Almustanyir, S.; Alonso, N.; Alqalyoobi, S.; Al-Raddadi, R. M.; Al-Rifai, R. H. H.; Al-Sabah, S. K.; Al-Tammemi, A. B.; Altawalah, H.; Alvis-Guzman, N.; Amare, F.; Ameyaw, E. K.; Dehkordi, J. J. A.; Amirzade-Iranaq, M. H.; Amu, H.; Amusa, G. A.; Ancuceanu, R.; Anderson, J. A.; Animut, Y. A.; Anoushiravani, A.; Anoushirvani, A. A.; Ansari-Moghaddam, A.; Ansha, M. G.; Antony, B.; Antwi, M. H.; Anwar, S. L.; Anwer, R.; Anyasodor, A. E.; Arabloo, J.; Arab-Zozani, M.; Aremu, O.; Argaw, A. M.; Ariffin, H.; Aripov, T.; Arshad, M.; Al, Artaman, Arulappan, J.; Aruleba, R. T.; Aryannejad, A.; Asaad, M.; Asemahagn, M. A.; Asemi, Z.; Asghari-Jafarabadi, M.; Ashraf, T.; Assadi, R.; Athar, M.; Athari, S. S.; Null, Mmwa, Attia, S.; Aujayeb, A.; Ausloos, M.; Avila-Burgos, L.; Awedew, A. F.; Awoke, M. A.; Awoke, T.; Quintanilla, B. P. A.; Ayana, T. M.; Ayen, S. S.; Azadi, D.; Null, S. A.; Azami-Aghdash, S.; Azanaw, M. M.; Azangou-Khyavy, M.; Jafari, A. A.; Azizi, H.; Azzam, A. Y. Y.; Babajani, A.; Badar, M.; Badiye, A. D.; Baghcheghi, N.; Bagheri, N.; Bagherieh, S.; Bahadory, S.; Baig, A. A.; Baker, J. L.; Bakhtiari, A.; Bakshi, R. K.; Banach, M.; Banerjee, I.; Bardhan, M.; Barone-Adesi, F.; Barra, F.; Barrow, A.; Bashir, N. Z.; Bashiri, A.; Basu, S.; Batiha, A. M. M.; Begum, A.; Bekele, A. B.; Belay, A. S.; Belete, M. A.; Belgaumi, U. I.; Bell, A. W.; Belo, L.; Benzian, H.; Berhie, A. Y.; Bermudez, A. N. C.; Bernabe, E.; Bhagavathula, A. S.; Bhala, N.; Bhandari, B. B.; Bhardwaj, N.; Bhardwaj, P.; Bhattacharyya, K.; Bhojaraja, V. S.; Bhuyan, S. S.; Bibi, S.; Bilchut, A. H.; Bintoro, B. S.; Biondi, A.; Birega, M. G. B.; Birhan, H. E.; Bjorge, T.; Blyuss, O.; Bodicha, B. B. A.; Bolla, S. R.; Boloor, A.; Bosetti, C.; Braithwaite, D.; Brauer, M.; Brenner, H.; Briko, A. N.; Briko, N. I.; Buchanan, C. M.; Bulamu, N. B.; Bustamante-Teixeira, M. T.; Butt, M. H.; Butt, N. S.; Butt, Z. A.; dos Santos, F. L. C.; Camera, L. A.; Cao, C.; Cao, Y.; Carreras, G.; Carvalho, M.; Cembranel, F.; Cerin, E.; Chakraborty, P. A.; Charalampous, P.; Chattu, V. K.; Chimed-Ochir, O.; Chirinos-Caceres, J. L.; Cho, D. Y.; Cho, W. C. S.; Christopher, D. J.; Chu, D. T.; Chukwu, I. S.; Cohen, A. J.; Conde, J.; Cortas, S.; Costa, V. M.; Cruz-Martins, N.; Culbreth, G. T.; Dadras, O.; Dagnaw, F. T.; Dahlawi, S. M. A.; Dai, X. C.; Dandona, L.; Dandona, R.; Daneshpajouhnejad, P.; Danielewicz, A.; Dao, A. T. M.; Soltani, R. D. C.; Darwesh, A. M.; Das, S.; Davitoiu, D. V.; Esmaeili, E. D.; De la Hoz, F. P.; Debela, S. A.; Dehghan, A.; Demisse, B.; Demisse, F. W.; Denova-Gutierrez, E.; Derakhshani, A.; Molla, M. D.; Dereje, D.; Deribe, K. S.; Desai, R.; Desalegn, M. D.; Dessalegn, F. N.; Dessalegni, S. A. A.; Dessie, G.; Desta, A. A.; Dewan, S. M. R.; Dharmaratne, S. D.; Dhimal, M.; Dianatinasab, M.; Diao, N.; Diaz, D.; Digesa, L. E.; Dixit, S. G.; Doaei, S.; Doan, L. P.; Doku, P. N.; Dongarwar, D.; dos Santos, W. M.; Driscoll, T. R.; Dsouza, H. L.; Durojaiye, O. C.; Edalati, S.; Eghbalian, F.; Ehsani-Chimeh, E.; Eini, E.; Ekholuenetale, M.; Ekundayo, T. C.; Ekwueme, D. U.; El