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1.
Lancet Global Health ; 11(2):E229-E243, 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2308802

ABSTRACT

Background Understanding health trends and estimating the burden of disease at the national and subnational levels helps policy makers track progress and identify disparities in overall health performance. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 provides comprehensive estimates for Pakistan. Comparison of health indicators since 1990 provides valuable insights about Pakistan's ability to strengthen its health-care system, reduce inequalities, improve female and child health outcomes, achieve universal health coverage, and meet the UN Sustainable Development Goals. We present estimates of the burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors for Pakistan provinces and territories from 1990 to 2019 based on GBD 2019 to improve health and health outcomes in the country. Methods We used methods and data inputs from GBD 2019 to estimate socio-demographic index, total fertility rate, cause-specific deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, disability-adjusted life-years, healthy life expectancy, and risk factors for 286 causes of death and 369 causes of non-fatal health loss in Pakistan and its four provinces and three territories from 1990 to 2019. To generate estimates for Pakistan at the national and subnational levels, we used 68 location-years of data to estimate Pakistan-specific demographic indicators, 316 location-years of data for Pakistan-specific causes of death, 579 location-years of data for Pakistan-specific non-fatal outcomes, 296 location-years of data for Pakistan-specific risk factors, and 3089 location-years of data for Pakistan-specific covariates. Findings Life expectancy for both sexes in Pakistan increased nationally from 61 center dot 1 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 60 center dot 0-62 center dot 1) years in 1990 to 65 center dot 9 (63 center dot 8-67 center dot 8) years in 2019;however, these gains were not uniform across the provinces and federal territories. Pakistan saw a narrowing of the difference in healthy life expectancy between the sexes from 1990 to 2019, as health gains for women occurred at faster rates than for men. For women, life expectancy increased by 8 center dot 2% (95% UI 6middot3-13middot8) between 1990 and 2019, whereas the male life expectancy increased by 7 center dot 6% (3 center dot 5-11 center dot 8). Neonatal disorders, followed by ischaemic heart disease, stroke, diarrhoeal diseases, and lower respiratory infections were the leading causes of all-age premature mortality in 2019. Child and maternal malnutrition, air pollution, high systolic blood pressure, dietary risks, and tobacco consumption were the leading all-age risk factors for death and disability-adjusted life-years at the national level in 2019. Five non-communicable diseases-ischaemic heart disease, stroke, congenital defects, cirrhosis, and chronic kidney disease-were among the ten leading causes of years of life lost in Pakistan. Burden varied by socio-demographic index. Notably, Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa had the lowest observed gains in life expectancy. Dietary iron deficiency was the leading cause of years lived with disability for both men and women in 1990 and 2019. Low birthweight and short gestation and particulate matter pollution were the leading contributors to overall disease burden in both 1990 and 2019 despite moderate improvements, with a 23 center dot 5% (95% UI 3 center dot 8-39 center dot 2) and 27 center dot 6% (14 center dot 3-38 center dot 6) reduction in age-standardised attributable DALY rates during the study period. Interpretation Our study shows that progress has been made on reducing Pakistan's disease burden since 1990, but geographical, age, and sex disparities persist. Equitable investment in the health system, as well as the prioritisation of high-impact policy interventions and programmes, are needed to save lives and improve health outcomes. Pakistan is facing several domestic and foreign challenges-the Taliban's return to power in Afghanistan, political turmoil, catastrophic flooding, the COVID-19 pandemic-that will shape the trajectory of the country's health and development. Pakistan must address the burden of infectious disease and curb rising rates of non-communicable diseases. Prioritising these three areas will enhance Pakistan's ability to achieve universal health coverage, meet its Sustainable Development Goals, and improve the overall health outcomes.

