Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 32
Filter
1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1782208

ABSTRACT

Background Data on SARS-CoV-2 in infants ≤ 90 days are limited with conflicting reports regarding its presentation and outcomes. Methods We conducted an ambispective cohort study using prospectively collected Health Electronic Surveillance Network Database by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Infants of ≤ 90 days of age who had a positive RT-PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 virus were included. Patients were divided in Early neonatal (0–6 days), late neonatal (7–27 days), and post- neonatal (28–90 days) groups and were compared for clinical characteristics and outcomes by contacting parents and collecting information retrospectively. Results Of 1,793 infants, 898 infants were included for analysis. Most infants in the early neonatal group had no features of infection (tested based on maternal positivity), whereas most infants in the late and post- neonatal groups were tested because of clinical features of infection. Fever and respiratory signs were the most common presenting feature in the late and post-neonatal groups. Hospitalization was higher in the early neonatal group (80%), compared to the two other groups. The overall mortality in the cohort was 1.6%. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 infection in infants ≤ 90 days might not be as rare as previously reported. The clinical presentation varies based on age at positive RT-PCR result.

2.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 37: 101692, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764004

ABSTRACT

Social distancing at its various levels has been a key measure to mitigate the transmission of COVID-19. The implementation of strict measures for social distancing is challenging, including in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) due to its level of urbanization, its social and religious norms and its annual hosting of high visibility international religious mass gatherings. KSA started introducing decisive social distancing measures early before the first case of COVID-19 was confirmed in the Kingdom. These ranged from suspension or cancelations of religious, entertainment and sporting mass gatherings and events such as the Umrah, temporary closure of educational establishments and mosques and postponing all non-essential gatherings, to imposing a curfew. These measures were taken in spite of their socio-economic, political and religious challenges in the interest of public and global health. The effect of these actions on the epidemic curve of the Kingdom and on the global fight against COVID-19 remains to be seen. However, given the current COVID-19 situation, further bold and probably unpopular measures are likely to be introduced in the future.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Crowding , Humans , Islam , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Social Isolation , Travel
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(5): 526-532, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757564

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many survivors of COVID-19 have developed symptoms and diseases similar to those observed after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the symptoms that appear after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been eradicated and to determine their relationship with COVID-19 severity. METHODS: This multicenter, retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in all eligible confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection from Saudi Arabia. Study participants were randomly selected using computerized random sampling from a population of 314,821 patients. Descriptive statistics were used to describe baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics. Categorical variables were presented as counts and percentages, while continuous variables were presented as means and standard deviations. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of patients were found to have five or fewer symptoms simultaneously. Late symptoms (in the ongoing symptomatic COVID-19) occurred in 225 (22·5%) patients with the most common late symptoms being loss of smell, loss of taste, fatigue, shortness of breath, and cough (52·4%, 31·1%, 11·5%, 10·2%, and 8·9% of patients with late symptoms, respectively). We also found that the presence of acute symptoms of COVID-19 and admission to the hospital were significant independent predictors of the post-COVID-19 condition. CONCLUSION: Saudi patients with COVID-19 develop a wide range of symptoms, similar to those observed and reported in other countries. The loss of smell, the loss of taste, shortness of breath, and fatigue were the main persistent symptoms. Regular follow-up of COVID-19 survivors is highly recommended to minimize the burden of the post-acute COVID-19 condition and improve the quality of life of patients.

5.
J Infect Public Health ; 15(2): 261-269, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620857

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To mitigate morbidity, mortality, and impacts of COVID-19 on health, it was essential to implement a comprehensive framework for COVID-19 control and prevention. A well-recognized tool from the field of injury prevention known as the Haddon matrix was utilized. The matrix states that any accident is affected by the host, agent, and environment. Another well-recognized tool used by the national fire protection association known as the Community risk reduction tool (CRR). The (CRR) tool utilizes the Five E's of Community Risk Reduction. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe the risk factors that increase the susceptibility and the severity of COVID-19 infection based on the Haddon matrix and the proposed prevention strategies by the CRR tool by using the combined model. METHODOLOGY: We reviewed the literature to assess known factors contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility, infection, and severity of infection. We then used the Haddon matrix to structure, separating human factors from technical and environmental details and timing. We then used the community risk reduction (CRR) model to set all responses and control measures for each element obtained from the Haddon matrix tool. Subsequently, we incorporated both tools to develop the combined model. CONCLUSION: we proposed and implemented a combined model that utilizes the CRR model as the systematic strategy for the more theoretical framework of Haddon's matrix. Combining both models was practical and helpful in planning the preparedness and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia that can be generalized to national and international levels.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2
6.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1109-1113, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566971