Tantawi, M.; Elbahnasawy, M. A.; Elbarazi, I.; Elghazaly, H.; Elhadi, M.; El-Huneidi, W.; Emamian, M. H.; Bain, L. E.; Enyew, D. B.; Erkhembayar, R.; Eshetu, T.; Eshrati, B.; Eskandarieh, S.; Espinosa-Montero, J.; Etaee, F.; Etemadimanesh, A.; Eyayu, T.; Ezeonwumelu, I. J.; Ezzikouri, S.; Fagbamigbe, A. F.; Fahimi, S.; Fakhradiyev, I. R.; Faraon, E. J. A.; Fares, J.; Farmany, A.; Farooque, U.; Farrokhpour, H.; Fasanmi, A. O.; Fatehizadeh, A.; Fatima, W.; Fattahi, H.; Fekadu, G.; Feleke, B. E.; Ferrari, A. A.; Ferrero, S.; Desideri, L. F.; Filip, I.; Fischer, F.; Foroumadi, R.; Foroutan, M.; Fukumoto, T.; Gaal, P. A.; Gad, M. M.; Gadanya, M. A.; Gaipov, A.; Galehdar, N.; Gallus, S.; Garg, T.; Fonseca, M. G.; Gebremariam, Y. H.; Gebremeskel, T. G.; Gebremichael, M. A.; Geda, Y. F.; Gela, Y. Y.; Gemeda, B. N. B.; Getachew, M.; Getachew, M. E.; Ghaffari, K.; Ghafourifard, M.; Ghamari, S. H.; Nour, M. G.; Ghassemi, F.; Ghimire, A.; Ghith, N.; Gholamalizadeh, M.; Navashenaq, J. G.; Ghozy, S.; Gilani, S. A.; Gill, P. S.; Ginindza, T. G.; Gizaw, A. T. T.; Glasbey, J. C.; Godos, J.; Goel, A.; Golechha, M.; Goleij, P.; Golinelli, D.; Golitaleb, M.; Gorini, G.; Goulart, B. N. G.; Grosso, G.; Guadie, H. A.; Gubari, M. I. M.; Gudayu, T. W.; Guerra, M. R.; Gunawardane, D. A.; Gupta, B.; Gupta, S.; Gupta, V.; Gupta, V. K.; Gurara, M. K.; Guta, A.; Habibzadeh, P.; Avval, A. H.; Hafezi-Nejad, N.; Ali, A. H.; Haj-Mirzaian, A.; Halboub, E. S.; Halimi, A.; Halwani, R.; Hamadeh, R. R.; Hameed, S.; Hamidi, S.; Hanif, A.; Hariri, S.; Harlianto, N. I.; Haro, J. M.; Hartono, R. K.; Hasaballah, A. I.; Hasan, S. M. M.; Hasani, H.; Hashemi, S. M.; Hassan, A. M.; Hassanipour, S.; Hayat, K.; Heidari, G.; Heidari, M.; Heidarymeybodi, Z.; Herrera-Serna, B. Y.; Herteliu, C.; Hezam, K.; Hiraike, Y.; Hlongwa, M. M.; Holla, R.; Holm, M.; Horita, N.; Hoseini, M.; Hossain, M. M.; Hossain, M. B. H.; Hosseini, M. S.; Hosseinzadeh, A.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Hostiuc, M.; Hostiuc, S.; Househ, M.; Huang, J. J.; Hugo, F. N.; Humayun, A.; Hussain, S.; Hussein, N. R.; Hwang, B. F.; Ibitoye, S. E.; Iftikhar, P. M.; Ikuta, K. S.; Ilesanmi, O. S.; Ilic, I. M.; Ilic, M. D.; Immurana, M.; Innos, K.; Iranpour, P.; Irham, L. M.; Islam, M. S.; Islam, R. M.; Islami, F.; Ismail, N. E.; Isola, G.; Iwagami, M.; Merin, J. L.; Jaiswal, A.; Jakovljevic, M.; Jalili, M.; Jalilian, S.; Jamshidi, E.; Jang, S. I.; Jani, C. T.; Javaheri, T.; Jayarajah, U. U.; Jayaram, S.; Jazayeri, S. B.; Jebai, R.; Jemal, B.; Jeong, W.; Jha, R. P.; Jindal, H. A.; John-Akinola, Y. O.; Jonas, J. B.; Joo, T.; Joseph, N.; Joukar, F.; Jozwiak, J. J.; Jarisson, M.; Kabir, A.; Kacimi, S. E. O.; Kadashetti, V.; Kahe, F.; Kakodkar, P. V.; Kalankesh, L. R.; Kalhor, R.; Kamal, V. K.; Kamangar, F.; Kamath, A.; Kanchan, T.; Kandaswamy, E.; Kandel, H.; Kang, H.; Kanno, G. G.; Kapoor, N.; Kar, S. S.; Karanth, S. D.; Karaye, I. M.; Karch, A.; Karimi, A.; Kassa, B. G.; Katoto, Pdmc, Kauppila, J. H.; Kaur, H.; Kebede, A. G.; Keikavoosi-Arani, L.; Kejela, G. G.; Bohan, P. M. K.; Keramati, M.; Keykhaei, M.; Khajuria, H.; Khan, A.; Khan, A. A. K.; Khan, E. A.; Khan, G.; Khan, M. N.; Ab Khan, M.; Khanali, J.; Khatab, K.; Khatatbeh, M. M.; Khatib, M. N.; Khayamzadeh, M.; Kashani, H. R. K.; Tabari, M. A. K.; et al..
Lancet ; 400(10352):563-591, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068419

