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1.
Global Mental Health ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1882692

ABSTRACT

Objectives: In addition to risking their physical well-being, frontline physicians are enduring significant emotional burden both at work and home during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and to identify associated factors among Bangladeshi physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods and design: A cross-sectional study using an online survey following a convenience sampling technique was conducted between April 21 and May 10, 2020. Outcomes assessed included demographic questions, COVID-19 related questions, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Results: The survey was completed by 412 Bangladeshi physicians. The findings revealed that, in terms of standardized HADS cut-off points, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among physicians was 67.72% and 48.5% respectively. Risk factors for higher rates of anxiety or depressive symptoms were: being female, physicians who had experienced COVID-19 like symptoms during the pandemic, those who had not received incentives, those who used self-funded personal protective equipment (PPE), not received adequate training, lacking perceived self-efficacy to manage COVID-19 positive patients, greater perceived stress of being infected, fear of getting assaulted/humiliated, being more connected with social media, having lower income levels to support the family, feeling more agitated, less than 2 hours of leisure activity per day and short sleep duration. All these factors were found to be positively associated with anxiety and depression in unadjusted and adjusted statistical models. Conclusions: This study identifies a real concern about the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among Bangladeshi physicians and identifies several associated factors during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given the vulnerability of the physicians in this extraordinary period whilst they are putting their own lives at risk to help people infected by COVID-19, health authorities should address the psychological needs of medical staff and formulate effective strategies to support vital frontline health workers.

2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880748
3.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880479
4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):264, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1879989

ABSTRACT

Background: People living with HIV may have increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19. However, few studies have examined the risk and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection specific to postpartum women living with HIV and their HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants. To address this gap, we compared incidence, risk factors, and symptomatology of SARS-CoV-2 infection among mother-infant pairs living with and without HIV. Methods: We conducted a nested study of healthy mothers and infants enrolled in a Nairobi, Kenya-based prospective cohort study. Women living with HIV were enrolled in the parent cohort only if on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for ≥6 months. SARS-CoV-2 serology was performed on plasma collected between 1 May-31 December 2020 to assess incidence of infection and duration of antibody detection. SARS-CoV-2 RNA PCR and sequencing was also conducted on stool from seropositive participants. Sociodemographic and clinical data were used to evaluate risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 with Cox regression and to assess symptomatic COVID-19 with generalized estimating equations. Results: Among 104 mothers (51 living with HIV, 53 HIV-uninfected) and 89 infants (41 HEU, 48 HIV-unexposed), SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity was 38% and 17%, respectively. Incidence of infection did not differ significantly between women living with HIV and HIV-uninfected women (Hazard Ratio [HR]=1.51, 95% CI:0.78-2.94) or HEU and HIV-unexposed infants (HR=1.48, 95% CI:0.54-4.09). Maternal SARS-CoV-2 substantially increased risk of infant infection, regardless of HIV exposure (HR=10.3, 95% CI:2.89-36.8). However, no other factors-including CD4 count and years on ART among women living with HIV-were associated with infection. Antibody levels waned below detection in ∼30% of mothers and infants after a mean of 6 and 5 months, respectively. Among seropositive participants, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected among 5 of 27 mothers (19%) and one of 13 infants (8%) with samples. Sequences recovered from 2 samples were related to circulating variants in Kenya in 2020. One-fifth of participants had mild to moderate symptoms, but there were no cases of severe COVID-19 or death. Conclusion: Our findings show there was a high risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among postpartum Kenyan women and their infants in 2020, though this risk was not substantially increased for women with well-managed HIV and most cases were asymptomatic. Rapidly waning antibody responses suggest continued preventive measures are needed until vaccination is widely available.