ABSTRACT

Background: The prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection during the period of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains uncertain. Aims: This study aimed to provide an update on the epidemiology of MERS-CoV in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to October 2020. Methods: Data on all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-CoV infection in Saudi Arabia from January 2019 to 20 October 2020 were retrieved from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network of the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia. Data collected were: demographic characteristics of cases, clinical course of the infection, related mortality and association with exposure to confirmed cases or camels. Results: In total, 299 cases of MERS-CoV infection were reported in the study period. The mean age of cases was 52.4 years. Most of the cases were males (78.9%) and had comorbidities (72.7%), and 11.9% of cases were health care providers. Of the 299 cases, 83 (27.7%) died. Older age and having comorbidities were associated with higher mortality. Exposure to camels was associated with lower mortality. Health care providers also had a lower mortality rate than non-health care providers. Compared with COVID-19, MERS-CoV infection still has a higher mortality rate but with a more predictable pattern and an anticipated deterioration. Conclusion: MERS-CoV infection remains a public health concern. The percentage of cases that were health care providers (11.9%) is lower than previously reported (19.1-25.0%), possibly due to the various preventive measures put in place to control COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Aged , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 27(11): 1114-1124, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566970

ABSTRACT

Background: With the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), most countries rushed to take early measures to control this disease. Aims: This paper describes and evaluates the Saudi Arabian strategic preparedness and response plan on COVID-19 up to 31 December 2020. Methods: Saudi Arabia adopted the World Health Organization's guidelines on response to COVID-19, which are based on nine pillars of public health preparedness and response. The measures Saudi Arabia took are assessed against these pillars. Results: In response to COVID-19, Saudi Arabia prepared public and private institutions to deal with the pandemic. Saudi authorities established a governance system comprised of responsible committees to continuously monitor national and international updates, trace contacts, screen the population, raise awareness and take proper actions to contain the spread of this disease. After the announcement of the first case in Saudi Arabia, all schools, social events, sports activities, domestic travel and international flights were suspended. Restrictions on social movement, social and religious gatherings, travel and businesses were imposed ahead of the first 100 confirmed COVID-19 cases. The Hajj pilgrimage for 2020 was scaled down to limit participants and no cases of COVID-19 were detected among pilgrims. The country maintained all basic health services and immunization programmes and supported all proposals for COVID-19 drugs and vaccines. The country is working to develop its capacity to produce these products and achieve self-sufficiency. Conclusion: Saudi Arabia took extreme measures to respond to COVID-19 which contributed to limiting the spread and effect of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia , Travel , Vaccination
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463629

ABSTRACT

Potential risks for public health incidents, outbreaks, and casualties are inferred at association football events, especially if event organizers have not taken appropriate preventative measures. This review explores the potential risks imposed by mass gathering (MG) football events, with particular emphasis on tools and methodologies to manage the risks of football MG events. Effective planning and implementation of MGs along with the mitigation of risks related to people's health require special attention to all potential threats, especially in frequent and recurring MG events such as football leagues. The well-being of all participants can be compromised by ignoring a single risk. Healthcare systems should cooperate with all stakeholders and organizations who are involved in MG management and response. Provision of services during MG or a disaster must be performed by trained personnel or entities that have full access to available resources in accessible publicly known locations at the MG event site. Several MG assessment tools were developed worldwide; however, to adapt to the Saudi context, SALEM tool was developed to provide a guide for MG planning and assessment. SALEM assesses the risks of MG events with scores that help to categorize the risk of MG events by offering recommendations for required resources.


Subject(s)
Football , Soccer , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
10.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727989, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450808