ABSTRACT

Background Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally. Methods The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented. Findings Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4.45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4.01-4.94) deaths and 105 million (95.0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44.4% (41.3-48.4) of all cancer deaths and 42.0% (39.1-45.6) of all DALYs. There were 2.88 million (2.60-3.18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50.6% [47.8-54.1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1.58 million (1.36-1.84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36.3% [32.5-41.3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20.4% (12.6-28.4) and DALYs by 16.8% (8.8-25.0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34.7% [27.9-42.8] and 33.3% [25.8-42.0]). Interpretation The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden. Copyright (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.

10.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212-1212, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068365
11.
Natural Product Communications ; 17(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064397

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has been responsible for over 500 million cumulative cases all over the world since December 2019 and has marked the third introduction of a highly pathogenic virus after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. This virus is in a winning situation because scientists are still racing to explore effective therapeutics, vaccines, and event treatment regimens. In view of progress in current disease management, until now none of the preventive/treatment measures can be considered entirely effective to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, it is required to look up substitute ways for the management of this disease. In this context, herbal medicines could be a good choice. This article emphasizes the antiviral potential of some herbal constituents which further can be a drug of choice in SARS-CoV-2 treatment. This article may be a ready reference for discovering natural lead compounds and targets in SARS-CoV-2 associated works.

12.
Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 107(Supplement 2):A439, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2064060