2.
Journal of Medicine (Bangladesh) ; 24(1):28-36, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2296582

ABSTRACT

The death t toll of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been considerable. Several risk factors have been linked to mortality due to COVID-19 in hospitals. This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of patients who either died from COVID-19 at Dhaka Medical College Hospital in Bangladesh. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the hospital records of patients who died or recovered and tested positive for COVID-19 from May 3 to August 31, 2020. All patients who died during the study period were included in the analysis. A comparison group of patients who survived COVID-19 at the same hospital during the same period was systematically sampled. All available information was retrieved from the records, including demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables. Of the 3115 patients with confirmed COVID-19 during the study period, 282 died.The mean age of patients who died was higher than that of those who survived (56.7 vs 52.6 years). Approximately three-fourths of deceased patients were male. History of smoking (risk ratio 2.3;95% confidence interval: 1.6-3.4), comorbidities (risk ratio: 1.5;95% confidence interal:1.1-2.1), chronic kidney disease (risk ratio: 3.2;95% confidence interval: 1.7-6.25), and ischemic heart disease (risk ratio:1.8;95% confidence interval: 1.1-2.9) were higher among the deceased than among those who survived. Mean C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels [mean (interquartile range), 34 (21-56) vs. 24 (12-48);and D-dimer [1.43 (1-2.4) vs. 0.8 (0.44-1.55)] were higher among those who died than among those who recovered. Older age, male sex, rural residence, history of smoking, and chronic kidney disease were found to be important predictors of mortality. Early hospitalization should be considered for patients with COVID-19 who are older, male, and have chronic kidney disease. Rapid referral to tertiary care facilities is necessary for high-risk patients in rural settings.Copyright © 2023 Hoque MM.

3.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 111, 2023 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296580

ABSTRACT

The current ARDS guidelines highly recommend lung protective ventilation which include plateau pressure (Pplat < 30 cm H2O), positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP > 5 cm H2O) and tidal volume (Vt of 6 ml/kg) of predicted body weight. In contrast, the ELSO guidelines suggest the evaluation of an indication of veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) due to hypoxemic or hypercapnic respiratory failure or as bridge to lung transplantation. Finally, these recommendations remain a wide range of scope of interpretation. However, particularly patients with moderate-severe to severe ARDS might benefit from strict adherence to lung protective ventilation strategies. Subsequently, we discuss whether extended physiological ventilation parameter analysis might be relevant for indication of ECMO support and can be implemented during the daily routine evaluation of ARDS patients. Particularly, this viewpoint focus on driving pressure and mechanical power.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Respiration, Artificial , Lung , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tidal Volume/physiology
4.
Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2255070

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Grounded in dynamic capability view, this research develops a decision support model, which enables determining consistent and sufficient configurations of resilience strategies to mitigate vaccine operations and distributions (O&D) challenges and thus improve O&D performance (i.e. O&DP). Design/methodology/approach: Through qualitative in-depth interviews, the authors first identified challenges and resilience strategies related to vaccine O&D. Next, using the quality function deployment technique, three quantitative case studies were performed to determine the most important challenges and resilience strategies. Finally, utilising fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis, the authors determine sufficient conditions of challenges and strategies leading to improve vaccine O&DP. Findings: The findings reveal that strategies alone are not effective instead a combination of strategies and nullification of challenges is needed to enhance vaccine O&DP. Further, the findings revealed that not only the presence of challenges, but also the lack of strategies reduces the vaccine O&DP. Practical implications: The authors' findings will assist the health service decision-makers for strategizing an effective and efficient vaccination program by selecting the right combination of challenges and resilience strategies. Originality/value: The authors' study develops a novel decision support model and offers significant learning for the future vaccine O&DP. © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited.

5.
Arab Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 30(1):79-91, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2248703

ABSTRACT

The variant SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has affected the entire globe;it has caused acute respiratory illnesses and has led to massive environmental problems associated with extra medical waste and single-use plastics. Herein the total quantity of waste generated in the selected GCC countries from different sources has been calculated. The popularity of the medical waste issue through using relative search volume was investigated to associate it with the quantities of Waste. Data was collected from the first COVID-19 case in the respective country until March 26, 2022, from the public domains, "Worldmeter”, "Our World in Data” and "Google Trends”. Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) was used to predict the amount of CMW. The calculated values are 1107.980 kg/day from the facemask used by the public, 2,554,812 kg from vaccination, 2,595,772 kg from PCR tests, also the predicted daily total amount of COVID-19 related Medical Waste (CMW) by the end of 2022 (December 31, 2022) to be 3667.25 kg/day. The trend in the generation of CMW has been identified in selected countries. Generally, the waste is expected to get minimized, but it is a lesson for future planning. Especially With extensive vaccination, the cases are drastically decreased, and life is resuming in the regions. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group on behalf of the University of Bahrain.

