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1.
Therapeutic advances in infectious disease ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824039

ABSTRACT

Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM), a rare but fatal fungal infection, has recently emerged as a serious complication after corticosteroids therapy in COVID-19 patients, predominantly in diabetic and immunocompromised patients. The World Health Organization (WHO) COVID-19 current guidelines recommend corticosteroids administration in hospitalized COVID-19 patients requiring supplementary oxygen or mechanical ventilation. Herein, we report a case series of seven patients with COVID-19;three mild, three moderate, and one severe, from Lahore, Pakistan;all were using corticosteroids for managing their early mild symptoms of COVID-19 at home for around 2–3 weeks without a physician’s advise, presented, and admitted with ROCM to Mayo hospital, Lahore, from March to June 2021. Out of the seven patients, five patients had uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) as comorbidity. Eye pain, facial swelling and pain, nasal blockage, and black coloration around eyes, on palate, and oral mucosa were the presenting complaints at the time of admission. All the patients had radiographic imaging, including computed tomography (CT), paranasal sinuses (PNS), or brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) carried out at the hospital, which confirmed mucosal thickening and adjacent sinus bony erosions with intracranial extension. All the patients were treated with local debridement of the infected necrotic tissue along with intravenous liposomal Amphotericin B and Posaconazole or Amphotericin B depending on the case. Due to timely management, in six out of seven patients, prognosis was good due to early diagnosis and treatment, while one patient with severe COVID-19 illness deteriorated and died. The misuse of corticosteroids for managing early mild symptoms of COVID-19 in diabetic and other immunocompromised patients can lead to fatal ROCM, which can further increase their risk of developing severe COVID-19 and mortality. It is stressed that only physician’s recommended therapeutic advice should be followed for managing early mild symptoms of COVID-19 in self-isolation and avoid the unnecessary use of corticosteroids. This case series also emphasizes that COVID-19 diabetic patients treated with corticosteroids need more vigilant monitoring and high suspicion of early diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infection. Early diagnosis and management can reduce morbidity and mortality.

3.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. We considered the probability of an infected person transmitting the infection to close contacts regardless of residential addresses. This means that close contacts were identified irrespective of their relationship with the index case. We assessed demographic determinants of COVID-19 infectivity and transmissibility. For this purpose based on evolving evidence, and as CDC recommends fully vaccinated people get tested 5-7 days after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Therefore we followed the same procedure in the close contacts for secondary infection. FINDINGS: During the study period from 15th May 2020 to 15th Jan 2021, a total of 339 (33.9%) index cases were studied from 1000 cases initially notified. Among close contact groups (n = 739), households were identified with an assumed mean incubation period of 8.2+4.3 days and a maximum incubation period of 15 days. SAR estimated here is among the household contacts. 117 secondary cases from 739 household contacts, with SAR 11.1% (95% CI 9.0-13.6). All together (240) SAR achieved was 32.48% (95% CI; 29.12-37.87) for symptomatic and confirmed cases. The potential risk factors for SAR identified here included; old age group (>45 years of age), male (gender), household members >5, and residency in urban areas and for index cases high age group. Overall local reproductive number (R) based on the observed household contact frequencies for index/primary cases was 0.9 (95% CI 0.47-1.21) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 1.3 (95% CI 0.73-1.56) in Punjab. CONCLUSIONS: SAR estimated here was high especially in the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The results highlight the need to adopt rigorous preventive measures to cut the chain of viral transmission and prevent another wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
4.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1336-1349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718399

ABSTRACT

The entire world has been suffering from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since March 11, 2020. More than a year later, the COVID-19 vaccination brought hope to control this viral pandemic. Here, we review the unknowns of the COVID-19 vaccination, such as its longevity, asymptomatic spread, long-term side effects, and its efficacy on immunocompromised patients. In addition, we discuss challenges associated with the COVID-19 vaccination, such as the global access and distribution of vaccine doses, adherence to hygiene guidelines after vaccination, the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, and vaccine resistance. Despite all these challenges and the fact that the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is still unclear, vaccines have brought great hope for the world, with several reports indicating a significant decline in the risk of COVID19-related infection and hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
5.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e526, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704986
6.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(4): 389-394, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683344