ABSTRACT

Aims The National Institute of Excellence (NICE) in 2016 guideline recommendations as per requirements of Care Act 2014, states to follow best practice for Transition from children to adults' services for young people who are using health or social care services. During this transition period the young people can be comprehensively prepared with adequate provision of information, services geared towards young people, person-centered planning, which is delivered by adequately trained professionals both in children's and adults' services, including support for parents and care providers. Our transition clinics are attended by Paediatrician, Rehabilitation medicine consultant, other relevant clinicians, and therapists. The aim of the study is to determine the quality of Transition Clinic Multidisciplinary Team proforma completed by Community Paediatrics team. Methods Retrospective data about Transition clinic, was retrieved from electronic health record database called systemone. The data collected from 4 clinics held over one year period between February 2020 to 2021. The clinic details are recorded on purpose-designed proforma for discussion in multidisciplinary meeting in transition clinic. The proforma captures these young people complex needs and comorbidities including learning disability, motor impairment, skeletal deformity, and feeding difficulties. The data was analysed and compared using Microsoft excel 2010. Results A total of 11 patients with age ranges from 15 to 19, were reviewed in Transition clinic from February 2020 to 2021. Among these cases, 6 patients had virtual consultation due to pandemic. There were higher proportion of girls about 63% compared to boys, who were about 36%, reviewed in these clinics. Among them 82% had Cerebral palsy and the rest 18% had complex congenital abnormality. There was 100% accuracy in the clinical data entry with regards to diagnosis, medication, and general health enquiry, except clinical examination which is close to 36%. This could be due to virtual clinics held during pandemic. Other professional and therapist involvement had been documented in a separate section. Also, there was 100% documentation on detailed plans, however only 30% had information about the relevant contact details for other services. The statistical calculation is not possible due to small sample size. Conclusion The study demonstrates that majority of these transition clinic entries followed MDT proforma. The clinical documentation does reflect the multidisciplinary discussion with focus on the young person's complex and multiple needs during transition period and to support before transition into adult care service. The professionals tried their best to deliver the care during the COVID pandemic, without any cancellation, also parental and carers concerns about pain and growth were taken into consideration during these virtual clinics. All children's and adults' services should give young people and their families or carers information about what to expect from services and what support is available to them. Therefore, we have introduced a standardised proforma incorporating the key areas specified by NICE, which include relevant details and contact information about the available adult services. The revised transition clinic format has been created as quality improvement project to improve clinical documentation.

13.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):965, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063547

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recurs after kidney transplantation (KT) in 30-50% of recipients with a median time of 1.5 months post- KT. Recurrence is associated with early graft loss in 60% of cases. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of pre-emptive therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and rituximab for the prevention of FSGS recurrence post-KT. Method(s): This single-center, retrospective study included patients receiving KT for primary FSGS between May 2016 and August 2021. Living-donor KT recipients received three sessions of TPE prior to scheduled transplant. Recipients of both living and deceased donor KT received 3 postoperative sessions of TPE followed by one dose of 375 mg/m2 rituximab with or without intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) 0.5 g/kg. Recipients underwent protocol biopsy at one month to screen for FSGS recurrence. The primary endpoint was a composite for disease recurrence including proteinuria (>=1 g/day) or/and biopsy-proven FSGS within one month. Result(s): 54 patients received KT for FSGS during the study period using the TPE/ rituximab protocol. 5 patients (9%) experienced FSGS recurrence within one month of transplant. A total of 10 patients (19%) were found to have disease recurrence within a year, with median (IQR) time to recurrence of 37 days (27-66). White race and history of hypertension were independent risk factors for recurrence, whereas African American race and diabetes were associated with a reduced risk of recurrence. 31 patients (57%) also received IVIG prior to discharge due to concerns for hypogammaglobulinemia. There were 18 documented infections in 13 patients (24%) within 3 months of transplant. Patients who received IVIG had significantly fewer cases of infection (3 cases: 1 viral and 2 COVID-19) compared to patients who did not receive IVIG (15 cases: 4 bacterial, 9 viral, 1 fungal, and 1 COVID-19), p<0.001. At one year, 9 patients (19%) had biopsy-proven rejection (5 acute cellular rejection, 1 antibody-mediated rejection, and 3 mixed rejection). There were no instances of graft loss or mortality observed at one year. Conclusion(s): The utilization of plasma exchange and rituximab may prevent early disease recurrence of FSGS without significant rates of infection, graft loss, or mortality.