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A growing number of experiments have suggested potential cross-reactive immunity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and previous human coronaviruses. We conducted the present retrospective cohort study to investigate the relationship between previous Middle East respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection and the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as the relationship between previous MERS-CoV and COVID-19-related hospitalization and mortality. METHODS: Starting in March 2020, we prospectively followed two groups of individuals who tested negative for COVID-19 infection. The first group had a previously confirmed MERS-CoV infection, which was compared to a control group of MERS-negative individuals. The studied cohort was then followed until November 2020 to track evidence of contracting COVID-19 infection. FINDINGS: A total of 82 (24%) MERS-positive and 260 (31%) MERS-negative individuals had COVID-19 infection. Patients in the MERS-positive group had a lower risk of COVID-19 infection than those in the MERS-negative group (Risk ratio [RR] 0.696, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.522-0.929; p =0.014). The risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization in the MERS-positive group was significantly higher (RR 4.036, 95% CI 1.705-9.555; p =0.002). The case fatality rate (CFR) from COVID-19 was 4.9% in the MERS-positive group and 1.2% in the MERS-negative group (p =0.038). The MERS-positive group had a higher risk of death than the MERS-negative group (RR 6.222, 95% CI 1.342-28.839; p =0.019). However, the risk of mortality was similar between the two groups when death was adjusted for age (p =0.068) and age and sex (p =0.057). After controlling for all the independent variables, only healthcare worker occupation and >1 comorbidity were independent predictors of SARS-CoV-2 infection. INTERPRETATION: Individuals with previous MERS-CoV infection can exhibit a cross-reactive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our study demonstrated that patients with MERS-CoV infection had higher risks of COVID-19-related hospitalization and death than MERS-negative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Cross Reactions/immunology , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 3923-3934, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443915

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a single-chain ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus. As of March 25, 2021, the total number of positive cases and fatalities in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) had reached 386,300 and 6624, respectively, with a case fatality rate of 1.71%. The KSA was among the leading nations to heed the advice of WHO officials and put strict precautionary and preventive measures in place to curb the early spread of COVID-19 before it was declared a global pandemic. METHODOLOGY: This was an uncontrolled before-after study following a mixed-method approach for data collection. National and regional data were extracted from the Health Electronic Surveillance Network (HESN), a centralized public health collection system for quantitative and statistical data. Quantitative and qualitative methods have been utilized in studying data derived from tech media. RESULTS: The Saudi authorities utilized different technological tools to aid in managing and combating the COVID-19 pandemic. In the case of Al Madinah Al Mounawarah, after the implementation of several technologies, the most important being Tawakkalna, the number of active daily cases decreased by 61%. CONCLUSION: The use of the Tawakkalna application was proven to be a successful method in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic in the KSA. This vital and essential experience warrants the use of different digital technology that offers a personalized profile displaying the person's status (affected, vaccinated, or no history of infection). This application played and will continue to play a crucial and effective role in pandemic containment in Saudi Arabia.

12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438589

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Information on the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in women and children in Madinah has been limited. The current study aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 IgG seropositivity among women and children at Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 579 participants were recruited between January and April 2021 from Madinah Maternity and Children's Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Data concerning age, sex (for children), blood group, and height and weight (for women) were collected from the hospital database. SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike (anti-S) IgG antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: Over 58% of children (n = 195), including 60% of children ≤ 1 year (n = 75), and 50.2% (n = 124) of women were SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG seropositive. Significantly higher anti-S IgG levels were observed in children than in women (0.78 ± 1.05 vs. 0.65 ± 0.98, p = 0.008). Compared with women, children had higher odds of high SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG levels (odds ratio: 1.41; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.97; p = 0.041). No significant associations were observed for anti-S IgG levels with age in women or children or with body mass index among women. CONCLUSION: Non-reported COVID-19 infections were more prevalent among children than women, and non-reported COVID-19 infections children represent a viral transmission risk; therefore, increased screening, especially among school-aged children, may represent an important COVID-19 preventive control measure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Pregnancy , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
13.
Ann Thorac Med ; 16(3): 280-286, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1332203

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Exploring clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in children may help in prevention and treatment guidelines. AIMS: The aim of the to describe the spectrum of pediatric COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional study involving pediatric COVID-19 patients across all Saudi regions. METHODS: All patients aged between 2 months and 18 years with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. The primary end point was the hospitalization. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Descriptive statistics were used to describe the baseline demographic data and clinical characteristics. Numerical data were explored using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and Shapiro-Wilk test, while Chi-square or Fisher's exact test were used for categorical data. RESULTS: Among the 654 pediatric COVID-19 patients, 4.7% (n = 31) were hospitalized, with one patient only needing pediatric intensive care admission. Sex, breastfeeding, birth status, and the patients' living environment showed no significant association with hospitalization. Most children (80.3%, n = 525) were symptomatic, with two symptoms that were significantly associated with admission, namely, vomiting (P = 0.007) and nausea (P = 0.026). History of admission within the last year was identified in 10.4% (n = 68) children but had no association with worse outcome. The median duration of hospitalization for the entire group was 5.5 days, with longest hospital stay for age group 7-12 years (median 6 days). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is usually a milder disease in children. Although having preexisting medical conditions was linked to a longer hospitalization, it was not associated with worse outcome. Continuous surveillance will allow additional characterization of the burden and outcomes of pediatric COVID-19-associated hospitalizations.

