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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19087, 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2106475

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization categorized SARS-CoV-2 as a variant of concern, having numerous mutations in spike protein, which have been found to evade the effect of antibodies stimulated by the COVID-19 vaccine. The susceptibility to omicron variant by immunization-induced antibodies are direly required for risk evaluation. To avoid the risk of arising viral illness, the construction of a specific vaccine that triggers the production of targeted antibodies to combat infection remains highly imperative. The aim of the present study is to develop a particular vaccine exploiting bioinformatics approaches which can target B- and T-cells epitopes. Through this approach, novel epitopes of the S protein-SARS-CoV-2 were predicted for the development of a multiple epitope vaccine. Multiple epitopes were selected on the basis of toxicity, immunogenicity and antigenicity, and vaccine subunit was constructed having potential immunogenic properties. The epitopes were linked with 3 types of linker EAAAK, AAY and GPGPG for vaccine construction. Subsequently, vaccine structure was docked with the receptor and cloned in a pET-28a (+) vector. The constructed vaccine was ligated in pET-28a (+) vector in E. coli using the SnapGene tool for the expression study and a good immune response was observed. Several computational tools were used to predict and analyze the vaccine constructed by using spike protein sequence of omicrons. The current study identified a Multi-Epitope Vaccine (MEV) as a significant vaccine candidate that could potentially help the global world to combat SARS-CoV-2 infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Computational Biology , Escherichia coli , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1989332

ABSTRACT

Neo-Coronavirus (NeoCoV) is a novel Betacoronavirus (β-CoVs or Beta-CoVs) discovered in bat specimens in South Africa during 2011. The viral sequence is highly similar to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, particularly that of structural proteins. Thus, scientists have emphasized the threat posed by NeoCoV associated with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) usage, which could lead to a high death rate and faster transmission rate in humans. The development of a NeoCoV vaccine could provide a promising option for the future control of the virus in case of human infection. In silico predictions can decrease the number of experiments required, making the immunoinformatics approaches cost-effective and convenient. Herein, with the aid of immunoinformatics and reverse vaccinology, we aimed to formulate a multi-epitope vaccine that may be used to prevent and treat NeoCoV infection. Based on the NeoCoV proteins, B-cell, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL), and helper T lymphocyte (HTL) epitopes were shortlisted. Four vaccines (Neo-1–4) were devised by fusing shortlisted epitopes with appropriate adjuvants and linkers. The secondary and three-dimensional structures of final vaccines were then predicted. The binding interactions of these potential vaccines with toll-like immune receptors (TLR-2, TLR-3, and TLR-4) and major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHC-I and II) reveal that they properly fit into the receptors’ binding domains. Besides, Neo-1 and Neo-4 vaccines exhibited better docking energies of -101.08 kcal/mol and -114.47 kcal/mol, respectively, with TLR-3 as compared to other vaccine constructs. The constructed vaccines are highly antigenic, non-allergenic, soluble, non-toxic, and topologically assessable with good physiochemical characteristics. Codon optimization and in-silico cloning confirmed efficient expression of the designed vaccines in Escherichia coli strain K12. In-silico immune simulation indicated that Neo-1 and Neo-4 vaccines could induce a strong immune response against NeoCoV. Lastly, the binding stability and strong binding affinity of Neo-1 and Neo-4 with TLR-3 receptor were validated using molecular dynamics simulations and free energy calculations (Molecular Mechanics/Generalized Born Surface Area method). The final vaccines require experimental validation to establish their safety and effectiveness in preventing NeoCoV infections.