14.
Chest ; 162(4):A2203, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060911

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Pulmonary Manifestations of Systemic Disease Case Posters SESSION TYPE: Case Report Posters PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 01:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Granulomatous polyangiitis (GPA), previously known as Wegener's granulomatosis, is a rare syndrome characterized by inflammation of small and medium sized vessels. The clinical presentation can be very heterogenous and differentiation from an infectious disease can be challenging initially. Here, we present a case of a young male presenting with respiratory symptoms during the pandemic, presumed to have coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) though after extensive workup was later diagnosed with GPA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 19-year-old male presented to the emergency department (ED) with complaints of low-grade fever and dry cough for one week. He reported having abdominal pain, fatigue, loss of appetite and polyarthralgia. An outpatient upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed gastritis and duodenitis. In the ED, his vitals included a temperature of 101.8°F, blood pressure of 115/65mmHg, heart rate of 99/min, respiratory rate of 18/minute and oxygen saturation of 99% on room air. COVID-19 testing was negative. A computerized tomography of the chest revealed extensive ground glass opacities. He was presumptively diagnosed with COVID-19 and started on dexamethasone therapy along with azithromycin for atypical pneumonia. However multiple tests for SARS-CoV-2 were negative. Another consideration was COVID-19 induced multisystem inflammatory syndrome given the patients young age. Infectious workup included negative testing for human immunodeficiency virus, Legionella, tick borne diseases and mycoplasma. As febrile episodes continued, he developed microcytic anemia, microscopic hematuria, and petechial rash on his ankles. Antinuclear antigen screen was negative, but C-antineutrophil cytoplasmic and anti-proteinase-3 antibodies were positive. Renal biopsy revealed GPA. He was prescribed pulse dose steroids and transitioned to immunotherapy. DISCUSSION: GPA is a challenging diagnosis given multiple system involvement, though early identification and initiation of treatment are important to prevent long term sequalae. In our case, acute onset febrile illness and pulmonary ground glass opacities led to repeated COVID-19 testing potentially delaying the diagnosis. Ultimately, the correct diagnosis was made and confirmed on renal biopsy. We believe our case highlight the importance of keeping a broad differential and considering vasculitis in these situations for prompt diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: GPA can often mimic respiratory infectious processes, a high index of suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis. Reference #1: Selvaraj V, Moustafa A, Dapaah-Afriyie K, et alCOVID-19-induced granulomatosis with polyangiitis. BMJ Case Reports CP 2021;14:e242142 Reference #2: Qurratulain, Q., Ahmed, A., & Jones, Q. (2021). Lesson of the month: Severe granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA): a diagnostic challenge during the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical Medicine, 21(1), 79. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Aamna Khan No relevant relationships by Usama Sadiq No relevant relationships by Rehan Saeed

15.
Chest ; 162(4):A2145, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060901

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a disorder with multisystem involvement of unclear, and likely multifactorial, etiology. A majority of cases (up to 90%) include lung involvement, and hilar/mediastinal lymphadenopathy is frequently seen. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple complications of COVID-19 have been reported. We present a case of a female patient who developed new-onset, biopsy-proven Pulmonary Sarcoidosis after having COVID-19 pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A forty-eight-year-old female with a past medical history of hypertension presented to the emergency department with a complaint of fever, shortness of breath, and cough. She was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 infection/pneumonia. A computed tomography angiogram of the chest was completed to evaluate an abnormal chest radiograph and to rule out pulmonary embolism and revealed pulmonary nodules throughout both lungs with mediastinal and hilar lymphadenopathy. She was referred to the pulmonary clinic for further evaluation of her abnormal computed tomography scan of the chest and presented after quarantine for her COVID-19 infection. She denied any history of Sarcoidosis and denied any mold exposure. She underwent bronchoscopy, and pathology results were consistent with non-caseating granulomas concerning for Sarcoidosis. Over the course of a few days, her symptoms improved. Repeat computed tomography scan of the chest was completed, which showed complete resolution of the previously identified pulmonary nodules with interval improvement of mediastinal adenopathy. DISCUSSION: With the increased number of COVID-19 cases worldwide, an ever-growing list of pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 have been reported. To our knowledge based on literature review, there have only been a few case reports of COVID-19 induced Sarcoidosis. Although the pathophysiology of Sarcoidosis largely remains unknown, inflammation is mediated through the dysregulation of several different cytokines (1). Behbahani, et al. proposed noncaseating granulomas formation as a sarcoid-like immune reaction to SARS-CoV-2. Ekinci et al. reported type-I IFN and IFN-γ role in triggering granuloma formation (2). In our patient, the biopsy-proven presence of non-caseating granuloma formation and subsequent rapid improvement of radiological lesions on computed tomography scan after recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia supports the diagnosis of COVID-19 induced Sarcoidosis. CONCLUSIONS: With the COVID-19 pandemic ongoing, physicians must be aware of the pulmonary and extrapulmonary manifestations of COVID-19 infection. Further studies are required in order to manage such cases and to evaluate COVID-19 infection as an infectious antigen capable of triggering granulomatous inflammation resulting in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis. Reference #1: Capaccione KM, McGroder C, Garcia CK, Fedyna S, Saqi A, Salvatore MM. COVID-19-induced pulmonary sarcoid: A case report and review of the literature. Clin Imaging. 2022;83:152-158. doi:10.1016/j.clinimag.2021.12.021 Reference #2: Polat Ekinci A, Büyükbabani N, Meşe S, Pehlivan G, Okumuş NG, Ağaçfidan A, Özkaya E. COVID-19-triggered sarcoidal granulomas mimicking scar sarcoidosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2021 Aug;35(8):e477-e480. doi: 10.1111/jdv.17286. Epub 2021 May 1. PMID: 33871106;PMCID: PMC8250646. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Zachary Anderson No relevant relationships by Sakina Batool No relevant relationships by Adnan Khan No relevant relationships by Bireera Muzaffar No relevant relationships by Ramsha Zafar