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prior to the availability of the current COVID-19 vaccine, the need to control the pandemic worldwide was focused on management of the disease using previously approved antivirals, including Favipiravir which inhibits viral replication through the RNA dependent RNA polymerase enzyme. Favipiravir's efficacy against different viral infections has made it a potential treatment for COVID-19. We are aiming in this study to assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of Favipiravir in treating critically ill patients admitted with COVID-19 to Intensive Care Units (ICUs). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study was conducted in five tertiary hospitals in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The studied sample was randomized from a huge pool of data collected primarily for critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to (ICUs) during the period between April 2020 to March 2021. Two groups of patients matched 1: 1 for age and body mass index (BMI) was enrolled in the study; one group received Favipiravir and another comparison group received other antimicrobial medications, not including Favipiravir. RESULTS: A total data of 538 COVID-19 patients were analyzed, 269 (50.%) received Favipiravir and 269 (50%) the control group received different treatments. More than two-thirds 201 (74.7%) were Saudi citizens, the majority 177 (65.8%) were males and the mean age and (BMI) were; (57.23 ± 15.16) years and (31.61 ± 7.33) kg/m2 respectively. The most frequent symptoms of presentation were shortness of breath (SOB), fever, and cough, and the most frequent comorbidity was diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease. In the supplemental therapy, corticosteroid, tocilizumab and chloroquine were statistically significant (P = 0.001) when combined in the FVP group more than in the comparison group. Severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was more frequent among Favipiravir group, while the overall mortality rate among the Favipiravir group was not statistically significant (p-value 0.4). CONCLUSION: According to the study's results revealing FVP is not superior to other antivirals, patients who received Favipiravir presented with more severe symptoms, more comorbidities, more complications, and is not effective in controlling the cytokine storm which negatively impact the efficacy of Favipiravir. FVP therapy had no influence on ICU and hospital length of stay in comparison with the control group as well as in the overall mortality rate among the FVP group was not statistically significant. further research is needed to understand how FVP along with other treatments can improve the length of stay among COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Amides , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Pyrazines , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
7.
Biology (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1613603

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the health-promoting activities of methanolic extracts of Ajwa date seed and fruit pulp extracts through in vitro studies. These studies confirmed potential antioxidant, anti-hemolytic, anti-proteolytic, and anti-bacterial activities associated with Ajwa dates. The EC50 values of fruit pulp and seed extracts in methanol were reported to be 1580.35 ± 0.37 and 1272.68 ± 0.27 µg/mL, respectively, in the DPPH test. The maximum percentage of hydrogen peroxide-reducing activity was 71.3 and 65.38% for both extracts at 600 µg/mL. Fruit pulp and seed extracts inhibited heat-induced BSA denaturation by 68.11 and 60.308%, heat-induced hemolysis by 63.84% and 58.10%, and hypersalinity-induced hemolysis by 61.71% and 57.27%, and showed the maximum anti-proteinase potential of 56.8 and 51.31% at 600 µg/mL, respectively. Seed and fruit pulp inhibited heat-induced egg albumin denaturation at the same concentration by 44.31 and 50.84%, respectively. Ajwa seed showed minimum browning intensity by 63.2%, percent aggregation index by 64.2%, and amyloid structure by 63.8% at 600 µg/mL. At 100 mg/mL, Ajwa seed extract exhibited good antibacterial activity. Molecular docking analysis showed that ten active constituents of Ajwa seeds bind with the critical antioxidant enzymes, catalase (1DGH) and superoxide dismutase (5YTU). The functional residues involved in such interactions include Arg72, Ala357, and Leu144 in 1DGH, and Gly37, Pro13, and Asp11 in 5YTU. Hence, Ajwa dates can be used to develop a suitable alternative therapy in various diseases, including diabetes and possibly COVID-19-associated complications.