6.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 15(3), 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2248702

ABSTRACT

As a global concern, medical waste (MW) links public health, environmental pollution, and resource sustainability. This study aims to assess the two issues related to medical waste in Bahrain: the increasing generation rate of MW and its management. The integrated Environmental Assessment (IEA) methodology was adopted, including the DPSIR (Drivers, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) framework, analysis of existing policies, and the outlook. Consequently, data were collected from official health statistics in Bahrain, and related policies for the last two decades (2001 to 2021) were also collected, in addition to interviews with Bahrain medical waste (BMW) treatment company. The results show a vast increase in medical waste during COVID-19. Moreover, most of the existing policies address the impact of the BMW issues, but the policies are lacking in tackling the drivers and pressures;there is also a policy gap related to the generation rate. Accordingly, a set of policies was proposed to overcome the two medical waste issues. Moreover, to overcome issues associated with MW, the study recommended reforming regulations aiming to reduce and manage medical waste efficiently in order to focus more on drivers and pressure causing an elevation in MW issues in Bahrain. © 2023 by the authors.

7.
International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management ; 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2191441

ABSTRACT

PurposeFake news on social media about COVID-19 pandemic and its associated issues (e.g. lockdown) caused public panic that lead to supply chain (SC) disruptions, which eventually affect firm performance. The purpose of this study is to understand how social media fake news effects firm performance, and how to mitigate such effects.Design/methodology/approachGrounded on dynamic capability view (DCV), this study suggests that social media fake news effects firm performance via SC disruption (SCD) and SC resilience (SCR). Moreover, the relation between SCD and SCR is contingent upon SC learning (SCL) - a moderated mediation effect. To validate this complex model, the authors suggest effectiveness of using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Using an online survey, the results support the authors' hypotheses.FindingsThe results suggest that social media fake news does not affect firm performance directly. However, the authors' serial mediation test confirms that SCD and SCR sequentially mediate the relationship between social media fake news and firm performance. In addition, a moderated serial mediation test confirms that a higher level of SCL strengthens the SCD-SCR relationship.Research limitations/implicationsThis work offers a new theoretical and managerial perspective to understand the effect of fake news on firm performance, in the context of crises, e.g. COVID-19. In addition, this study offers the advancement of PLS as more robust for real-world applications and more advantageous when models are complex.Originality/valuePrior studies in the SC and marketing domain suggest different effects of social media fake news on consumer behavior (e.g. panic buying) and SCD, respectively. This current study is a unique effort that investigates the ultimate effect of fake news on firm performance with complex causal relationships via SCD, SCR and SCL.

8.
Annals of Phytomedicine-an International Journal ; 10:63-70, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2072561

ABSTRACT

The infection triggered by the SARS-CoV-2 virus resulted in the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19), which was firstly identified in city of China, namely Wuhan. The main symptoms such as muscle fatigability, aches, and pain are associated with this condition. Thus, a high proportion of patients who recovered manifest a plethora of long-lasting symptoms. Although, many patients fully recover, health complications can delay a person's complete return to a regular lifestyle. Fatigue is experienced by a considerable percentage of individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 disease. Thus, the neurological symptoms of COVID-19 are frequent and debilitating enough to have piqued the interest of the scientific and general press for their brief and long effect on population health. The authors have searched articles from various search engines. The articles on coronavirus have been collected from PubMed and Scopus databases from Jan., 2019 to July, 2021. On the basis of their importance and uniqueness, articles were included in this review. The study aims on COVID-19 infection on survivors and complications to return to normal life and role of consulting sessions, physiotherapy and other medications after recovery. Some long-term researches are created to investigate the COVID-19's medical, psychological, and socio-economic complications. To resume normal life, COVID-19 survivors are required to take aid to consultations, physiotherapy, and dermatological care.