16.
Chest ; 162(4):A906, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060723

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Unique Inflammatory and Autoimmune Complications of COVID-19 Infections SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/19/2022 12:45 pm - 1:45 pm INTRODUCTION: Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare, life-threatening hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by severe, dysregulated hypercytokinemia. This can be associated with genetic defects or immunologic triggers such as infection, malignancy or autoimmune disorder. The clinical picture consists of multi-organ failure including fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenia,hypertriglyceridemia, hemophagocytosis, high ferritin and IL-2 levels, neurological and liver dysfunction. We present a case of a patient with HLH in the setting of Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old male presented to the ER with dyspnea and was found to have COVID-19 pneumonia. He had worsening hypoxemia and was admitted to ICU. He rapidly developed multi-system organ failure (MSOF)including severe hepatitis with AST 13,950 U/L and ALT 10,000 U/L, pancytopenia (Hb 12.9 g/dL, WBC 1.7 K/uL, platelet 15,000 K/uL), acute kidney injury (Cr 6.61 mg/dL), and severe ARDS requiring mechanical ventilation. Abdominal ultrasonography showed splenomegaly. Blood HSV1 DNA PCR was positive with liver biopsy revealing viral inclusions consistent with HSV hepatitis. He had elevated ferritin > 100,000 ug/L and LDH > 2500 U/L. Bone marrow biopsy demonstrated hemophagocytosis and trilineage hematopoiesis. He met 6 of 8 diagnostic criteria for HLH per the HLH-2004 protocol. He received dexamethasone. Risks and benefits of HLH-specific therapy were considered in the setting of liver dysfunction and the decision was made to withhold etoposide and administer anakinra. He died of refractory septic shock and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. DISCUSSION: Diagnosis of HLH can be challenging due to its rarity and the clinical picture may be initially attributed to sepsis in the presence of infection, as in our patient who had COVID-19 infection and HSV hepatitis. However, a ferritin level >10,000 ng/mL is 90% sensitive and 96 % specific for HLH, with very minimal overlap with sepsis, infections, and liver failure. Additionally, infection is a known trigger of HLH. Despite high mortality without therapy, survival can be significantly increased with HLH-specific therapy, such as etoposide. Treatment with etoposide in the setting of severe liver disease can raise concern because it is metabolized by the liver but it is an essential component of optimal therapy and can be considered in patients with hepatic dysfunction with dose reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Our case highlights the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for HLH in critically ill patients with MSOF and liver failure, despite an apparent infectious etiology. This may allow timely diagnosis, early referral to a specialist center and consideration of HLH-specific therapy such as etoposide despite liver dysfunction, to prevent high morbidity and mortality in this potentially fatal disease. Reference #1: Filipovich AH. Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and related disorders. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program 2009;:127. DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Abdul Khan No relevant relationships by Nehan Sher No relevant relationships by yuttiwat vorakunthada