3.
Indian J Gastroenterol ; 41(3): 313-318, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1971854

ABSTRACT

Involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) system in corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) in form of diarrhea, loss of taste, nausea, and anorexia is common and associated with poor prognosis. COVID-19 is also associated with a hypercoagulable state that mainly involves the pulmonary vasculature. However, GI complications involving thrombosis are observed infrequently. We report two COVID-19 patients who had two different causes of acute abdomen. The first patient was a 49-year-old male diagnosed with an aortic thrombus along with a splenic infarct. He was diagnosed early and successfully managed with anticoagulants. The second patient was a 30-year-old male who developed pain in the abdomen and was found to have features suggestive of peritonitis. A contrast-enhanced computerized tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen revealed dilated bowel loops. Immediate exploratory laparotomy was performed; he was found to have jejunal perforation with gangrene. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed inflammatory cells with edema and thrombotic vessels. However, he succumbed to sepsis and multiorgan failure. Therefore, it is important to investigate cases of acute abdomen in COVID-19 thoroughly and whenever indicated CT angiogram should be obtained.


Subject(s)
Abdomen, Acute , COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Abdomen, Acute/etiology , Adult , Anticoagulants , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
4.
Biomolecules ; 12(7)2022 07 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928474

ABSTRACT

The number of deaths has been increased due to COVID-19 infections and uncertain neurological complications associated with the central nervous system. Post-infections and neurological manifestations in neuronal tissues caused by COVID-19 are still unknown and there is a need to explore how brainstorming promoted congenital impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease. SARS-CoV-2 neuro-invasion studies in vivo are still rare, despite the fact that other beta-coronaviruses have shown similar properties. Neural (olfactory or vagal) and hematogenous (crossing the blood-brain barrier) pathways have been hypothesized in light of new evidence showing the existence of SARS-CoV-2 host cell entry receptors into the specific components of human nerve and vascular tissue. Spike proteins are the primary key and structural component of the COVID-19 that promotes the infection into brain cells. Neurological manifestations and serious neurodegeneration occur through the binding of spike proteins to ACE2 receptor. The emerging evidence reported that, due to the high rate in the immediate wake of viral infection, the olfactory bulb, thalamus, and brain stem are intensely infected through a trans-synaptic transfer of the virus. It also instructs the release of chemokines, cytokines, and inflammatory signals immensely to the blood-brain barrier and infects the astrocytes, which causes neuroinflammation and neuron death; and this induction of excessive inflammation and immune response developed in more neurodegeneration complications. The present review revealed the pathophysiological effects, molecular, and cellular mechanisms of possible entry routes into the brain, pathogenicity of autoantibodies and emerging immunotherapies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Brain/metabolism , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
5.
Mycoses ; 65(11): 1010-1023, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896014

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) has been widely reported but homogenous large cohort studies are needed to gain real-world insights about the disease. METHODS: We collected clinical and laboratory data of 1161 patients hospitalised at our Institute from March 2020 to August 2021, defined their CAPA pathology, and analysed the data of CAPA/non-CAPA and deceased/survived CAPA patients using univariable and multivariable models. RESULTS: The overall prevalence and mortality of CAPA in our homogenous cohort of 1161 patients were 6.4% and 47.3%, respectively. The mortality of CAPA was higher than that of non-CAPA patients (hazard ratio: 1.8 [95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.8]). Diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.92 [1.15-3.21]); persistent fever (2.54 [1.17-5.53]); hemoptysis (7.91 [4.45-14.06]); and lung lesions of cavitation (8.78 [2.27-34.03]), consolidation (9.06 [2.03-40.39]), and nodules (8.26 [2.39-28.58]) were associated with development of CAPA by multivariable analysis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (2.68 [1.09-6.55]), a high computed tomography score index (OR 1.18 [1.08-1.29]; p < .001), and pulse glucocorticoid treatment (HR 4.0 [1.3-9.2]) were associated with mortality of the disease. Whereas neutrophilic leukocytosis (development: 1.09 [1.03-1.15] and mortality: 1.17 [1.08-1.28]) and lymphopenia (development: 0.68 [0.51-0.91] and mortality: 0.40 [0.20-0.83]) were associated with the development as well as mortality of CAPA. CONCLUSION: We observed a low but likely underestimated prevalence of CAPA in our study. CAPA is a disease with high mortality and diabetes is a significant factor for its development while ARDS and pulse glucocorticoid treatment are significant factors for its mortality. Cellular immune dysregulation may have a central role in CAPA from its development to mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Critical Care , Glucocorticoids , Humans , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/complications , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology
6.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(9)2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390721

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is threatening global health. SARS-CoV-2 has caused severe disease with significant mortality since December 2019. The enzyme chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) or main protease (Mpro) of the virus is considered to be a promising drug target due to its crucial role in viral replication and its genomic dissimilarity to human proteases. In this study, we implemented a structure-based virtual screening (VS) protocol in search of compounds that could inhibit the viral Mpro. A library of >eight hundred compounds was screened by molecular docking into multiple structures of Mpro, and the result was analyzed by consensus strategy. Those compounds that were ranked mutually in the 'Top-100' position in at least 50% of the structures were selected and their analogous binding modes predicted simultaneously in all the structures were considered as bioactive poses. Subsequently, based on the predicted physiological and pharmacokinetic behavior and interaction analysis, eleven compounds were identified as 'Hits' against SARS-CoV-2 Mpro. Those eleven compounds, along with the apo form of Mpro and one reference inhibitor (X77), were subjected to molecular dynamic simulation to explore the ligand-induced structural and dynamic behavior of Mpro. The MM-GBSA calculations reflect that eight out of eleven compounds specifically possess high to good binding affinities for Mpro. This study provides valuable insights to design more potent and selective inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 Mpro.

7.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(8)2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335263

ABSTRACT

As per the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 288 vaccines against COVID-19 are being developed, with an estimated 184 being presently investigated in the pre-clinical phases, while 104 of these vaccine candidates are at various stages of clinical trials. Twelve of these are in the advanced stages of clinical investigation, and promising results in the phase 3 trials have already paved the way for their regulatory approval and subsequent dissemination for global use. Preliminary and interim results of some of these candidate vaccines are being analyzed for public dissemination. Some of these vaccines have already been rolled out to immunize not only the highest risk individuals but also the general population in several countries. Once their safety and efficacy are established, the next limiting step would be their mass manufacturing by the pharmaceutical companies to fulfill the global demand. The challenge of manufacturing billions of doses of high-quality vaccines is under-appreciated at the moment. A massive vaccination drive would be needed to protect people of all ages. The timely and coordinated execution of the vaccination effort would require unprecedented coordination at the national and international levels for generating funds to purchase the required doses of vaccines, fair distribution of doses and managing the mechanics of delivering vaccines throughout the world.

8.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 938-946, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213376

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, the virus has infected more than 153 million individuals across the world due to its human-to-human transmission. The USA is the most affected country having more than 32-million cases till date. Sudden high fever, pneumonia and organ failure have been observed in infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: In the current situation of emerging viral disease, there is no specific vaccine, or any therapeutics available for SARS-CoV-2, thus there is a dire need to design a potential vaccine to combat the virus by developing immunity in the population. The purpose of present study was to develop a potential vaccine by targeting B and T-cell epitopes using bioinformatics approaches. METHODS: B- and T-cell epitopes are predicted from novel M protein-SARS-CoV-2 for the development of a unique multiple epitope vaccine by applying bioinformatics approaches. These epitopes were analyzed and selected for their immunogenicity, antigenicity scores, and toxicity in correspondence to their ability to trigger immune response. In combination to epitopes, best multi-epitope of potential immunogenic property was constructed. The epitopes were joined using EAAAK, AAY and GPGPG linkers. RESULTS: The constructed vaccine showed good results of worldwide population coverage and promising immune response. This constructed vaccine was subjected to in-silico immune simulations by C-ImmSim. Chimeric protein construct was cloned into PET28a (+) vector for expression study in Escherichia coli using snapgene. CONCLUSION: This vaccine design proved effective in various computer-based immune response analysis as well as showed good population coverage. This study is solely dependent on developing M protein-based vaccine, and these in silico findings would be a breakthrough in the development of an effective vaccine to eradicate SARS-CoV-2 globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China , Computational Biology , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
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