14.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(5): 599-610, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310768

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mass-gathering events (MGEs) occur regularly throughout the world. As people congregate at MGEs, there is an increased risk of transmission of communicable diseases. Novel respiratory viruses, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-1 (SARS-CoV-1), Influenza A Virus Subtype H1N1 Strain 2009 (H1N1pdm09), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), or Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), may require specific infection prevention and control strategies to minimize the risk of transmission when planning MGEs. This literature review aimed to identify and analyze papers relating to novel respiratory viruses with pandemic potential and to inform MGE planning. METHOD: This paper used a systematic literature review method. Various health care databases were searched using keywords relating to MGEs and novel respiratory viruses. Information was extracted from identified papers into various tables for analysis. The analysis identified infection prevention and control strategies used at MGEs to inform planning before, during, and following events. RESULTS: In total, 27 papers met the criteria for inclusion. No papers were identified regarding SARS-CoV-1, while the remainder reported on H1N1pdm09 (n = 9), MERS-CoV (n = 15), and SARS-CoV-2 (n = 3). Various before, during, and after event mitigation strategies were identified that can be implemented for future events. CONCLUSIONS: This literature review provided an overview of the novel respiratory virus epidemiology at MGEs alongside related public health mitigation strategies that have been implemented at these events. This paper also discusses the health security of event participants and host communities in the context of cancelling, postponing, and modifying events due to a novel respiratory virus. In particular, ways to recommence events incorporating various mitigation strategies are outlined.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Humans , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 2811-2824, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1310010

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate knowledge, attitude, and perceived risks towards COVID-19 pandemic among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Saudi Arabia. Besides, the impact of risk communication strategy on the attitude and practice of HCWs was investigated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study that targeted HCWs from various Saudi health facilities. We utilized a self-administrated, online-based questionnaire designed to assess basic knowledge of COVID-19, attitude and disease perception, and the impact of risk communication messages among HCWs. RESULTS: A total of 1691 responses were received in the study. The HCWs exhibited good levels of knowledge (total maximum score is 1) of COVID-19 concerning the modes of transportation of COVID-19 (0.82±0.16), sample collection method for COVID-19 diagnosis (0.98±0.08), transmission of infection from asymptomatic individuals (0.99±0.11), and that antibiotics are not effective against the new COVID-19 (0.83±0.38). Nearly one-third of the participants considered a high/very high possibility of acquiring COVID-19 infection. HCWs had good attitude scores concerning their willingness to deal with new COVID-19 patients (0.87±0.33) and their beliefs in being educated on COVID-19 (0.99±0.11). Almost all participants strongly agree/agree that it is important to take action to prevent the spread of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities and received health information messages. Notably, 93.4% of the participants stated that the received messages changed their attitude towards COVID-19 and its preventive measures. Good knowledge scores were significantly associated with age > 49 years old, higher educational level, and physician occupation. Similarly, good attitude scores were higher among males, HCWs aged 40-49 years old, non-Saudi nationals, and physician and nurse occupations. CONCLUSION: HCWs have fair knowledge and attitude towards the COVID-19 pandemic. The risk communication is an effective strategy to improve the attitude and practice of HCWs towards COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274914

ABSTRACT

The viral RNA of SARS-Coronavirus-2 is known to be contaminating municipal wastewater. We aimed to assess if COVID-19 disease is spreading through wastewater. We studied the amount of viral RNA in raw sewage and the efficiency of the sewage treatment to remove the virus. Sewage water was collected before and after the activated sludge process three times during summer 2020 from three different sewage treatment plants. The sewage treatment was efficient in removing SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA. Each sewage treatment plant gathered wastewater from one hospital, of which COVID-19 admissions were used to describe the level of disease occurrence in the area. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA-specific target genes (N1, N2, and E) was confirmed using RT-qPCR analysis. However, hospital admission did not correlate significantly with viral RNA. Moreover, viral RNA loads were relatively low, suggesting that sewage might preserve viral RNA in a hot climate only for a short time.

