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1.
Social Sciences ; 10(12):449, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1594776

ABSTRACT

This article engages with issues of identity construction and maintenance as expressed by a group of young British Pakistanis living in the North-West of England. Drawing on primary data from a qualitative study, we examine the ways in which Muslim identities are maintained, negotiated, and protected in relation to everyday situated cultural experiences. Nested within a context in which Islamophobia is pervasive, we discuss four salient processes of identity management articulated by participants: cherry picking;strategic adaption;ambassadorship and active resistance. Whilst these processes are to be considered as porous rather than mutually exclusive, our analysis elucidates evidence of both nimble and creative individual identity management and also an entrenchment of collective pride. We posit that, for the participants in this study, such practices constitute a grounded, pragmatic response to living in an environment in which their religious beliefs, political values and cultural commitments are frequently questioned within public life, the media and the political sphere.

2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-15, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592511

ABSTRACT

The Uttarakhand State, known for its Himalayan mountains, is a territory in Northern India that is extremely vulnerable to earthquakes, landslides, and floods. Therefore, due to the COVID-19 outbreak, currently, India is facing the dual challenge of containing a pandemic and responding to natural disasters. This situation can have a negative impact on the health and in the economic development of the region, leading to a long-lasting humanitarian crisis that can disrupt even more the already overburdened health service. In addition, it can pose serious threats to the wellbeing of the population as it complicates physical distancing and other COVID-19 prevention measures. It is of utmost importance to analyse the impact of floods, landslides, and COVID-19 pandemic on the health system of the Uttarakhand State, and how these crises interact with each other.

3.
Comput Biol Med ; 140: 105122, 2021 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561213

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corovirus2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been determined to be the cause of the current pandemic. Typical symptoms of patient having COVID-19 are fever, runny nose, cough (dry or not) and dyspnea. Several vaccines are available in markets that are tackling current pandemic. Many different strains of SAR-CoV-2 have been evolved with the passage of time. The emergence of VOCs particularly the B.1.351 ("South African") variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been reported to be more resistant than other SARS-CoV-2 strains to the current vaccines. Thus, the current research is focused to design multi-epitope subunit Vaccine (MEV) using structural vaccinology techniques. As a result, the designed MEV exhibit antigenic properties and possess therapeutic features that can trigger an immunological response against COVID-19. Furthermore, validation of the MEV using immune simulation and in silico cloning revealed that the proposed vaccine candidate effectively triggered the immune response. Conclusively, the developed MEV needs further wet lab exploration and could be a viable vaccine to manage and prevent COVID-19.

5.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294200

ABSTRACT

We combine data collected just prior to the unfolding of COVID-19 with follow-up data from July 2020 to document the adverse economic effects of the pandemic and resulting impact on parental and child mental well-being in rural and semi-urban Pakistan. 22% of the households in our sample are affected by job loss, with monthly income down 34% on average. Our difference-in-difference results show that job loss is associated with a 0.73 standard deviation (SD) reduction in adult mental health score (K10), a 0.55 SD reduction in a ‘Hope’ index of children’s aspirations, agency and future pathways, and a 0.33 SD increase in children’s depression symptoms. In addition, we observe higher levels of parental stress and anger reported by children, as well as an increase in reported prevalence of domestic violence. Overall, we document that the pandemic has disproportionately and negatively affected the economic and mental well-being of the most vulnerable households in our sample.

6.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 10760296211051764, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511654

ABSTRACT

The precise mechanisms of pathology in severe COVID-19 remains elusive. Current evidence suggests that inflammatory mediators are responsible for the manifestation of clinical symptoms that precedes a fatal response to infection. This review examines the nature of platelet activating factor and emphasizes the similarities between the physiological effects of platelet activating factor and the clinical complications of severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Platelet Activating Factor/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/mortality , Inflammation/pathology , Multiple Organ Failure/complications , Multiple Organ Failure/metabolism , Multiple Organ Failure/mortality , Multiple Organ Failure/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/complications , Thrombosis/metabolism , Thrombosis/mortality , Thrombosis/pathology
7.
J Herb Med ; 30: 100515, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482619