5.
13th IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2022 ; 2022-March:670-676, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874205

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented disruption to education and progressed remote teaching as a predominant model for delivering educational content. However, the online teaching and learning model has its challenges, such as the lack of technological tools to quantity the student attention and engagement with the learning content. This paper focuses on developing an e-learning framework for capturing and analysing the students' attention during remote teaching sessions and subsequently profiling their learning behaviour leveraging eye-tracking data. Our proposed eye-tracking solution deploys a webcam to capture and track raw gaze points that grant the user the freedom of natural head movement and scalability compared to conventional eye-tracking approaches. We derived various gaze metrics in conjunction with state-of the-art machine learning (ML) models like logistic regression, support vector machine and polynomial regression to classify the student attention with an accuracy above 91%. Furthermore, our findings can help in the early detection and diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among students, thus supporting their learning journeys by creating an adaptive learning environment tailored to their needs. © 2022 IEEE.

6.
13th IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference, EDUCON 2022 ; 2022-March:640-643, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1874198

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated our transition to an online and self-directed learning environment. In an effort to design better e-learning materials, we investigated the effectiveness of collecting psychophysiological eye-tracking data from participants in response to visual stimuli. In particular, we focused on collecting fixation data since this is closely related to human attention. Current wearable devices allow the measurement of visual data unobtrusively and in real-time, leading to new applications in wearable technology. Despite their accuracy, head-mounted eye trackers are too expensive for deployment on large-scale deployment. Therefore, we developed a low-cost, webcam-based eye tracking solution and compared its performance with a commercial head-mounted eye tracker. Four-minute lecture slides on the 3rd year electronic engineering course were presented as stimuli to eight learners for data collection. Their eye movement was collected within the pre-defined area of interest (AOI). Our results demonstrate that a low-cost webcam-based eye-tracking solution, combined with machine learning algorithms, can achieve similar accuracy to the head-worn tracker. Based on these results, learners can use the eye tracker for attention guidance. Our work also demonstrates that these webcam-based eye trackers can be scaled up and used in large classrooms to provide real-time information to instructors regarding student attention and behaviour. © 2022 IEEE.

7.
Data Science for COVID-19: Volume 2: Societal and Medical Perspectives ; : 243-256, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1872854

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus infection is proceeding with its spread over the world, with more than 2.7 million affirmed instances of coronavirus now in 185 nations. In any event, 190, 000 individuals have kicked the bucket. The United States has multiple occasions of the same number of affirmed cases as some other nation. The infection, which causes the respiratory disease coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was first identified in the city of Wuhan, China, in late 2019. It is spreading quickly in numerous nations and the number of passings is as yet climbing. The world is pretty upside down the present moment, as a result of the worldwide frenzy around coronavirus infection (COVID-19). In case you are feeling overpowered or worried about everything, then be consoled this is an extremely ordinary reaction. Notwithstanding, it is critical to back off of yourself and to set aside effort for self-care. We have assembled this rundown list (self-care dataset) of self-care exercises that you can do from home;this is the message the corresponding author got in morning wishes during his stay in China. In the fight against the pandemic, nations effectively utilized computerized innovations, for example, artificial intelligence, big data, cloud computing, blockchain, and 5G, which have adequately improved the proficiency of nations’ endeavors in scourge checking, infection following, counteraction, control and treatment, and asset assignment. The chapter discusses a couple of the ways in which data innovations were successfully utilized toward impact of healthcare treatments in Internet of Things (IoT) environment for analyzing a self-care contextual investigation during the coronavirus outbreak. © 2022 Elsevier Inc.

8.
Electronic Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine ; 32(2):244-254, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1871179

ABSTRACT

The ease of performing a laboratory test near to the patient, at the point-of-care, has resulted in the integration of point-of-care tests into healthcare treatment algorithms. However, their importance in patient care necessitates regular oversight and enforcement of best laboratory practices. This review discusses why this oversight is needed, it’s importance in ensuring quality results and processes that can be placed to ensure point-of-care tests are chosen carefully so that both oversight can be maintained and patient care is improved. Furthermore, it highlights the importance of delivering focused webinars and continuing education in a variety of formats. © 2021 International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. All rights reserved.

9.
Rheumatology (United Kingdom) ; 61(SUPPL 1):i35, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1868365

ABSTRACT

Background/Aims The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on emergency and scheduled care, affecting both inpatient and outpatient services for all specialities, including Rheumatology. During the first pandemic peak, rheumatology outpatient clinics all became virtual (i.e. telephone or video), except for a single emergency clinic per week. However, this face-to-face clinic, quickly became oversaturated resulting in a waiting list extending above 4 weeks for our patients. Methods In the lead-up to the second COVID-19 peak during the winter, we developed a novel, urgent, hot Rheumatology Clinic within our Ambulatory Emergency Care (AEC) department. This whole-day weekly clinic was delivered by a Rheumatology registrar, with consultant support. Its purpose was to provide a service for patients who did not require hospitalisation but required urgent face-to-face Rheumatology speciality review that could not wait for an outpatient appointment. Referrals came from General Practice, Urgent Care (i.e. Emergency Care, Acute Medicine and AEC) and from the Rheumatology department. Pathologies reviewed included vasculitides, inflammatory arthritis and inflammatory connective tissue diseases. The clinic facilitated for patients with suspected new diagnoses or flares of established rheumatological diseases. Furthermore, patients could also undergo urgent joint and soft tissue procedures. All referrals were directed to the Rheumatology registrar to triage. Because of the success of the clinic, it continued beyond the second peak with data gathered from its inception. Results Data was collected between November 2020 and June 2021, covering 23 hot clinics. A total of 118 patients were reviewed during this period. The highest number of referrals occurred during the second peak of the pandemic (38 patients over seven clinics compared to 48 patients over ten clinics post-peak). The majority of referrals were from Rheumatology directly (70%) compared with Urgent Care (14%) and General Practice (12%). Most (60%) were seen within 7-days of referral;a further 27% were seen within 7- 14 days. The main reasons for review delays beyond seven-days were lack of available clinic (46%) or lack of space (29%). The most common disease encountered was a chronic inflammatory arthropathy (48 patients). Conclusion The service has generated positive feedback from all patients. Furthermore, this clinic has benefited both Rheumatology and AEC. Firstly, it ensured timely face-to-face reviews of patients requiring urgent Rheumatology assessments. Secondly, it eased pressure on the Rheumatology department, particularly the outpatient emergency clinic. Thirdly, it ensured that the Rheumatology registrar continued to have Rheumatology training opportunities, particularly when redeployed during the Winter wave on other days of the week. Fourthly, the AEC department have had easier access to Rheumatology reviews. Finally, it has empowered the registrar to manage their own workload and organise the clinic enhancing management and leadership experience. The success of the clinic has resulted in its ongoing continuation.

10.
Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 8(2):57-63, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1865446

ABSTRACT

Background: IPC knowledge and practice can shield HCWs from being infected or even worse.

11.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research ; 16(5):SC06-SC10, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1863298

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Multisystem Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) temporally associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by fever, raised inflammatory markers, multisystem involvement with evidence of COVID-19 infection (positive RT-PCR or serology). It occurs concurrently or after 4-6 weeks of acute COVID infection.It has wide range of clinical presentation ranging from mild asymptomatic infection to severe life-threatening illness. Clinical presentation of MIS-C has considerable overlapping features with other tropical infections. During peak wave of COVID-19, when large proportion of population has been affected by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), contracting other infections during and within four weeks of active COVID-19 is inevitable. Despite of this concern, only few researchers have studied co-infection and they explained a complex interaction between COVID-19 and other infections like tuberculosis and dengue. They demonstrated how one infection augments the severity of other. To the best of our knowledge no pediatric population-based study explained the interaction of acute COVID-19 & MIS-C with other infections so far. Aim: To determine the association of MIS-C with co-infections in SARS-CoV-2 positive children of 1 month to less than 18 years of age. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of the medical records of pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, treated from September 2020 to February 2021, was performed.All the patients who fulfilled World Health Organization (WHO) criteria of MIS-C were included. Detailed demographic, clinical, laboratory parameters and associated co-infections were recorded.The severe and non severe MIS-C groups were compared. Sample ‘t’ test, Wilcoxon test and Chi-squared test were used for statistical analysis. results: A total of 44 children fulfilled the diagnostic criteria of MIS-C and were included in the study. Out of 44, 20 children (45.4%) had severe disease and 24 had non severe disease. The mean age of children with severe MIS-C was 7.38±5.39 years, as compared to 4.37±4.61 years in the non severe group (p-value= 0.044). Males were predominantly affected in both the groups (Male: Female =1.22:1 in severe MIS-C and 2.4:1 in non severe MIS-C). The gastrointestinal system was most commonly affected in both groups. Associated co-infection was noted more in severe MIS-C group (11 vs 1 patient in severe vs non severe group, p-value=<0.001). Tuberculosis was found to be associated in three patients, followed by complicated enteric fever, and severe dengue in two patients each. The odds ratio for developing severe MIS-C in the presence of co-infections was 10.5(CI=2.33-47.27) while in its absence it was 0.10(0.02-0.43). conclusion: The findings of this study support that concurrent infections in COVID-19 can exacerbate the severity of COVID-19 illness and may lead to severe MIS-C.

12.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1861049

ABSTRACT

Purpose: This study aims to examine the impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on two types of employees’ behaviors: family undermining and withdrawal. This study also proposes emotional exhaustion as a mediator and symmetrical internal communication as a moderator in the relationship between COVID-19-related job insecurity and employees’ behaviors. Design/methodology/approach: Using a time-lagged design, data were gathered from 193 employees working in Pakistan’s hospitality sector. Structural equation modeling in AMOS and PROCESS Macro were used to test the hypotheses. Findings: The results show that COVID-19-related job insecurity is positively related to family undermining and withdrawal behaviors, and these associations are mediated by emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, symmetrical internal communication weakens the positive influence of COVID-19-related job insecurity on emotional exhaustion. Additionally, the indirect impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on employees’ behavioral outcomes via emotional exhaustion is stronger for employees with low symmetrical internal communication than for those with high levels of symmetrical internal communication. Practical implications: Hospitality management needs to focus on transparent and horizontal communication patterns to reduce the ensuing negative behaviors from COVID-19-related job insecurity. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the impact of COVID-19-related job insecurity on two types of employees’ behaviors: family undermining and withdrawal. This study also offers new insights via mediating mechanisms and moderators associated with the relationship between COVID-19-related job insecurity and employees’ behavioral reactions. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

13.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 1(1), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860186

ABSTRACT

Measures to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread to household members was assessed by surveying COVID-19-positive physicians and advanced practice providers. Showering and changing were more common than physical distancing. Half of respondents reported a symptomatic household member. Most reported increased stress, worsening of mental health, and concerns about illness and impact on family. © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.

14.
Alexandria Engineering Journal ; 61(12):11211-11224, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1859245

ABSTRACT

This manuscript is devoted to establishing some theoretical and numerical results for a nonlinear dynamical system under Caputo fractional order derivative. Further, the said system addresses an infectious disease like COVID-19. The proposed system involves natural death rates of susceptible, infected and recovered classes respectively. By using nonlinear analysis feasible region and boundedness have been established first in this study. Global and Local stability analysis along with basic reproduction number have also addressed by using the next generation matrix method. Upon using the fixed point approach, existence and uniqueness of the approximate solution for the mentioned problem has also investigated. Some stability results of Hyers-Ulam (H-U) type have also discussed. Further for numerical treatment, we have exercised two numerical schemes including modified Euler method (MEM) and nonstandard finite difference (NSFD) method. Further the two numerical schemes have also compared with respect to CPU time. Graphical presentations have been displayed corresponding to different fractional order by using some real data. © 2022 THE AUTHORS

15.
IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1853435

ABSTRACT

The ubiquity of sensor technology and the Internet of Things prompted us to propose to develop a real-time digital dashboard to visualize the anxiety risks of populations during a pandemic, as in the case of COVID-19. To this end, here we provide an end-to-end communication architecture to detect physiological data related to heart rate, blood pressure, and SPO2, using wearable sensors and communicate them to remote servers. Based on this collected data, the centralized dashboard will classify in real time the patients of each geographic region involved according to a specific attribute, i.e., normal, mild, moderate, high, severe, or extreme. In addition, we also propose to incorporate the emerging technologies of Space Time Frequency Spreading (STFS) and Space-Time Spreading-Aided Indexed Modulation (STS-IM) for the design of the communication links. It has been found that the integration of STFS and STS-IM promises to reduce the likelihood of data disruption for the proposed architecture.