9.
129th ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition: Excellence Through Diversity, ASEE 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2046293

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the first year of the implementation of a three-year long NSF-funded International Experience for Students (IRES) Site Track-1 project. As a part of the IRES Site Track-1 project, three engineering programs at three U.S. universities have collaborated on a project to increase the global competencies of undergraduate engineering/computer science students through a summer international research training program in big data in energy and related infrastructure in partnership with the Universiti Teknologi Petronas in Perak, Malaysia. The U.S. Universities included Texas A&M University, North Dakota State University, and University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The IRES program includes two-week pre-visit trainings on cultural and global aspects and six-week team-based research experience at the partner Malaysian university. However, due to COVID-19 restriction, all activities in the first year was conducted virtually in Summer 2021. A total of 9 participants were selected, three each from the three US Universities. The IRES participants were divided into three teams. Each project team consisted of one member from four participating institutions (3 U.S. and one Malaysian) thus providing students with a global team environment. Furthermore, of those 4 student members in a team, they represented multiple engineering disciplines. A survey conducted before and after the program showed net overall improvement in the research aptitude of the participants and their understanding on research methods, professional presentation skills, and global teamwork. Furthermore, the IRES students also attended a month-long training on global culture and received a certificate on global competency issues by the Halliburton Global Engineering Program at Texas A&M University. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2022

10.
Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery ; 28(6):S112-S113, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2008715

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A shift in the practice of medicine to include telemedicine modalities has been gaining momentum, being accelerated even further by the current pandemic. There is a paucity of data regarding patient-perceived barriers to telemedicine in urogynecology patients, a unique and complex population, In a previous study at our institution, we found that conversion to telemedicine in FPMRS during the first 11 weeks of the COVID-19 related shut-down was very low. Objective: The aim of this study is to understand patient-perceived barriers to telemedicine and examine why some patients did not convert to telemedicine. Methods: This was a qualitative study using both a questionnaire and one-onone semi-structured interviews with patients from our institution's urogynecology practice who were scheduled for appointments from March 17th through June 9th, 2020, a time period when our office was closed to meet social distancing guidelines. Informed consent was obtained verbally and interpretation services were used when necessary. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded by two readers. The data was analyzed in a 3-phase coding process and the manifest context analysis method was used to analyze, summarize and refine interview data. Inductive codes were then applied to text fragments. A codebook was developed through serial discussions and triangulated amongst the research team. The codebook was saturated at 30 interviews and the final six interviews were cross-referenced to confirm findings. Results: 36 interviews were conducted. Participants represented a wide age range (39 to 75 years), with 30.6% of participants ranging in age between 45 and 54 years. 66.7% of patients stated English was their preferred language. While some patients (25%) recalled being offered a virtual visit, others reported that this option was not offered (44.4%) or were unsure (19.4%). The majority of participants reported having a smartphone (97.2%). Codes from interviews were organized into four categories (Table 1). Three themes were identified: (1) Patients seemed amenable to telemedicine, yet there was reservation about the use of this modality for FPMRS specific patients. The participants felt concerned with the inability for physicians to examine them, and seemed to equate physical evaluation and diagnostic testing with an optimal experience. (2) The majority of participants felt comfortable using the technology and had minimal concerns regarding costs of cellular data or access to internet connectivity. Although some participants voiced reservations with this technological advancement, most seemed agreeable to using telemedicine in some capacity in the future. (3) There was a willingness to forgo certain comforts of in-person visits, in order to preserve safety, especially given simplicity and ease of accessibility. However, the overarching perception was that telemedicine could lend itself to be more impersonal, and should be used for more straightforward and follow-up visits. Conclusions: While there are certain challenges to incorporating telemedicine into urogynecology practice, many of our patients felt that tele-visits were practical and helpful. However, the concern for loss of human touch and testing obviates that the desire for in-person visits remains. Further patient education and development of systems to streamline telemedicine practices will help those who remain hesitant (Table Presented).