17.
Chest ; 162(4):A764, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060684

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Lessons Learned from Critical Care Cases SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 12:25 pm - 01:25 pm INTRODUCTION: Local compression of the anterior chest wall (CACC) or abdomen has been shown to unexpectedly improve respiratory system compliance in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The mechanism is thought to be similar to prone positioning, causing a redistribution of transpulmonary pressures. Limited data exists regarding this topic, particularly as it applies to COVID-19. We describe two cases of improved compliance and oxygenation with CACC in individuals with COVID-19 related ARDS, including one with prior lung transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: Case 1: The patient was an unvaccinated 79 year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 on admission. One week later, he progressed to requiring CPAP therapy. He was intubated the following week. Prone ventilation was initially attempted, but this was discontinued due to hemodynamic instability. Despite neuromuscular blockade and lung-protective ventilation, the patient's respiratory mechanics continued to worsen. CACC was then initiated using a 10 lb sandbag on the upper thorax, resulting in improved compliance (8 to 11.4 mL/cmH2O) and driving pressure (30 to 21 cmH2O). While CACC allowed room to adjust PEEP, there was no significant change in oxygenation or paCO2. Case 2: The patient was a fully vaccinated 46 year-old man with a history of bilateral lung transplant for cystic fibrosis, who tested positive for COVID-19 and was treated with sotrovimab as an outpatient. Despite early treatment, the patient had worsening hypoxia necessitating admission, treatment with bilevel PAP therapy, and subsequent intubation. Prone ventilation was initiated, but discontinued after 1 day due to worsening hemodynamics and poor improvement. CACC was then employed using two 5 lb sandbags with an improvement in compliance (16.7 to 21.1 mL/cmH2O). There was also a significant improvement in oxygenation (P/F ratio 115 from 86) and a decrease in paCO2. Following this favorable response, prone positioning was resumed, demonstrating similar improvement in respiratory mechanics. DISCUSSION: These cases demonstrate improved respiratory mechanics with CACC, which may be due to a reduction in end-inspiratory over-distention. In the first case, CACC allowed for an increase in PEEP when prone ventilation was not tolerated. In the second case, it was a tool that directed clinicians to resume prone positioning, with favorable improvement in oxygenation. The decrease in paCO2 may signify improved V/Q matching and dead space ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: This case series illustrates CACC as a potential therapeutic and diagnostic tool for clinicians to make lung-protective ventilator adjustments in responders. Trials of CACC may improve compliance and oxygenation in these patients, and may indicate those who would benefit from further prone positioning. Additional investigation is needed to clarify the clinical role of CACC for the management of COVID-19 related ARDS. Reference #1: Marini JJ, Gattinoni L. Improving lung compliance by external compression of the chest wall. Crit Care. 2021;25(1):264. Published 2021 Jul 28. doi:10.1186/s13054-021-03700-8 DISCLOSURES: Speaker/Speaker's Bureau relationship with boehringer ingelheim Please note: $5001 - $20000 by Brad Bemiss, value=Travel and payment for lecture No relevant relationships by Anila Khan No relevant relationships by Rishi Mehta No relevant relationships by Jason Peng