8.
Eur J Med Res ; 26(1): 141, 2021 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used as a rescue strategy in patients with severe with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there has been little evidence of its efficacy. OBJECTIVES: To describe the effect of ECMO rescue therapy on patient-important outcomes in patients with severe SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A case series study was conducted for the laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 patients who were admitted to the ICUs of 22 Saudi hospitals, between March 1, 2020, and October 30, 2020, by reviewing patient's medical records prospectively. RESULTS: ECMO use was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (40.2% vs. 48.9%; p = 0.000); lower COVID-19 virological cure (41.3% vs 14.1%, p = 0.000); and longer hospitalization (20.2 days vs 29.1 days; p = 0.000), ICU stay (12.6 vs 26 days; p = 0.000) and mechanical ventilation use (14.2 days vs 22.4 days; p = 0.000) compared to non-ECMO group. Also, there was a high number of patients with septic shock (19.6%) and multiple organ failure (10.9%); and more complications occurred at any time during hospitalization [pneumothorax (5% vs 29.3%, p = 0.000), bleeding requiring blood transfusion (7.1% vs 38%, p = 0.000), pulmonary embolism (6.4% vs 15.2%, p = 0.016), and gastrointestinal bleeding (3.3% vs 8.7%, p = 0.017)] in the ECMO group. However, PaO2 was significantly higher in the 72-h post-ECMO initiation group and PCO2 was significantly lower in the 72-h post-ECMO start group than those in the 12-h pre-ECMO group (62.9 vs. 70 mmHg, p = 0.002 and 61.8 vs. 51 mmHg, p = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: Following the use of ECMO, the mortality rate of patients and length of ICU and hospital stay were not improved. However, these findings need to be carefully interpreted, as most of our cohort patients were relatively old and had multiple severe comorbidities. Future randomized trials, although challenging to conduct, are highly needed to confirm or dispute reported observations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Temperature , Young Adult
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1336-1349, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540141

ABSTRACT

The entire world has been suffering from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since March 11, 2020. More than a year later, the COVID-19 vaccination brought hope to control this viral pandemic. Here, we review the unknowns of the COVID-19 vaccination, such as its longevity, asymptomatic spread, long-term side effects, and its efficacy on immunocompromised patients. In addition, we discuss challenges associated with the COVID-19 vaccination, such as the global access and distribution of vaccine doses, adherence to hygiene guidelines after vaccination, the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants, and vaccine resistance. Despite all these challenges and the fact that the end of the COVID-19 pandemic is still unclear, vaccines have brought great hope for the world, with several reports indicating a significant decline in the risk of COVID19-related infection and hospitalizations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Global Health , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccination/psychology
10.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(2): 190-195, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535066

ABSTRACT

When looking for new antiviral compounds aimed to counteract the COVID-19, a disease caused by the recently identified novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the knowledge of the main viral proteins is fundamental. The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein. Molecular docking studies have highlighted that quercetin, a natural polyphenol belonging to the flavonol class, inhibits 3CLpro, PLpro and S proteins. Biophysical technics have then very recently confirmed that quercetin is reasonably a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro. The likely antiviral properties of quercetin are anyway challenged by its very poor oral bioavailability profile and any attempt to overcome this limit should be welcome. A phospholipid delivery form of quercetin (Quercetin Phytosome®) has been recently tested in humans to evaluate a possible improvement in oral bioavailability. After hydrolysis of the conjugated form (mainly glucuronide) of quercetin found in human plasma, the pharmacokinetics results have demonstrated an increased bioavailability rate by about 20-fold for total quercetin. It has been also observed that the presence of specific glucuronidase could yield free systemic quercetin in human body. Taking also into considerations its anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, a bioavailable form of quercetin, like Quercetin Phytosome®, should be considered a possible candidate to clinically face COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
11.
BMJ Paediatrics Open ; 5(Suppl 1):A88-A89, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1476675

ABSTRACT

302 Table 1Comments made by parentsParental Experience of virtual clinics 1. Doctor listens and gives good advice The centre is really helping and give a great follow up to parents of children with disabilities Be reassured that everything will be ok 2. Everyone has been extremely helpful during this situation. I cannot fault a single thing. 3. We discussed different elements of my daughters needs and agreed on a plan going forward, I felt included and that I mattered in the decision making process 4. Overall the Nursing Team and the Paediatrician have been very supportive over the lockdown. 5. I thought it was a great idea. I had to cancel at short notice - waiting for another time but we have no issues so I’m not chasing. ConclusionsOverall, parents felt very much reassured that we are running a service during lockdown. However one parent felt that her child was too complex to be seen in virtual clinic. Our observations support the idea of multidisciplinary virtual clinics for special needs children but we agree that it cannot replace face to face consultations.