17.
Ann Thorac Med ; 16(2): 165-171, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227112

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Several medical procedures are thought to increase the risk of transmission of infectious agents to health-care providers (HCPs) through an aerosol-generating mechanism. AIMS: Given the significant influenza and coronavirus pandemics that have occurred in the 20th and 21st century, including the current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 global pandemic, the objective of this analysis is to assess the occurrence of disease transmission to HCPs from the performance aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs). SETTINGS AND DESIGN: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic meta-analysis looking at the odds ratio (OR) of AGP, causing infection among HCPs. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), ProQuest, Cochrane databases, and the Gray literature (ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform). In addition, we conducted nondatabase search activities. The search terms used were "MERS-CoV," "COVID," and "SARS" combined with "provider" or "healthcare provider." STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: RevMan meta-analysis was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Following the search, we reviewed 880 studies, of which six studies were eligible. The estimated odd ratio utilizing a control group of HCPs who were exposed to AGP but did not develop the infection was 1.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.33, 2.57). The OR remained the same when we added another control group who, despite not being exposed to AGP, had developed the infection. The OR remained 1.85 (95% CI: 1.33, 2.55). However, there is an increase in the OR to 1.89 (95% CI: 1.38, 2.59) when we added HCPs who did not use adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) during the procedures to the total estimates. CONCLUSIONS: The performance of AGP with inadequate PPE can result in an increased risk of disease transmission to HCWs.

18.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191546

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the hospital beds and intensive care unit (ICU) beds with a ventilator surge capacity of the health system in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: This study used relevant data from the National Health Emergency Operation Center to estimate general hospital and ICU bed surge capacity and tipping points under 3 distinct transmission scenarios. RESULTS: The study results reveal that hospitals in the KSA need to be supplied with additional 4372 hospital beds to care for COVID-19 positive cases if the pandemic continues over a 6 months' period. At the same time, it requires additional 2192 or 1461 hospital beds if the pandemic persists over a 12- or 18-month period, respectively, to manage hospitalized COVID-19 overloads. The health system surge capacity would suffer from a shortage of 1600, 797, and 540 ICU beds under the 3 transmission scenarios to absorb critical and intensive care COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the urgent need for additional hospital and ICU beds in the face of critical COVID-19 cases in KSA. The study recommends further assessment measures to the health system surge capacity to keep the Saudi health system prepared during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
Risk Manag Healthc Policy ; 14: 875-886, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181247

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of hospitalization in older (≥60 years) patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Patients were randomly selected from a COVID-19 database maintained by the Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. All patients were aged ≥60 years, had reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed COVID-19, and were registered in the database during March 2020 to July 2020. Medical and sociodemographic characteristics were retrieved from the database. Additional data were collected by telephone interviews conducted by trained health professionals. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between patient characteristics and the risk of hospitalization. RESULTS: Of the 613 included patients (51.1% females), more than half (57.3%) were between 60 to 69 years of age, and 53% (324/613) had been hospitalized. The independent predictors of hospitalization included age ≥65 years (OR = 2.35, 95% CI: 1.66-3.33, P < 0.001), having more than one comorbidity (OR = 1.55, 95% CI: 1.09-2.20, P = 0.01), diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.09-2.11, P = 0.01), hypertension (OR = 1.40, 95% CI: 1.007-1.97, P = 0.04), chronic kidney disease (OR = 3.87, 95% CI: 1.41-10.58, P = 0.008), and history of hospital admission within the preceding year (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.11-2.55, P = 0.013). Risk of hospitalization was lower in males (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.90, P = 0.01) and in patients co-living with health care workers (OR = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.43-0.96, P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Factors associated with higher risk of COVID-19-associated hospitalization should be used in prioritizing older adults' admission. Future studies with more robust designs should be conducted to examine the risk of COVID-19-associated illness severity and mortality.

20.
Genomics ; 113(4): 1733-1741, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171554

ABSTRACT

Interferon-induced membrane proteins (IFITM) 3 gene variants are known risk factor for severe viral diseases. We examined whether IFITM3 variant may underlie the heterogeneous clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced COVID-19 in large Arab population. We genotyped 880 Saudi patients; 93.8% were PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, encompassing most COVID-19 phenotypes. Mortality at 90 days was 9.1%. IFITM3-SNP, rs12252-G allele was associated with hospital admission (OR = 1.65 [95% CI; 1.01-2.70], P = 0.04]) and mortality (OR = 2.2 [95% CI; 1.16-4.20], P = 0.01). Patients less than 60 years old had a lower survival probability if they harbor this allele (log-rank test P = 0.002). Plasma levels of IFNγ were significantly lower in a subset of patients with AG/GG genotypes than patients with AA genotype (P = 0.00016). Early identification of these individuals at higher risk of death may inform precision public health response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Membrane Proteins/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Genetic Association Studies , Genotype , Humans , Interferons/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL