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2.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009595

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic and its recurrent waves of infection have propelled the transformation of many outpatient clinics into RC/VCs on an international scale. The Oncology Service at NMUH, based in the UK's NHS, conducted a survey in June 2021 to explore patient experiences of these RCs and aimed to implement changes to refine the service. Methods: Patients were recruited from breast, gastrointestinal and lung oncology clinics between April and June 2021 for the first 'plando-study-act' (PDSA) cycle and in November 2021 for the second PDSA cycle, to participate in an anonymous telephone survey by an independent researcher, 48-72 hours following their consultations. Three broad areas of satisfaction including practical aspects of communication, patient autonomy and control during the consultation, and patients' emotional experiences were evaluated, yielding both quantitative and qualitative accounts to be compared as a measure of success. Following the first cycle, a new cover letter was devised to be sent alongside the outpatient appointment letter entitled 'How to get the most out of your remote consultation'. The second PDSA cycle was then undertaken to assess the success of the intervention. Results: A total of 51 patients were recruited in the initial survey and 15 patients in the second. Quantitative analysis demonstrated comparable levels of satisfaction in both cohorts across all domains. 46/51 (90%) of patients felt their remote oncology consultations were overall 'Excellent', 'Very Good' or 'Good' in the first group compared with 13/15 (86%) in the second group. 86% of patients 'Strongly agreed' that all their questions and concerns had been addressed compared with 58% of patients prior to our intervention. Qualitative data, in the form of patient quotes, highlighted the success of the intervention, addressing patient concerns that were previously raised, namely communication challenges, not having relatives present, the lack of patient preparation ahead of the consultations, managing expectations relating the timing of the appointment and the lack of key points of contact post-consult. Positive aspects of RC/VCs included feeling safer, more flexibility, reduced need for travel and waiting in hospital. Furthermore, we introduced the option to choose between a conference call, video call or face-to-face consult instead of a phone call to personalize experience and maximize patient choice. Conclusions: This study was practice changing. Our data demonstrates that the introduction of the accompanying cover letter successfully enhanced patient experiences and satisfaction with their RCs. Overall, selective RCs should be considered as standard practice in the future. This will enable reduced cancer waiting times, unnecessary exposure of vulnerable patients and improved patient experience by minimizing hospital visits.

3.
Clinical Oncology ; 34(4):e177, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003977

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic brought rapid changes to NHS services and practices, including recommendations for shielding and conversion to RCs. This project was set up to explore the patient experience of RCs at NMUH, yielding both quantitative and qualitative accounts, to identify possible areas for improvement. Methods: Participants were recruited from breast, gastrointestinal and lung oncology clinics between April and June 2021. Suitable patients took part in an anonymous telephone survey conducted by an independent researcher, 48–72 h following their consultations. Three broad areas including practical aspects of communication, patient autonomy and control during the consultation and patients’ emotional experiences were evaluated. Results: 51 participants were recruited into the study (63% women, varied ethnic backgrounds, age range 41–88 years). 98% of participants reported no concerns about privacy or confidentiality, with 42–58% strongly agreeing with statements regarding autonomy. Overall, 90% (n = 46) reported RCs as being good, very good or excellent. Good aspects included: feeling safer, reduced travel, flexibility and reduced waiting in hospital. The main concerns were: communication challenges, inability to follow-up if they forgot something, not having family members or carers present, less personal consultations and not being examined. Timing of the appointment was a key point of dissatisfaction. Qualitative data including patient quotes provided real insight into the patient experience. Lack of key worker support was identified as a major cause of concern for patients. Conclusion: This study was practice changing. A new ‘Cover Letter’ entitled ‘How to get the most out of your remote consultation’ was created and sent with outpatient appointment letters. This project also identified an urgent need for recruitment. Overall, selective RCs should be considered as standard practice in the future, which will enable reduced cancer waiting times, unnecessary exposure of vulnerable patients and improved patient experience by minimising hospital visits.