12.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 5517-5526, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1416998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Colchicine has been proposed as a potential therapy in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) due to their anti-inflammatory actions. METHODS: The COL-COVID study was a prospective, randomized, controlled and open-label clinical trial that compared colchicine added to standard treatment vs standard treatment in hospitalized COVID-19 patients that do not need mechanical ventilatory support. Colchicine was initiated within the first 48 hours of admission at a 1.5 mg loading dose, followed by 0.5 mg b.i.d. for one week and 0.5 mg per day for 28 days. The study endpoints were clinical status (7-points WHO ordinal scale) and inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6 and CRP). RESULTS: A total of 103 patients (51±12 years, 52% male) were randomly allocated to colchicine arm (n=52) and control arm (n=51). At day 28, all patients in the colchicine group were alive and discharged, whereas in the control group, two patients died in-hospital and one patient remained hospitalized. Clinical improvement in terms of changes on WHO scale at day 14 and 28 and time to 1-point clinical improvement did not differ between the two groups. Clinical deterioration (increase of at least 1-point in WHO scale) was observed in a higher proportion of cases in colchicine group (13.8%) vs control group (5.8%) (p=0.303); after adjustment by baseline risk factors and concomitant therapies, colchicine therapy was associated with a lower risk of clinical deterioration (p=0.030). Inflammatory biomarkers CRP and IL-6 concentrations course did not differ between the two arms. CONCLUSION: In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, colchicine treatment neither improved the clinical status, nor the inflammatory response, over the standard treatment. Nevertheless, a preventive effect for further clinical deterioration might be possible. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04350320.

13.
Nature ; 599(7884): 283-289, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404888

ABSTRACT

Derailed cytokine and immune cell networks account for the organ damage and the clinical severity of COVID-19 (refs. 1-4). Here we show that SARS-CoV-2, like other viruses, evokes cellular senescence as a primary stress response in infected cells. Virus-induced senescence (VIS) is indistinguishable from other forms of cellular senescence and is accompanied by a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), which comprises pro-inflammatory cytokines, extracellular-matrix-active factors and pro-coagulatory mediators5-7. Patients with COVID-19 displayed markers of senescence in their airway mucosa in situ and increased serum levels of SASP factors. In vitro assays demonstrated macrophage activation with SASP-reminiscent secretion, complement lysis and SASP-amplifying secondary senescence of endothelial cells, which mirrored hallmark features of COVID-19 such as macrophage and neutrophil infiltration, endothelial damage and widespread thrombosis in affected lung tissue1,8,9. Moreover, supernatant from VIS cells, including SARS-CoV-2-induced senescence, induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation and activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Senolytics such as navitoclax and a combination of dasatinib plus quercetin selectively eliminated VIS cells, mitigated COVID-19-reminiscent lung disease and reduced inflammation in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters and mice. Our findings mark VIS as a pathogenic trigger of COVID-19-related cytokine escalation and organ damage, and suggest that senolytic targeting of virus-infected cells is a treatment option against SARS-CoV-2 and perhaps other viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cellular Senescence/drug effects , Molecular Targeted Therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Aniline Compounds/pharmacology , Aniline Compounds/therapeutic use , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Cell Line , Cricetinae , Dasatinib/pharmacology , Dasatinib/therapeutic use , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Male , Mice , Quercetin/pharmacology , Quercetin/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Sulfonamides/therapeutic use , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/metabolism
14.
World Dev ; 147: 105629, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313492

ABSTRACT

Since COVID-19 broke out, there has been renewed interest in understanding the economic and social dynamics of historical and more recent epidemics and pandemics, from the plagues of Antiquity to modern-day outbreaks like Ebola. These events can have significant impacts on the interplay between poverty and social cohesion, i.e. how different groups in society interact and cooperate to survive and prosper. To that effect, this paper provides a theory-driven overview of how social responses to past epidemics and pandemics were determined by the epidemiological and non-epidemiological characteristics of these outbreaks, with a particular focus on the conditions giving rise to scapegoating and persecution of minority groups, including migrants. We discuss existing theories as well as historical and quantitative studies, and highlight the cases where epidemics and pandemics may lead to milder or more severe forms of scapegoating. Finally, we conclude with a summary of priorities for future research on epidemics, pandemics and social conflict and discuss the possible effects and policy implications of COVID-19.