18.
Chest ; 162(4):A502, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2060614

ABSTRACT

SESSION TITLE: Extraordinary Cardiovascular Reports SESSION TYPE: Rapid Fire Case Reports PRESENTED ON: 10/18/2022 01:35 pm - 02:35 pm INTRODUCTION: Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the most common autonomic disorders (1). POTS is diagnosed by increasing heart rate by 30 bpm on more, within the first 10 minutes of standing, without orthostatic hypotension (2). Associated debilitating symptoms are lightheadedness, fainting, tremor, orthostatic intolerance, and tachycardia (2). Viral infections such as HIV, hepatitis C, mumps, Epstein bar virus, and influenza have been commonly reported with POTS syndrome (3 ). We are presenting a rare case of COVID-19 induced POTS. CASE PRESENTATION: 38-year-old presented to the hospital with the chief complaint of shortness of breath chest tightness. Her past medical history was significant for COVID-19 infection two weeks before presentation. On arrival patient's vitals were within normal limits. Her physical examination was unremarkable. Laboratory investigations, including complete blood count, thyroid function test, and comprehensive metabolic profile, were unremarkable. Chest x-ray, CT angiogram, and echocardiogram were unremarkable for any consolidation, pulmonary embolism, and congestive heart failure. Orthostatic vitals were obtained, showing that the patient's heart rate increased from 90 beats/minute to 140 beats/minute, from supine to standing. This patient was diagnosed with COVID-19 induced POTS, given she was meeting the criteria of POTS and no other reason was found for postural orthostatic tachycardia. She was managed conservatively with hydration, and the patient was also instructed about yoga therapy. She was discharged home with a cardiology follow-up. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 induced POTS is a relatively new entity that most commonly affect female, and the estimated prevalence is around is 17 per 100,000 patients (3). It has been reported that 10% of the patient who tests positive for COVID-19 infection remains unwell beyond three weeks after recovery from the infection (2). For some of those patients, POTS may be the cause of their symptoms. The exact pathophysiology for COVID-19 induced POTS is poorly understood and may includes peripheral neuropathy, baroreceptor dysfunction, hypovolemia, and increased serum norepinephrine (2). Nonpharmacological treatment includes increasing fluid consumption of 2 to 3 L of water per day, lower limb compression stockings, and regular exercise (2). The commonly off-label pharmacological treatment include ivabradine, fludrocortisone, midodrine, and beta-blockers (2). CONCLUSIONS: POTS is a new and under-recognized entity. The clinician should have a high suspicion of POTS syndrome in a patient with a history of recent or remote COVID-19 infection presenting with orthostatic symptoms. Timely diagnosis is essential to prevent the morbidity associated with debilitating symptoms. Reference #1: Blitshteyn S & Whitelaw S. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) and Other Autonomic Disorders After COVID-19 Infection: A Case Series of 20 Patients. Immunol Res. 2021;69(2):205-11. Reference #2: Jenna Stephanie O'Sullivan, Andrew Lyne, Carl J Vaughan. COVID-19-Induced Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Treated with Ivabradine. BMJ Case Reports CP. 2021;14(6):e243585. Reference #3: Sujana Reddy, Satvik Reddy, Manish Arora. A Case of Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome Secondary to the Messenger RNA COVID-19 Vaccine. Cureus. 2021;13(5). DISCLOSURES: No relevant relationships by Arshan Khan

19.
Drug Safety ; 45(10):1212, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2046713

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the WHO classified COVID-19 a pandemic, vaccines have been developed to minimize the SARS-CoV-2 virus's incidence around the world. [1] For better understanding of the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines the identification of the localized and systemic side-effects after vaccination is important because the side effects between in a real-world community setting than reported in phase 3 trials, mostly minor in severity, and self-limiting. [2-5] Objective: To identify pattern of adverse effects of covid-19 vaccine among the people of Bangladesh. Methods: This follow up study was conducted among 2345 vaccinated people at Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University from June 2021 to December 2021. Data was collected by face to face and telephone interviewing through a structured questionnaire for 7 days daily for local effect and upto 28 days for systemic side effects after vaccination and SPSS software version 25.0 was used for statistical analysis Results: Among the total participants 2345, Most of the people were male 1565 (66.7%). 17.1% of people had local side effects. About 33.1% participants were experienced systemic side effects. Among the local side effects pain was more common and chill and shiver in systemic effects respectively 14.3% and 2%. About 89.1% participants were with co morbidity. Male were predominant and middle aged were more than older people. Conclusion: This study portrayed a precise scenario about the adverse effects of vaccine. The adverse effects of vaccine should be evidence based. Further education and research needed to encourage on evidenced based vaccination among the people. This was generated information for the clinical care providers to take necessary steps as a precaution in treating the adverse effects of any patients and the policy makers to take necessary steps in related to vaccine to handle this pandemic.

20.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2045394

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused a major disruption to colleges and universities, with many institutions cancelling in-person learning and moving to completely online instruction for a time. Since the pandemic began, institutions of higher education have utilized varying degrees of face-to-face, hybrid and online instruction. These changes have impacted both students and faculty in science and engineering fields. Traditional science and engineering students have had to adapt quickly to new, and largely unwelcome, means of learning. In addition, faculty have had to abruptly alter their teaching to adjust to changes in teaching formats imposed by the pandemic. Using a web-based survey of engineering and computer science programs in US and Canadian universities, this paper studies the challenges introduced to STEM education due to the COVID-19 pandemic from students' perspectives. The survey was administered in face-to-face, hybrid and completely online classes to study students' perceptions and attitudes as well as challenges related to changes in teaching formats during the pandemic. Furthermore, this study assesses students' perceptions about the future of teaching in a post COVID-19 environment. Results of this study provide insights into both current and future impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on engineering and computer science education. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022.

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