4.
Frontiers in Microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1987517

ABSTRACT

Viral infections are a major cause of severe, fatal diseases worldwide. Recently, these infections have increased due to demanding contextual circumstances, such as environmental changes, increased migration of people and product distribution, rapid demographic changes, and outbreaks of novel viruses, including the COVID-19 outbreak. Internal variables that influence viral immunity have received attention along with these external causes to avert such novel viral outbreaks. The gastrointestinal microbiome (GIM), particularly the present probiotics, plays a vital role in the host immune system by mediating host protective immunity and acting as an immune regulator. Bacteriocins possess numerous health benefits and exhibit antagonistic activity against enteric pathogens and immunobiotics, thereby inhibiting viral infections. Moreover, disrupting the homeostasis of the GIM/host immune system negatively affects viral immunity. The interactions between bacteriocins and infectious viruses, particularly in COVID-19, through improved host immunity and physiology are complex and have not yet been studied, although several studies have proven that bacteriocins influence the outcomes of viral infections. However, the complex transmission to the affected sites and siRNA defense against nuclease digestion lead to challenging clinical trials. Additionally, bacteriocins are well known for their biofunctional properties and underlying mechanisms in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections. However, few studies have shown the role of probiotics-derived bacteriocin against viral infections. Thus, based on the results of the previous studies, this review lays out a road map for future studies on bacteriocins for treating viral infections.

6.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880099
8.
Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies ; 11(3):71-81, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879854

ABSTRACT

The importance of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) in economic development and their access to finance post-COVID-19 has been highlighted in this study. The availability of finance is a critical factor for MSMEs to flourish, and they are mostly severely affected by the economic recession. The purpose of this study was to ascertain how the firm-specific factors such as Location, Industry, Size, Age, Ownership, Collaterals, and Business information affect their access to finance in India. This study used a survey to collect primary data from 200 MSMEs in India. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Results show that firms with collateral, larger and older firms, and private limited firms are less likely to face problems in raising finance, while service firms are more likely to face problems in raising finance. The results from this study will add to the understanding of the financing problems faced by MSMEs in India. The study recommends that firm attributes are important for accessing finance and help policymakers and researchers develop new strategies and policies to support the financing of MSMEs in India. © 2022 Uddin et al.

9.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-338256

ABSTRACT

Omicron (B.1.1.529) shows extensive escape from vaccine immunity, although vaccination reduces severe disease and death1. Boosting with vaccines incorporating variant spike sequences could possibly broaden immunity2. One approach to choose the variant may be to measure immunity elicited by vaccination combined with variant infection. Here we investigated Omicron neutralization in people infected with the Beta (B.1.351) variant and subsequently vaccinated with Pfizer BNT162b2. We observed that Beta infection alone elicited poor Omicron cross-neutralization, similar to what we previously found3 with BNT162b2 vaccination alone or in combination with ancestral or Delta virus infection. In contrast, Beta infection combined with BNT162b2 vaccination elicited neutralization with substantially lower Omicron escape.

10.
Frontiers in Energy Research ; 10:14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1869371

ABSTRACT

The world has paid increasing attention to energy efficiency projects since the Paris agreement and UN climate summit. Recently, the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the process of the green energy transition, which has attracted considerable attention from economists, environmentalists, and international organizations and has led to significant research in energy. This study addresses the importance of green energy practices in the post-COVID-19 era to deal with environmental deregulation using bibliometric analysis. Data were extracted from the Scopus database from 2020 to 2022. Results indicate that China gained a prominent place in publishing topic-related articles. However, Italy stands at the top position in total and average article citations. Sustainability is the most productive journal, followed by Energies and the Journal of Cleaner Production. Nazarbayev University and the University of Cambridge are the most contributing research institutes. In general, the cooperation of authors, institutes, and countries strengthens research;however, collaboration at the author level across the nation was lower than in others. The study highlights three research streams and four themes by systematically conducting a bibliometric coupling and co-occurrence network that anticipates and significantly segregates literature. Bibliometric coupling identifies three research streams of sustainable green business strategies, green infrastructure requirements, and green solutions and opportunities from COVID-19. Furthermore, the co-occurrence network proposes four main themes related to green innovation in the epidemic era, security and sustainable development goals with green practices, public health protection and green finance, and investment and risk management. The results provide insights into current research in the field of energy and will assist future work promoting environmentally friendly projects.

11.
International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education ; 14(3):1513-1518, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1856297

ABSTRACT

Psychology is generally based on the pillars of religion and Buddhism is one religion that is more of a philosophy and lesser a religion and the same is having a great impact on psychology of people. This happens with a view that the goals of both the streams are common but the methodology is different, and major difference lies in the orientation. Zen Therapy or meditation is again one such process that can help a patient suffering from severe ailments. This present study will try to understand the usefulness of 'Zen Therapy' for recovery of Corona patients and also try to evaluate the impact on the same in case of Corona positive patients in the state of Rajasthan. The study is based on primary data and Chi-square test is used to analyze the data.