ABSTRACT

Introduction: A novel coronavirus virus (2019-nCoV) emerged in China in December 2019 and achieved a high-risk category by the World Health Organization (WHO). The initial symptoms included fever, cough, dyspnea, and sore throat. The present review aims to evaluate the available evidence for the safety and efficacy of Unani herbal drugs and formulations in the prevention of Wabai Amraz (epidemic diseases) having resemblance to SARS-CoV-2. Methods: Sources of data for this paper are classical Unani textbooks, Unani pharmacopeia of India, Indian Medicinal Plants-An Illustrated Dictionary, and published articles in various reputed peer-reviewed journals. Collected information was then critically analyzed. Results: Despite great efforts, no specific treatment has been discovered for coronavirus yet. The best choices, therefore, are prevention and management. The Unani system of medicine offers health protection during epidemics. Three important interventions practised during an outbreak are (i) purification of the environment by using certain herbal drugs as fumigants which include vinegar (acetic acid) alone or combined with Ferula foetida Regel; (ii) promotion of health and immune modulation by using the pharmacopoeial preparations Khamira-e-Khashkhash and Khamira-e-Marwareed. Conclusion: Several single drugs, as well as compound formulations, have been recommended in Unani medicine for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases. The pharmacopoeial preparation Tiryaq-e-Nazla has been used for respiratory catarrhal inflammations and influenza by Hakims of the medieval period. Scientific research on these drugs reveals the presence of many pharmacologically active substances possessing significant antiviral, antipyretic, anti-tussive, and immune-modulatory properties, which can give new insight into infection and epidemic management.

8.
Journal of Medical Virology ; n/a(n/a), 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1410046

ABSTRACT

Abstract Hepatitis, a significant cause of mortality worldwide, results in around 1.34 million deaths each year globally. Africa is not exempt from the plague of Hepatitis. Around 100 million estimated individuals are infected with Hepatitis B (HBV) or C (HCV). Egypt has the highest prevalence cases of Hepatitis followed by Cameroon and Burundi. The continent is severly affected by the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, as the virus has added additional burden on the already fragile continent. With the pandemic, it is presumable that Hepatitis like other viral diseases will pose a threat to collapsing healthcare system. Therefore, for Africa to become more resilient in the face of such menaces, including Hepatitis, further prevention policies are required to be implemented This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

9.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 2021 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384176

ABSTRACT

As a developing country, Pakistan reports a high burden of fungal diseases, of which cutaneous mucormycosis remains a prominent infection, presenting as a highly invasive disease with significant mortality. Apart from a high population of at-risk individuals, multiple factors have precipitated an increment in mucormycosis cases in the country following the COVID-19 pandemic. These include increased use of corticosteroids, immunosuppression following the viral infection, prolonged stays in the intensive care unit and sub-optimal laboratory testing available in the country. This article aims to assess the potential implications of a mucormycosis epidemic on a healthcare system already strained under the COVID-19 pandemic, and provides subsequent recommendations to weather the dual challenge of two deadly pathogens.

10.
Trop Med Health ; 49(1): 67, 2021 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371982

ABSTRACT

In February 2021, a new Ebola virus disease outbreak was confirmed amid the COVID-19 pandemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Although the country has successfully contained the outbreak amid its fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiological situation is still concerning, primarily due to the risk of an increase in the number of COVID-19 cases. The coexistence of both outbreaks increased the burden on the country's health system mainly because Ebola response programs were redirected to the COVID-19 national response. Strategies adopted and lessons learned from previous Ebola outbreaks were crucial to developing the COVID-19 national response. To tackle the challenges of combating both the viruses, it is essential to adopt multidisciplinary measures such as prevention, education, and vaccination campaigns, promoting hygiene and social distancing practices, and improving diagnostic and management protocols. This paper discusses the efforts, challenges, and possible solutions to grapple with Ebola amid the COVID-19 crisis in DRC successfully.

12.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2441-2445, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328597

ABSTRACT

Peru is one of the countries with the highest incidence of tuberculosis and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the world. Although public health measures adopted in the country have improved the care, diagnosis and management of patients with tuberculosis, there are still failures in the control of the disease in the country, especially of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and among the prison population or people living with HIV. The COVID-19 pandemic has added a great burden to the Peruvian public health system, negatively impacting tuberculosis-focused health programs due to the diversion of resources to control the pandemic. Consequently, combat measures, epidemiological surveillance of tuberculosis cases were affected, and data point to an increase in the number of cases, especially of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, and to the underdiagnosis of the disease. To deal with this problem and avoid a future catastrophe for the country's health system, multidisciplinary measures involving the population, health professionals and government bodies are needed. It is essential that education, diagnosis, contact screening and treatment programs are prioritised and given greater financial support. Furthermore, it is necessary to raise awareness in the population about the need for isolation and maintenance of treatment, especially among the most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , Humans , Pandemics , Peru/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
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