15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0253036, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311281

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although COVID-19 is an acute disease that usually resolves rapidly in most cases, the disease can be fatal and has a mortality rate of about 1% to 56%. Alveolar injury and respiratory failure are the main causes of death in patients with COVID 19. In addition, the effect of the disease on other organs is not fully understood. Renal system affection has been reported in patients with COVID 19 and is associated with a higher rate of diverse outcomes, including mortality. Therefore, in the present work, we reported the clinical characteristics and laboratory data of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 and analyzed the manifestations that indicated renal system involvement and their impact on clinical outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study conducted at King Fahd Specialist Hospital, Buraydah, Saudi Arabia. All patients with COVID-19 who were admitted to this Hospital from April to December 2020 were included in the study. The patients' findings at presentation were recorded. Demographic data and laboratory results (hematuria, proteinuria, urinary sediment cast and pus cell presence, and kidney function tests) were retrieved from electronic patient records. RESULTS: One hundred and ninety-three patients with confirmed COVID 19 were included in the study. Dipstick examinations of all urine samples showed proteinuria and hematuria in 53.9% and 22.3% of patients, respectively, whereas microscopic examination revealed the presence of pus and brown muddy granular casts in 33.7% and 12.4% of samples, respectively. Acute kidney injury was reported in 23.3% of patients. A multivariable analysis demonstrated that hematuria was associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2-4.9; P = 0.001), ICU admission (OR, 3.789; 95% CI, 1.913-7.505; P = 0.003), and mortality (OR, 8.084; 95% CI, 3.756-17.397; P = 0.002). Conversely, proteinuria was less significantly associated with the risk of AKI (OR, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.91-7.50; P = 0.003), ICU admission (OR, 2.493; 95% CI, 1.25-4.72; P = 0.001), and mortality (OR, 2.764; 95% CI, 1.368-5.121; P = 0.003). Patients with AKI had a higher probability for mortality than did those without AKI (OR, 14.208; 95% CI, 6.434-31.375; P = 0.003). CONCLUSION: The manifestations of the involvement of the renal system are not uncommon in COVID-19. These manifestations included proteinuria, hematuria, and AKI and were usually associated with a poor prognosis, including high incidences of both ICU admission and mortality.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Saudi Arabia
16.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2807-2816, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290313

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the ongoing global pandemic known as COVID-19. Based on the potential antiviral role of quercetin, and on its described anti-blood clotting, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, we hypothesize that subjects with mild COVID-19 treated with Quercetin Phytosome® (QP), a novel bioavailable form of quercetin, may have a shorter time to virus clearance, a milder symptomatology, and higher probabilities of a benign earlier resolution of the disease. METHODS: In our 2-week, randomized, open-label, and controlled clinical study, we have enrolled 42 COVID-19 outpatients. Twenty-one have been treated with the standard of care (SC), and 21 with QP as add-on supplementation to the SC. Our main aims were to check virus clearance and symptoms. RESULTS: The interim results reveal that after 1 week of treatment, 16 patients of the QP group were tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 and 12 patients had all their symptoms diminished; in the SC group, 2 patients were tested SARS-CoV-2 negative and 4 patients had their symptoms partially improved. By 2 weeks, the remaining 5 patients of the QP group tested negative for SARS-CoV-2, whereas in the SC group out of 19 remaining patients, 17 tested negatives by week 2, one tested negative by week 3 and one patient, still positive, expired by day 20. Concerning blood parameters, the add on therapy with QP, reduced LDH (-35.5%), Ferritin (-40%), CRP (-54.8%) and D-dimer (-11.9%). CONCLUSION: QP statistically shortens the timing of molecular test conversion from positive to negative, reducing at the same time symptoms severity and negative predictors of COVID-19.

17.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(2): 190-195, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278860

ABSTRACT

When looking for new antiviral compounds aimed to counteract the COVID-19, a disease caused by the recently identified novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), the knowledge of the main viral proteins is fundamental. The major druggable targets of SARS-CoV-2 include 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro), papain-like protease (PLpro), RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and spike (S) protein. Molecular docking studies have highlighted that quercetin, a natural polyphenol belonging to the flavonol class, inhibits 3CLpro, PLpro and S proteins. Biophysical technics have then very recently confirmed that quercetin is reasonably a potent inhibitor of 3CLpro. The likely antiviral properties of quercetin are anyway challenged by its very poor oral bioavailability profile and any attempt to overcome this limit should be welcome. A phospholipid delivery form of quercetin (Quercetin Phytosome®) has been recently tested in humans to evaluate a possible improvement in oral bioavailability. After hydrolysis of the conjugated form (mainly glucuronide) of quercetin found in human plasma, the pharmacokinetics results have demonstrated an increased bioavailability rate by about 20-fold for total quercetin. It has been also observed that the presence of specific glucuronidase could yield free systemic quercetin in human body. Taking also into considerations its anti-inflammatory and thrombin-inhibitory actions, a bioavailable form of quercetin, like Quercetin Phytosome®, should be considered a possible candidate to clinically face COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Quercetin/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation
18.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2359-2366, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Quercetin, a well-known naturally occurring polyphenol, has recently been shown by molecular docking, in vitro and in vivo studies to be a possible anti-COVID-19 candidate. Quercetin has strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antiviral properties, and it is characterized by a very high safety profile, exerted in animals and in humans. Like most other polyphenols, quercetin shows a very low rate of oral absorption and its clinical use is considered by most of modest utility. Quercetin in a delivery-food grade system with sunflower phospholipids (Quercetin Phytosome®, QP) increases its oral absorption up to 20-fold. METHODS: In the present prospective, randomized, controlled, and open-label study, a daily dose of 1000 mg of QP was investigated for 30 days in 152 COVID-19 outpatients to disclose its adjuvant effect in treating the early symptoms and in preventing the severe outcomes of the disease. RESULTS: The results revealed a reduction in frequency and length of hospitalization, in need of non-invasive oxygen therapy, in progression to intensive care units and in number of deaths. The results also confirmed the very high safety profile of quercetin and suggested possible anti-fatigue and pro-appetite properties. CONCLUSION: QP is a safe agent and in combination with standard care, when used in early stage of viral infection, could aid in improving the early symptoms and help in preventing the severity of COVID-19 disease. It is suggested that a double-blind, placebo-controlled study should be urgently carried out to confirm the results of our study.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217123

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a severe pandemic of the current century. The vicious tentacles of the disease have been disseminated worldwide with unknown complications and repercussions. Advanced COVID-19 syndrome is characterized by the uncontrolled and elevated release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and suppressed immunity, leading to the cytokine storm. The uncontrolled and dysregulated secretion of inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines is positively associated with the severity of the viral infection and mortality rate. The secretion of various pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, and IL-6 leads to a hyperinflammatory response by recruiting macrophages, T and B cells in the lung alveolar cells. Moreover, it has been hypothesized that immune cells such as macrophages recruit inflammatory monocytes in the alveolar cells and allow the production of large amounts of cytokines in the alveoli, leading to a hyperinflammatory response in severely ill patients with COVID-19. This cascade of events may lead to multiple organ failure, acute respiratory distress, or pneumonia. Although the disease has a higher survival rate than other chronic diseases, the incidence of complications in the geriatric population are considerably high, with more systemic complications. This review sheds light on the pivotal roles played by various inflammatory markers in COVID-19-related complications. Different molecular pathways, such as the activation of JAK and JAK/STAT signaling are crucial in the progression of cytokine storm; hence, various mechanisms, immunological pathways, and functions of cytokines and other inflammatory markers have been discussed. A thorough understanding of cytokines' molecular pathways and their activation procedures will add more insight into understanding immunopathology and designing appropriate drugs, therapies, and control measures to counter COVID-19. Recently, anti-inflammatory drugs and several antiviral drugs have been reported as effective therapeutic drug candidates to control hypercytokinemia or cytokine storm. Hence, the present review also discussed prospective anti-inflammatory and relevant immunomodulatory drugs currently in various trial phases and their possible implications.

20.
BMJ Paediatr Open ; 5(1): e000981, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105505

ABSTRACT

Special schools play a significant role in the daily lives of children and young people with special educational needs and disabilities. We explored the impact of the COVID-19-related first lockdown and resulting school closure by surveying parents whose children attended three special schools in Bedford, UK. We asked about anxiety and impact on emotional well-being and education. We received 53 responses from parents: 31 felt their child was more anxious during the lockdown period/school closure compared with beforehand and 42 felt their child's emotional well-being had been affected. Children and young people attending special schools may have struggled both academically and emotionally during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools
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