12.
21st IEEE International Conference on Bioinformatics and Bioengineering (IEEE BIBE) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1764811

ABSTRACT

In silico approach can make vaccine designs more efficient and cost-effective. It complements the traditional process and becomes extremely valuable in coping with pandemics such as COVID-19. A recent study proposed an artificial intelligence-based framework to predict and design multi-epitope vaccines for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, we found several issues in its dataset design as well as its neural network design. To achieve more reliable predictions of the potential vaccine subunits, we create a more reliable and larger dataset for machine learning experiments. We apply natural language processing techniques and build neural networks composed of convolutional layer and recurrent layer to identify peptide sequences as vaccine candidates. We also train a classifier using embeddings from a pre-trained Transformer protein language model, which provides a baseline for comparison. Experimental results demonstrate that our models achieve high performance in classification accuracy and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve.

15.
Frontiers in Education ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1701200

ABSTRACT

After the outbreak of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) in late December 2019, in an attempt to mitigate its development, the decision to close institutions around the world was made. To continue imparting education and delivering the learning material to their students, many institutions adopted for digital or E-learning. To support those institutions attempting to digitize their learning during this pandemic, the main aim of this study is to examine the students’ accessibility to and success of E-learning portals. Using the DeLone and McLean (D&M) Model, the study explains the differences between female and male students’ accessibility to E-learning portals. This study compares female and male student groups regarding the usage of the E-learning portal in the higher education context. Using an online google survey, the data were collected from 254 students, including males and females. The study utilized PLS-SEM to perform a multi-group analysis examining female and male student groups. The study found a significant and direct relationship of e-service quality with system use and user satisfaction for females and male student groups. System quality also supported the relationship with user satisfaction. The study further revealed a significant and positive relationship between system use and user satisfaction with E-learning portal success for females and male student groups. This study also concluded that insignificant difference exists in using the E-learning portal between female and male student in higher education institutions. Copyright © 2022 Shams, Niazi, Gul, Mei and Khan.

16.
2021 ASEE Virtual Annual Conference, ASEE 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1696300

ABSTRACT

This article highlights instructional experiences from various disciplines at SHSU during the COVID-19 pandemic. The serious global health threat has hit us hard, posing enormous challenges to the educators who had to switch to virtual and hybrid modes of instruction through major modifications of teaching methodologies, lab strategies, and even grading criteria. The authors of this paper participated in a series of roundtable discussions to share their course delivery experiences during the pandemic. We attempt to share our key findings, which may benefit other educators and help them adopt alternative instructional approaches in other institutions. Instructional challenges in a wide variety of courses such as Digital Electronics, Industrial Robotics, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC), Software Engineering, System Modeling, Epidemiology, Human Diseases, Environmental Health, and Intermediate Business Analysis were mitigated using alternative or modified approaches. Hands-on and in-person learning activities (e.g., laboratory experiments and data analysis) were substituted by innovative strategies such as online exercises via simulation, statistical software, enhanced use of audiovisual tools, and synchronous and asynchronous online instructions. Instructors also reported more frequent troubleshooting experience while using blended formats of instruction. Several other sociocultural barriers of effective teaching were also noted. While individuals with children struggled to cope up due to school and daycare closures, individuals living alone struggled with depression and anxiety due to limited in-person interactions amid widespread stay-at-home order. The struggle was exacerbated for students who were tested coronavirus positive or caregivers for immediate family members. The pandemic also had a major psychosocial impact on individuals in academia who lost their loved ones or became unemployed. In a nutshell, both students and instructors were not able to perform their academic responsibilities effectively and had to sacrifice learning goals to some extent. © American Society for Engineering Education, 2021

17.
Journal of Tourism and Services ; 12(23):217-236, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1689570

ABSTRACT

Our research examined the attitudes of owners and managers of small and medium-sized enterprises in the V4 countries, who behave responsibly - they use corporate social responsibility in their managerial practice on issues focused on the market and operational area of business. The paper is based on a questionnaire survey with data collection from September 2019 to January 2020. Statistical methods of Pearson's chi-square and z-score were used to assess the hypotheses. The results proved that there are significant differences in companies in services and tourism in the context of implementing the CSR concept. Entrepreneurs who implement social responsibility with a significant positive difference agree that a company places great emphasis on the innovation of its products and services. Researchers found that the sector has an impact on the perception of decreasing customers' requests on specific products/services. We found that corporate social responsibility and its implementation in corporate practice positively affects the relationship of V4's small and medium enterprises in the services and tourism sector to service production innovation issues, which helps increase business performance and decline customer complaints.

18.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-327015

ABSTRACT

Omicron has been shown to be highly transmissible and have extensive evasion of neutralizing antibody immunity elicited by vaccination and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. Omicron infections are rapidly expanding worldwide often in the face of high levels of Delta infections. Here we characterized developing immunity to Omicron and investigated whether neutralizing immunity elicited by Omicron also enhances neutralizing immunity of the Delta variant. We enrolled both previously vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals who were infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the Omicron infection wave in South Africa soon after symptom onset. We then measured their ability to neutralize both Omicron and Delta virus at enrollment versus a median of 14 days after enrollment. Neutralization of Omicron increased 14-fold over this time, showing a developing antibody response to the variant. Importantly, there was an enhancement of Delta virus neutralization, which increased 4.4-fold. The increase in Delta variant neutralization in individuals infected with Omicron may result in decreased ability of Delta to re-infect those individuals. Along with emerging data indicating that Omicron, at this time in the pandemic, is less pathogenic than Delta, such an outcome may have positive implications in terms of decreasing the Covid-19 burden of severe disease.

19.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326997

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant has multiple Spike (S) protein mutations that contribute to escape from the neutralizing antibody responses, and reducing vaccine protection from infection. The extent to which other components of the adaptive response such as T cells may still target Omicron and contribute to protection from severe outcomes is unknown. We assessed the ability of T cells to react with Omicron spike in participants who were vaccinated with Ad26.CoV2.S or BNT162b2, and in unvaccinated convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 70). We found that 70-80% of the CD4 and CD8 T cell response to spike was maintained across study groups. Moreover, the magnitude of Omicron cross-reactive T cells was similar to that of the Beta and Delta variants, despite Omicron harbouring considerably more mutations. Additionally, in Omicron-infected hospitalized patients (n = 19), there were comparable T cell responses to ancestral spike, nucleocapsid and membrane proteins to those found in patients hospitalized in previous waves dominated by the ancestral, Beta or Delta variants (n = 49). These results demonstrate that despite Omicron’s extensive mutations and reduced susceptibility to neutralizing antibodies, the majority of T cell response, induced by vaccination or natural infection, crossrecognises the variant. Well-preserved T cell immunity to Omicron is likely to contribute to protection from severe COVID-19, supporting early clinical observations from South Africa.

20.
McCrone, J. T.; Hill, V.; Bajaj, S.; Pena, R. E.; Lambert, B. C.; Inward, R.; Bhatt, S.; Volz, E.; Ruis, C.; Dellicour, S.; Baele, G.; Zarebski, A. E.; Sadilek, A.; Wu, N.; Schneider, A.; Ji, X.; Raghwani, J.; Jackson, B.; Colquhoun, R.; O'Toole, Á, Peacock, T. P.; Twohig, K.; Thelwall, S.; Dabrera, G.; Myers, R.; Faria, N. R.; Huber, C.; Bogoch, I. I.; Khan, K.; du Plessis, L.; Barrett, J. C.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barclay, W. S.; Chand, M.; Connor, T.; Loman, N. J.; Suchard, M. A.; Pybus, O. G.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Martinez Nunez, R. T.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Estee Torok, M.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Spencer Chapman, M. H.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Fryer, H.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Alikhan, N. F.; Bridgett, S.; Cook, K. F.; Fearn, C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; El Bouzidi, K.; Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326827

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases1-3. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions4,5. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruct the emergence of Delta, and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England, in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Through analysis of human movement, contact tracing, and virus genomic data, we find that the focus of geographic expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced >1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers from India reduced onward transmission from importations;however the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England had been already seeded before restrictions were introduced. In England, increasing inter-regional travel drove Delta's nationwide dissemination, with some cities receiving >2,000 observable lineage introductions from other regions. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing, not the number of importations, was associated with faster relative growth of Delta. Among US states, we find that regions that previously experienced large waves also had faster Delta growth rates, and a model including interactions between immunity and human behaviour could accurately predict the rise of Delta there. Delta's invasion dynamics depended on fine scale spatial heterogeneity in immunity and contact patterns and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce transmission of current and future VOCs such as Omicron.

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