11.
1st International Conference on Technologies for Smart Green Connected Society 2021, ICTSGS 2021 ; 107:17967-17978, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1950339

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The major aim of this discussion is to spotlight the ageism that has appeared during the COVID-19. Here we discusses about how the older people are wrongly presented in our community and their less value in the society. During this pandemic, covid-19 was resulted into major cause of death for older adults.Ageism is generally seen in the western and developing societies and here, older people are seen with false beliefs and judgments. To overcome this, the health authorities should consider older adults to be an integral part of the population, they should not feel burdened by them. OBJECTIVE The article provides a review of the literature on behaviour and attitudes toward ageism and older adults in the world and discusses the facts and findings on the basis of the review of literature on ageing, age stereotypes, impact of ageism on older people as well as their link toculture and society. METHODS This review articles was published from June 2020 to January 2021 and indexed in the electronic databases Web of Science, PubMed, and WHO official website. Electronic searches were made with visual scanning of reference lists and hand searching of leading journals in the field of ageing and social gerontology. RESULTS During covid-19 pandemic, flexibility of old age should be adopted. Here the treatment should be depends upon chronological age as well as on values and preferences of people. An alternative framework must be established which shows the negative impact of the corona virus on the population. We must stop saying terms called social distancing and better call the best appropriate term such as physical distancing.In the social world, the major asset of emergency situations is intergenerational relation without this relation the life of older people become vulnerable. CONCLUSION In this article, advocates and public health researcher share their opinion about ageism, and try their efforts to reduce the perspective of people towards the older adults that appeared at the time of covid-19. This pandemic shows high mortality rates for older adults than younger adults. We cannot afford to be inattentive for the lost lives caused by ageist behaviour and attitudes. We need to think about of what will happen if we let ageism influence,and how thediscussion and treatment of old people affects during and after the pandemic. © The Electrochemical Society

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927863

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Spontaneous pneumothoraxes in children are uncommon, may be idiopathic or associated with underlying pulmonary disease, and can present management challenges. We present a 12-year-old female with recurrent right sided spontaneous pneumothorax in the setting of an asymptomatic SARS-Co-V2 (COVID) infection and imaging concerning for congenital lobar overinflation (CLO) versus congenital pulmonary airway malformation (CPAM), prompting surgical intervention. Case: A 12-year-old pre-menstrual female with remote history of eczema, asthma, and environmental allergies presented from an outside facility with four-days of progressive chest pain and dyspnea on exertion and diagnosis of right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax, improving after pigtail chest tube placement. Physical exam was significant for tall thin body habitus;family history was significant for paternal spontaneous pneumothorax as an adolescent. She was incidentally found to be COVID positive. Chest plain films (CXRs) showed subcutaneous emphysema and persistent right-sided pneumothorax. Clamping trial failed, prompting removal of the pigtail and placement of 12F chest tube with resultant near complete re-expansion. On serial CXRs, a right hilar cystic lucency was newly identified. Chest CT confirmed the right upper lobe (RUL) air-filled cystic structure and abrupt narrowing of the RUL posterior segmental bronchus, concerning for CLO versus CPAM. Chest tube was successfully removed on day 6, and she was discharged home with planned follow-up. Three months later, she was readmitted for recurrent right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax diagnosed after one day of chest pain, cough, and dyspnea. Laboratory testing revealed mild leukopenia and anemia;she was COVID negative. A chest tube was placed and set to wall suction. Due to persistent pneumothorax, this was replaced with a pigtail drain on day 5. CXRs demonstrated persistent cystic RUL lung mass. With her prior COVID infection now resolved, RUL wedge resection was completed via video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery on day 8. She tolerated the procedure well and was discharged on day 10 with resolving pneumothorax. Tissue for pathology results revealed pleural fibrosis and focal hemorrhage without malignancy, most consistent with a ruptured bleb. At one week follow up, she remained stable without complications. Discussion: Pneumothoraxes in tall, thin adolescents are often categorized as primary spontaneous. Most pneumothoraxes resolve with conservative management and often do not require surgical intervention. Congenital lung malformations are a rare secondary cause in children and may be detected on CXR. Chest imaging should be carefully reviewed for congenital malformations requiring specific surgical intervention. These findings, along with the patient's clinical course, may assist in determining management.

13.
Neurology ; 98(18 SUPPL), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925314

ABSTRACT

Objective: NA Background: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, (PML) a demyelinating disease of the brain, caused by the John Cunningham (JC Virus) is usually seen in patients who are immunocompromised. Here, we describe a case of an immunocompetent patient diagnosed with PML and a comprehensive literature review. Case Description: A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with acute worsening of progressive neurological decline with difficulty in vision and reading. The patient was diagnosed with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Following COVID-19 infection he started to have difficulty in maintaining balance, poor attention span and expressive aphasia. Based on history, examination, CSF markers, histopathology, and T2/FLAIR MRI Brain at the time of presentation the patient was diagnosed with PML in a setting of no immunosuppression disorder. Results: In our literature review, it was seen that the average age of symptom presentation was 57.5 with predominance in males. Most of the patients presented with progressive neurological deficits with symptomology ranging from mild confusion, aphasia, anxiety to sensory disturbances with numbness, hemiparesis and hemianopsia. Out of the 21 cases, patients responded to mirtazapine and intravenous pulse methylprednisolone (IVMP). The mortality rate was close to 50% with 11 fatal cases and 10 non-fatal cases. None of the cases had any immunosuppressive conditions or underlying HIV, malignancy, solids organ or stem cell transplants and were not on immunosuppressive medications. Conclusions: Our case and literature review demonstrate the possibility that PML may very rarely occur in patients that are immunocompetent. Furthermore, our review showed that patients responded well to mirtazapine and IVMP. In our case, the patient was treated with Pelfilgrastim with encouraging results and could be explored as a possible treatment option. We also want to highlight that mortality rate was lower in this review and was only compared to mortality in PML associated with immunocompromised status.

14.
Journal of Family Business Management ; : 18, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1799389

ABSTRACT

Purpose The main objective of this study is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on earnings management practices in China using a sample of family and non-family enterprises. More specifically, this study aims to examine whether the COVID-19 pandemic causes variation in Chinese listed family and non-family enterprises' operations, as reflected in the level of real earnings management (REM). Design/methodology/approach This study uses three standardised REM indicators, namely, the abnormal level of cash flows from operations, the abnormal level of production costs and the abnormal level of discretionary expenses. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions are applied to compare the earnings management of Chinese family and non-family enterprises during the pre-pandemic period (2017-2019) and the pandemic period (2020). Findings The authors find that Chinese listed non-family enterprises tend to participate in more REM activities than family enterprises before the COVID-19 outbreak. However, the opposite is true during the pandemic. The authors also find that COVID-19 has increased the involvement of family and non-family enterprises in REM activities. Originality/value The results of previous studies based on REM using Chinese listed firms may not be applicable under the new social background of COVID-19. As the period after the COVID-19 outbreak is relatively recent, Chinese researchers have yet to study it comprehensively. The present study is amongst the first empirical attempts investigating the effect of a pandemic financial reporting by investigating whether and how the burst of the COVID-19 crisis affected financial reporting through the earnings management practices of listed Chinese family and non-family enterprises. Such information is crucial because it can provide analysis for all stakeholders to make better decisions.

15.
Pakistan Journal of Ophthalmology ; 38(1):76-79, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1737605

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients are known to have immunosuppression due to decreased lymphocytes and increased susceptibility to co-infections (Bacterial and fungal). We present a case of 61-year-old patient who had diabetes, hypertension and ischemic heart disease with COVID-19 infection admitted after RT-PCR positive result. He developed rhino-orbital Mucormycosis during treatment. He received Remdesivir with parenteral Methylprednisolone and Meropenem. While admitted in the ward, he developed signs of orbital cellulitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain, orbits, and paranasal sinuses revealed right frontal, ethmoidal, and maxillary sinusitis with the extension of the sinisuidal disease to the orbit. A nasal biopsy revealed broad a septate filamentous fungal hyphae suggestive of Mucormycosis. Long-term use of steroids/monoclonal antibodies/broad-spectrum antibiotics may contribute to the predisposition to fungal disease. Early diagnosis and prompt management are warranted to avoid morbidity. © 2022, Ophthalmological Society of Pakistan. All rights reserved.

16.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(1):3-6, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1668112

ABSTRACT

Background: So far more than 253 million cases & more than 5 million casualties worldwide, while more than 1 million cases and more than 28 thousand casualties have been reported in Pakistan due to pandemic of Novel Corona Virus (COVID19). At the end of December 2019, a pneumonia outbreak began in Wuhan China, which then quickly spread to entire world. The viral pneumonia was named “Corona Virus Disease (COVID19)” by WHO on 11th February 2020. On March 11, 2020;WHO declared this outbreak as “Pandemic”. Its mode of transmission includes contact transmission through mucous membranes of nose, mouth & fomites, and direct transmission through sneeze, cough and inhalation of droplets. It can be transmitted indirectly or directly via saliva, aerosols formed throughout clinical procedures and via contact. Clinical symptoms included fever, muscle ache or pain, cough. Incubation period of 1-14 days. In this pandemic, dentists are rated as highly exposed health care professionals to this disease Aims: To describe Coronaviruses and its modes of transmission and to discuss treatment considerations and precautionary measures or clinical strategies adopted by Oral health professionals to protect themselves and to prevent the spread of coronavirus in the dental setup Methodology: Since it's a Literature review article, so no methodology was required as such Results: It's a Literature review article Conclusion Standard precautionary measures and highly responsible behavior of a dentist will prevent the spread of this disease especially from asymptomatic patients.

17.
Journal of Ayub Medical College ; 33(4):673-684, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1558022

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the disease caused by the newly-discovered SARS-CoV-2 virus, has quickly spread from China throughout the world since January 2020. Its potential severity, despite in a minority of cases, has paralysed healthcare systems struggling for adequate resources, as well as entire nations often forced to adopt radical measures, such as lockdowns and surveillance, to contain the disease and restrict its spread. Initially presenting as a respiratory infectious disease, it can not only progress to an acute respiratory distress syndrome, but also have multisystemic consequences. There are many proving theories as regards to the pathophysiology and there are currently no proven definitive treatments. Due to its high transmissibility and the risk of infecting healthcare workers, hospitals also had to rethink their organisation. We have completed a literature review of the sixteen months of the pandemic, with attention to pathophysiology, key epidemiological concepts, hospital organisation, critical care considerations, and finally current and prospective treatments.

18.
Jcpsp-Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan ; 31(7):S112-S116, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1543111

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has produced profound effects on the global healthcare systems including every specialty. Pregnant women are physiologically immunocompromised and may be affected more by the pandemic than the general population. New and unique challenges were encountered by hospitals and healthcare providers (HCPs) related to medical, surgical and strategic management involved in obstetric care. Data of obstetric patients presenting in labour and delivery unit from April to July 2020 was studied. In all 533 patients presented, 46 (8.6%) were COVID-19 positive. Overall, 41% cesarean sections were performed with one mortality and one COVID-19-positive neonate. The challenges faced by HCPs regarding delivery of care and collective successive measures taken to overcome those challenges as well as challenges faced by patients related to healthcare provision are also addressed. Strategies adopted for timely intervention to overcome those challenges were implemented for smooth and safe care to all patients and staff. We believe that planning and preparing proactively is the key to address any pandemic like COVID-19.

19.
Jcpsp, Journal of the College of Physicians & Surgeons - Pakistan ; 31(1):S87-S89, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417493

ABSTRACT

Radiologically confirmed, novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related neurological manifestations are being reported with increasing frequency since the outbreak of the disease. We describe a 54-year-old male with COVID-19, who demonstrated radiological and clinical findings of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome(PRES). The proposed mechanism suggested for COVID-19-related PRES is a disease induced inflammatory storm, which causes endothelial injury, resulting in endothelialdysfunction (ED), interstitial fluid extravasation and cerebral edema. Key Words: COVID-19, Encephalopathy, Neurological complications, PRES.

20.
Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC ; 32(Suppl 1)(4):S593-S594, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145881
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