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1.
Mathematical Methods in the Applied Sciences ; JOUR
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2085110

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we explore local dynamics with topological classifications, bifurcation analysis, and chaos control in a discrete-time COVID-19 epidemic model in the interior of Double-struck capital R+4$$ {\mathbb{R}}_{+}<

3.
International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2070218

ABSTRACT

Purpose Despite the abundant literature on panic buying during COVID-19 pandemic, the several causes and consequences of panic buying have been enormously ignored. The purpose of this study is to emphasize the consumer's behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic and illustrate the comprehensive theoretical model of consumers' panic buying to investigate its causes and consequences in a developing country empirically to uncover this gap. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected data from 419 households of all socioeconomic classes of Bangladesh. A hierarchical regression model analyzed the data. Findings This study finds that internal and external factors such as rumors, government strategies, fear and anxiety and health security significantly affect consumers' panic buying behaviors. This finding supports some theories of human behavior. This study also finds that panic buying has internal and external consequences such as price hike, shortage of supply of products, dissatisfaction of consumers and increase in utility (benefit) of the products but not on consumer's budget. This finding supports as well as contradicts some established theories of human and consumer behavior. Originality/value This study proves that panic buying cannot help the consumers and they are the ultimate sufferers of this. The findings of this study will help the government, media, suppliers and consumers to interact properly to maintain panic buying during a pandemic crisis. Giving a holistic explanation of the causes and consequences of panic buying by introducing some novel variables is a momentous strength of this study.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(19)2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066067

ABSTRACT

Blackboard is a collaborative virtual learning tool used for higher learning that has been found to be an effective and efficient means of interactions between teachers and students and offers effective educational information management. The aim of this research work is to assess the preclinical and clinical dental students' perception of Blackboard Collaborate as a quality teaching and learning tool as well as to find out areas that might appear as barriers to quality teaching and learning. This cross-sectional study was conducted online using survey monkey involving 245 dental students who had participated in the virtual classroom lectures during the pandemic with 18 students not completing the survey. The survey instrument was a nine-item questionnaire that included the age, sex, and year of study of the students as well as previous exposure to online lectures. The data collated was analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Statistics for windows version 22. Among 245 respondents that were enrolled in the study, 227 respondents completed the survey, of which 58.1% (n = 132) were male while 41.9% (n = 95) were females. Of the 227 respondents that completed this study, 74.8% (n = 170) of them experienced minimum to moderate technical problems regarding connectivity during the online sessions while 1.8% (n = 4) of the respondents experienced very severe technical problems. The majority of the respondents 54.2% (n = 123) support the continuation of online lectures even after the pandemic. In conclusion, we found a positive perception of our respondents to online lectures using Blackboard Collaborate. Internet connectivity as well as a decline in the comprehension of the lectures as compared to face-to-face learning were found as barriers to online learning.


Subject(s)
Education, Medical, Undergraduate , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Perception , Saudi Arabia , Students, Dental
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(26): e29741, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051690

ABSTRACT

Older individuals are more vulnerable to severe coronavirus disease 2019 and medical complications. Vaccination stands as an efficient and safe vanguard against infection. However, negative attitudes and perceptions pertaining to available vaccines might hinder community inoculation. The aim of this study was to assess vaccine hesitancy and its psychosocial determinants among the elderly in Qatar. We conducted a cross-sectional study between October 15 and November 15, 2020, using a composite online survey including the Vaccine Attitudes Examination Scale in addition to questions on sociodemographic correlates and the role of healthcare professionals. The vaccine hesitancy rate was 19.5%. The main reasons for willingness to vaccinate included understanding the nature of disease and role of vaccination, in addition to information provided by physicians. Fears mainly centered around vaccine safety. Vaccine hesitators were more likely to be non-Qatari and having received the influenza vaccine at least once. Gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, educational level, and having completed childhood vaccinations were not associated with vaccine hesitancy. Efforts should be directed toward raising awareness of vaccine efficacy and safety profiles. Physicians should additionally be educated about their pivotal role in advocating vaccine acceptance. We recommend reassessing vaccine hesitancy and its associated factors following a year of campaigning and vaccine administration to identify and target vulnerable groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , Urogenital Abnormalities , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Parents/psychology , Prevalence , Vaccination Hesitancy
6.
Health Policy Plan ; 37(8): 979-989, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051393

ABSTRACT

Decentralized, person-centred models of care delivery for drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) continue to be under-resourced in high-burden TB countries. The implementation of such models-made increasingly urgent by the COVID-19 pandemic-are key to addressing gaps in DR-TB care. We abstracted data of rifampicin-resistant (RR)/multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients initiated on treatment at 11 facilities between 2010 and 2017 in Sindh and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. We analysed trends in treatment outcomes relating to programme expansion to peri-urban and rural areas and estimated driving distance from patient residence to treatment facility. Among the 5586 RR/MDR-TB patients in the analysis, overall treatment success decreased from 82% to 66% between 2010 and 2017, as the programme expanded. The adjusted risk ratio for unfavourable outcomes was 1.013 (95% confidence interval 1.005-1.021) for every 20 km of driving distance. Our analysis suggests that expanding DR-TB care to centralized hubs added to increased unfavourable outcomes for people accessing care in peri-urban and rural districts. We propose that as enrolments increase, expanding DR-TB services close to or within affected communities is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Pakistan , Pandemics , Politics , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/epidemiology
7.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-17, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017223

ABSTRACT

Salmonella infections are continuously growing. Causative serovars have gained enhanced drug resistance and virulence. Current vaccines have fallen short of providing sufficient protection. mRNA vaccines have come up with huge success against SARS-CoV-2; Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines have resulted in >90% efficacy with efficient translocation, expression, and presentation of antigen to the host immune system. Herein, based on the same approach a mRNA vaccine construct has been designed and analyzed against Salmonella by joining regions of genes of outer membrane proteins C and F of S. Typhi through a flexible linker. Construct was flanked by regulatory regions that have previously shown better expression and translocation of encoded protein. GC content of the construct was improved to attain structural and thermodynamic stability and smooth translation. Sites of strong binding miRNAs were removed through codon optimization. Protein encoded by this construct is structurally plausible, highly antigenic, non-allergen to humans, and does not cross-react to the human proteome. It is enriched in potent, highly antigenic, and conserved linear and conformational epitopes. Most conserved conformational epitopes of core protein lie on extended beta hairpins exposed to the cellular exterior. Stability and thermodynamic attributes of the final construct were found highly comparable to the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine construct. Both contain a stable stem-loop structure downstream of the start codon and do not offer destabilizing secondary structures upstream of the start codon. Given structural and thermodynamic stability, effective immune response, and epitope composition the construct is expected to provide broad-spectrum protection against clinically important Salmonella serovars.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

8.
Comput Struct Biotechnol J ; 20: 4351-4359, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1977173

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 associated opportunistic fungal infections have posed major challenges in recent times. Global scientific efforts have identified several SARS-CoV2 host-pathogen interactions in a very short time span. However, information about the molecular basis of COVID-19 associated opportunistic fungal infections is not readily available. Previous studies have identified a number of host targets involved in these opportunistic fungal infections showing association with COVID-19 patients. We screened host targets involved in COVID-19-associated opportunistic fungal infections, in addition to host-pathogen interaction data of SARS-CoV2 from well-known and widely used biological databases. Venn diagram was prepared to screen common host targets involved in studied COVID-19-associated fungal infections. Moreover, an interaction network of studied disease targets was prepared with STRING to identify important targets on the basis of network biological parameters. The host-pathogen interaction (HPI) map of SARS-CoV2 was also prepared and screened to identify interactions of the virus with targets involved in studied fungal infections. Pathway enrichment analysis of host targets involved in studied opportunistic fungal infections and the subset of those involved in SARS-CoV2 HPI were performed separately. This data-based analysis screened six common targets involved in all studied fungal infections, among which CARD9 and CYP51A1 were involved in host-pathogen interactions with SARS-CoV2. Moreover, several signaling pathways such as integrin signaling were screened, which were associated with disease targets involved in SARS-CoV2 HPI. The results of this study indicate several host targets deserving detailed investigation to develop strategies for the management of SARS-CoV2-associated fungal infections.

9.
Microb Pathog ; 169: 105615, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1946063

ABSTRACT

Herein we have selected seventeen anti-lung cancer drugs to screen against Mpro, PLpro and spike glycoproteins of SARS-CoV-2to ascertain the potential therapeutic agent against COVID-19. ADMET profiling were employed to evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties. Molecular docking studies revealed that Capmatinib (CAP) showed highest binding affinity against the selected proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation and the analysis of RMSD, RMSF, and binding energy confirmed the abrupt conformational changes of the proteins due to the presence of this drug. These findings provide an opportunity for doing advanced experimental research to evaluate the potential drug to combat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939976

ABSTRACT

The innate immune system is the first line of host’s defense against invading pathogens. Multiple cellular sensors that detect viral components can induce innate antiviral immune responses. As a result, interferons and pro-inflammatory cytokines are produced which help in the elimination of invading viruses. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) belongs to Coronaviridae family, and has a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome. It can infect multiple hosts;in humans, it is responsible for the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Successful, timely, and appropriate detection of SARS-CoV-2 can be very important for the early generation of the immune response. Several drugs that target the innate immune receptors as well as other signaling molecules generated during the innate immune response are currently being investigated in clinical trials. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying host sensing and innate immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the role of innate immune receptors in terms of their therapeutic potential against SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we discussed the drugs undergoing clinical trials and the FDA approved drugs against SARS-CoV-2. This review will help in understanding the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and innate immune receptors and thus will point towards new dimensions for the development of new therapeutics, which can be beneficial in the current pandemic.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2095162, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937608

ABSTRACT

Scientists have emerged with innovative research on non-human primates showing that the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine increases neutralizing antibody levels against all variants. The current cross-sectional survey was designed to evaluate the knowledge, perception, and acceptance of the booster dose of the COVID-19 vaccine among the patients visiting the various dental clinics in Aseer region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 609 dental patients were selected from various dental clinics by a simple random probability sampling method. The questionnaire was designed in multiple languages and categorized as demographic information, knowledge, perception, and acceptance of participants to a booster dose. An anonymous, self-administered, closed-ended online, and paper-based questionnaire was used to assess the above parameters. In the current survey, the majority of the participants were Saudis (80.8%) with an age mean of 37.7 ± 8.7 years. About 68.6% (418 out of 609) of participants had poor knowledge about the booster dose. Significant differences in the levels of knowledge were found in relation to gender, area of residency, education, nationality, and occupation. The distribution of level of perception of booster dose differs significantly among participants of different marital statuses and nationalities. Hesitation to booster was reported more in the rural than in the urban population. Despite a low level of knowledge, a higher level of good perception and acceptance of booster doses were reported among the studied population.

12.
J Cent Nerv Syst Dis ; 14: 11795735221112589, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928023

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 associated neurological syndromes, including acute ischemic stroke, pose a challenge to treating physicians. The role of MRI in aiding diagnosis and further management is indispensable. The advent of new MRI sequences such as vessel wall imaging (VWI) allows an avenue in which these patients could be better investigated and treated. We describe our experience in managing a patient with COVID-19 associated atherothrombosis and stroke, focusing on the VWI imaging findings.

13.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 80: 104158, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1926184
14.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2022 01 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially affected students around the globe due to the closure of educational institutes. However, student involvements and contributions are important in combating the disease; for this reason, the current study was designed to assess the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP), preventive behavior, and risk perception among university students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted among medical and non-medical university students, from April 1 to June 30, 2020. The 68-item questionnaire was used to evaluate responses using statistical approaches (Student's t-test, regression-analysis, and co-relation analysis) by considering a P-value <0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 503 university students (medical and nonmedical) were selected, where majority of participants were females (83%) and 64.5% were of age ranged from 16 to 21 years old. The participants (80%) reported good disease knowledge with a mean score of 12.06 ± 1.75, which substantially higher among medical students (P < 0.05). Most of the respondents (72%) believed that COVID-19 will be effectively controlled through precautionary measures. In correlation subgroup analysis, a significant relationship (P = 0.025) between knowledge and positive attitude were indicated. Fear and knowledge of COVID-19 emerged as strong predictors (P < 0.001) of preventive behaviors towards disease. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated satisfactory knowledge, positive attitudes, and suitable practices among students toward COVID-19. University students can be involved in public education to aid the health authorities in achieving the targets of educational campaigns with maximum population coverage.

15.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 875-885, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1855208

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The infectious pandemics are generally accompanied by an often-overlooked impact it has on the psychology of the masses. Healthcare students and workers are expected to develop significant levels of stress as compared to the general population. The significance of this study is to assess the depression, anxiety and stress faced by the healthcare students that may lead to unfavourable effects on learning and their overall psychological health. Methods: This assessment was done by means of an anonymous, online, closed-ended questionnaire. DASS-21 scale was the primary instrument used for this purpose. The responses were recorded on a 4-point Likert scale. Results: The study had more male students, majority were between 21 and 23 years of age, asymptomatic and almost equal proportion of students from the fraternity of dentistry, medicine, pharmacy and nursing. Dental and pharmacy students were associated with lower stress than medical students whereas nursing students experienced higher anxiety as compared to medical students. Close contact with confirmed COVID-19 cases experienced higher stress and anxiety. Daily patient exposure was associated with significantly higher stress anxiety and depression. Conclusion: Based on the observations of the present study, a support program for psychological training for these health care students should be introduced.

16.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-331484

ABSTRACT

Background As a novel disease, understanding the relationship between the clinical and demographic characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients and their outcome is critical. We investigated this relationship in hospitalized patients in a tertiary healthcare setting. Aims/objectives To study COVID-19 severity and outcomes in relation to clinical and demographic characteristics of in admitted patients Methodology In this cross-sectional study, medical records for 1087 COVID-19 patients were reviewed to extract symptoms, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and outcomes data. Statistical analyses included the post-stratification chi-square test, independent sample t-test, multivariate logistic regression, and time-to-event analysis. Results The majority of the study participants were >50 years old (67%) and male (59%) and had the following symptoms: fever (96%), cough (95%), shortness of breath (73%), loss of taste (77%), and loss of smell (77%). Regarding worst outcome, multivariate regression analysis showed that these characteristics were statistically significant: shortness of breath (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 31.3;95% CI, 11.87–82.53;p < 0.001), intensive care unit (ICU) admission (aOR 28.3;95% CI,9.0–89.6;p < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (aOR 5.1;95% CI;3.2–8.2;p < 0.001), ischemic heart disease (aOR 3.4;95% CI,1.6–7;p = 0.001), nausea and vomiting (aOR 3.3;95% CI, 1.7–6.6;p = 0.001), and prolonged hospital stay (aOR 1.04;95% CI, 1.02–1.08;p = 0.001), while patients with rhinorrhea were significantly protected (aOR 0.3;95% CI, 0.2–0.5;p < 0.001). A Kaplan–Meier curve showed that the symptoms of shortness of breath, ICU admission, fever, nausea and vomiting, and diarrhea increased the risk of mortality. Conclusion Increasing age, certain comorbidities and symptoms, and direct admission to the ICU increased the risk of worse outcomes. Further research is needed to determine risk factors that may increase disease severity and devise a proper risk-scoring system to initiate timely management.

17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765727

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The relevance of growth determination in orthodontics is driving the search for the most precise and least invasive way of tracking the pubertal growth spurt. Our aim was to explore whether minimally invasive salivary estimation of biomarkers Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) could be used to estimate skeletal maturity for clinical convenience, especially in children and adolescent age groups. MATERIALS AND METHOD: The cross-sectional study was conducted on 90 participants (56 girls and 34 males) with ages ranging from 6 to 25 years. Each subject's hand-wrist radiograph was categorized based on skeletal maturity, and saliva samples were estimated for IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 using the respective ELISA kits. Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric ANOVA was applied to compare different skeletal stages. RESULTS: The study demonstrated low salivary IGF-1 levels at the prepubertal stage, with increase during pubertal onset and peak pubertal stage followed by a decline during pubertal deceleration to growth completion. Spearman's correlation coefficient demonstrated a strong positive association (r = 0.98 p < 0.01) between salivary IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio and different stages of skeletal maturity. CONCLUSION: Salivary IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and IGF/IGFBP-3 ratio could serve as a potential biochemical marker for predicting the completion of skeletal maturity.


Subject(s)
Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Male , Radiography , Wrist , Young Adult
18.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 12(2): 219-236, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761699

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been recently identified as a novel member of beta coronaviruses (CoVs) and the cause of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been first discovered in China and soon has spread across continents with an escalating number of mortalities. There is an urgent need for developing a COVID-19 vaccine to control the rapid transmission and the deleterious impact of the virus. The potent vaccine should have a good tolerable and efficacious profile to induce target-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. It should also exhibit no or minimal detrimental effects in children, young adults, and elderly people with or without co-morbidities from different racial backgrounds. Previously published findings of SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) played vital role in the characterization of surface spike proteins as the tool of entry of the SARS-CoV-2 into host cells. It has become evident that SARS-CoVs have high genetic similarity and this implies antecedent vaccination strategies could be implicated in the production of COVID-19 vaccines. Although several vaccines have been approved and rolled out, only a handful of them have passed the three phases of clinical studies. This review highlights the completed, and ongoing clinical trials of COVID-19 vaccines and efforts are being made globally to avert the pandemic.

19.
Ann Neurol ; 2022 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756553

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify the rates of neurological events following administration of mRNA (Pfizer, Moderna) or adenovirus vector (Janssen) vaccines in the U.S.. METHODS: We utilized publicly available data from the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collected between January 1, 2021-June 14, 2021. All free text symptoms that were reported within 42 days of vaccine administration were manually reviewed and grouped into 36 individual neurological diagnostic categories. Post-vaccination neurological event rates were compared between vaccine types and to age-matched baseline incidence rates in the U.S. and rates of neurological events following COVID. RESULTS: Of 306,907,697 COVID vaccine doses administered during the study timeframe, 314,610 (0.1%) people reported any adverse event and 105,214 (0.03%) reported neurological adverse events in a median of 1 day (IQR0-3) from inoculation. Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), and cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) occurred in fewer than 1 per 1,000,000 doses. Significantly more neurological adverse events were reported following Janssen (Ad26.COV2.S) vaccination compared to either Pfizer-BioNtech (BNT162b2) or Moderna (mRNA-1273; 0.15% versus 0.03% versus 0.03% of doses, respectively,P<0.0001). The observed-to-expected ratios for GBS, CVT and seizure following Janssen vaccination were ≥1.5-fold higher than background rates. However, the rate of neurological events after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection was up to 617-fold higher than after COVID vaccination. INTERPRETATION: Reports of serious neurological events following COVID vaccination are rare. GBS, CVT and seizure may occur at higher than background rates following Janssen vaccination. Despite this, rates of neurological complications following acute SARS-CoV-2 infection are up to 617-fold higher than after COVID vaccination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

20.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 10(1)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1744626

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread, meeting the testing needs to control the spread of infection became a major challenge worldwide. In Pakistan, the lack of the requisite infrastructure and training compounded the acute shortage of testing kits and other consumables. Against this backdrop and to urgently improve province-wide access to high-quality COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing with rapid turnaround times, the Government of the Sindh (GoS) province of Pakistan entered into a public-private partnership with Indus Hospital & Health Network (IHHN). Under this partnership, the GoS undertook sample collection and Indus Hospital in Karachi, Sindh, centralized testing. We describe the implementation strategies adopted by the partnership, as well as the challenges, opportunities, and lessons learned. Notably, up to 40% and 22% of total COVID-19 PCRs done in Sindh in the first 2 months of the pandemic, respectively, were performed at Indus Hospital in Karachi, though this percentage declined gradually as other centers caught up with their testing capacities. The rapid scaling up was achieved through a combination of mechanisms and factors including building on preexisting partnerships between the GoS and IHHN, pooling resources and harnessing distinct and complementary roles, relocating existing resources, introducing automation and information technology system changes, establishing risk mitigation strategies, and introducing quality measures within testing processes. The primary outcome of the partnership was rapid province-wide access to quality COVID-19 PCR testing with short turnaround times and at no cost to the patient. Furthermore, implementation of the partnership goals established new mechanisms as well as strengthened existing ones to enable rapid response to the future global health security challenges in Sindh, Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Global Health , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology
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