16.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology ; 79(9):2384-2384, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848339
17.
15th International Conference on Information Technology and Applications, ICITA 2021 ; 350:23-37, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1844318

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious dis- ease caused by a new virus. Exponential growth is not only threatening lives, but also impacting businesses and disrupting travel around the world. Aim: The aim of this work is to develop an efficient diagnosis of COVID-19 disease by differentiating it from viral pneumonia, bacterial pneumonia, and healthy cases using deep learning techniques. Method: In this work, we have used pre-trained knowledge to improve the diagnostic performance using transfer learning techniques and compared the performance of different CNN architectures. Results: Evaluation results using K-fold (10) showed that we have achieved state-of-the-art performance with overall accuracy of 98.75% on the perspective of CT and X-ray cases as a whole. Conclusion: Quantitative evaluation showed high accuracy for automatic diagnosis of COVID-19. Pre-trained deep learning models developed in this study could be used for early screening of coronavirus;however, it calls for extensive need to CT or X-rays dataset to develop a reliable application. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

18.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(1):91-96, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841856

ABSTRACT

Objective: To share the epidemiological, clinical and laboratory -based evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 with focus on the cases of re-infection;an update after one year of the ongoing pandemic. Study Design: Prospective observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pathology, in collaboration with Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, from Mar 2020 to Feb 2021. Methodology: Total 5190 nasopharyngeal swabs were collected and transported to the laboratory in viral transport media for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2, from all symptomatic patients with a history of exposure/traveling from endemic areas and those requiring admission in hospital and were screened for COVID-19 as per hospital standing protocols. Results: 561(10.8%) patients were PCR positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2. The mean age of patients was 39.45±31.9 years and a majority of patients were males 426 (76%). The most common symptoms were fever and dry cough followed by myalgia and shortness of breath. 37 (9%) patients died due to the severity of the illness. Total 6 (1.46%) cases of laboratory-confirmed reinfection of severe acute respiratory syndrome Corona Virus-2 were reported. 2(33%) cases of reinfection were observed in health care workers, mortality was seen in a single patient associated with old age and comorbidities. Conclusion: In our study, the severity of the disease was directly related to the age of patients and underlying comorbidities. Reinfection was associated with increased viral load and exposure to the infected environment. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

19.
SAGE Open ; 12(2), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1840925

ABSTRACT

The rapid expansion in globalization, changing economic and political conditions, health crisis, advancement in technologies, and customer demand shift have highlighted the business model concept’s growing importance in every business life walk. Despite the agreement on the business model’s role in innovation and firm success, this concept is unnoticed in the legal industry. The growing digitalization has disrupted the legal industry business model by enabling various cooperation, collaboration, value proposition, and value capture mechanism. Digitalization has innovated the legal business model and engaged them in the mundane adaptation in response to external environment changes. However, literature trends reveal that innovation in the legal business model is overlooked by academia. This study applied a case study method to highlight business model innovation in legal firms in the proposed framework of the business model navigator/magic triangle and business model canvas. We also took the market and industry trends and COVID-19 into consideration in the legal business landscape. This study proposed a digital business model and innovation operating model for the legal firms based on the identified fundamental pillars of digital business model components. This study expands the literature on digitalization and business model innovation by focusing on an ignored industry with substantial disruptive potential. © The Author(s) 2022.

20.
Cytotherapy (Elsevier Inc.) ; 24(5):S87-S87, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1839420
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