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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338493

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in 2019, the novel coronavirus or COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe disruptions in every field of life. The world has turned its focus toward digital technologies to fight against the socio-economic disruptions caused by the pandemic. The associated digital technology based solutions predominantly rely on the advancements in wireless and communication technologies. These wireless technologies help in fighting the global crisis in various ways, including virus-spread monitoring, maximizing healthcare outreach, mitigating the physical barriers through automated visual inspection systems and online video conferencing solutions, and enabling distance and virtual education. However, the problem further intensifies in developing and underdeveloped countries, due to the lack of facilities, increased poverty ratio, and poor socio-economic situation. This paper reports various wireless technological solutions for the COVID-19 pandemic as experienced by one such developing country, Pakistan. The paper highlights the use of wireless technologies in various fields for fighting the COVID-19 pandemic, such as e-commerce, education, and the healthcare sector.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-338324

ABSTRACT

Additional COVID-19 vaccines that are safe, easy to manufacture, and immunogenic are needed for global vaccine equity. Here, we developed a recombinant type 5 adenovirus vector encoding for the SARS-CoV-2-S1 subunit antigen and nucleocapsid as a fusion protein (Ad5.SARS-CoV-2-S1N) delivered to BALB/c mice through multiple vaccine administration routes. A single subcutaneous (S.C.) immunization with Ad5.SARS-CoV-2-S1N induced a similar humoral response, along with a significantly higher S1-specific cellular response, as a recombinant type 5 adenovirus vector encoding for S1 alone (Ad5.SARS-CoV-2-S1). Immunogenicity was improved by homologous prime boost strategies, using either S.C. or intranasal (I.N.) delivery of Ad5.SARS-CoV-2-S1N, and further improved through heterologous prime boost, with traditional intramuscular (I.M.) injection, using subunit recombinant S1 protein. Priming with low dose (1×10 10 v.p.) of Ad5.SARS-CoV-2-S1N and boosting with either wildtype recombinant rS1 or B.1.351 recombinant rS1 induced a robust neutralizing response, that was sustained against immune evasive Beta and Gamma SARS-CoV-2 variants, along with a long-lived plasma cell response in the bone marrow 29 weeks post vaccination. This novel Ad5-vectored SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate showed promising immunogenicity in mice and supports the further development of COVID-19 based vaccines incorporating the nucleoprotein as a target antigen.

3.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24477, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876134

ABSTRACT

Myocarditis was identified as a rare but serious adverse event that can occur after mRNA-based coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, particularly in young males. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we report a case of a young obese male without multiple comorbidities who presented with abdominal pain and was found to have severe myocarditis/cardiomyopathy, which was likely due to mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccination. The patient had left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation during hospitalization. Myocarditis/cardiomyopathy may be a rare complication of the mRNA-based COVID vaccine; however, one should maintain a high index of suspicion that these vaccines may cause irreversible cardiomyopathy if the patient had prior COVID-19 infection.

4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872660

ABSTRACT

In light of the outbreak caused by the COVID-19 and its impact on the physical and mental wellbeing, we explored the consequences of this pandemic on the mental health among pre-professional health sciences students and their awareness regarding the virus. A descriptive observational cross-sectional study was conducted at King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences (KSAU-HS) in Jeddah and Riyadh campuses. Data was collected from 770 participants using an online questionnaire, and statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. The majority of the participants (87.5%) considered governmental authorities as their main source of information, and therefore, they were up to date on the general information regarding COVID-19. For findings on mental health, it was found that 61.9% were exhibiting variant degrees of depression, as well as 50% expressing signs of extremely severe anxiety. However, 50.9% of the participants expressed no signs of stress during this pandemic. An association was found between gender and mental health showing females to have higher tendencies to express signs of extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress. An association was also found between parents' marital status and anxiety. Analysis revealed that participants with separated parents were the least among the participants to show no signs of anxiety, as well as reporting the highest numbers in the "extremely severe" anxiety category. With the increased awareness and higher than normal levels of the investigated mental illnesses, we advise that proper action should be considered to address this issue.

5.
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012) ; 77, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1871180

ABSTRACT

Introduction Pancreatic pseudocysts remain a feared complication of acute or chronic pancreatitis and are often characterized by collections of fluids due to underlying damage to the pancreatic ducts, culminating in a walled-off region bereft of an epithelial layer but surrounded by granulation tissue. While fungal infections of pancreatic pseudocysts are rarely encountered, candida albicans remains the most frequently implicated organism. Case presentation A 55-year-old male presented with pain in the left-hypochondriac region, accompanied by non-bilious emesis and nausea. Interestingly, the patient also tested positive for a COVID-19 infection. Investigative workup divulged enhancing pancreatic walls with a radiologic impression consistent with a pancreatic pseudocyst. An ultrasound-guided external drainage was performed;the drainage was conducted unremarkably, with the resultant fluid collection revealing the presence of Candida Glabrata. The patient was commenced on antifungal therapy and continues to do well to date. Discussion Infectious ailments of pancreatic pseudocysts remain a widely known complication of acute pancreatitis. While it is rare, fungal infection is a crucial consideration for patients with pancreatic pseudocysts, especially in the context of a lack of an adequate response to antibiotics, deterioration, comorbidities, and immunocompromised states. Conclusion Rapid identification of the microbe responsible for pancreatic pseudocyst infection is vital for time-sensitive treatment and a more rapid recovery, curbing associated morbidity and mortality. Highlights • Fungal infections of pancreatic pseudocysts remain a rare but well-characterized complication, culminating in significant morbidity and mortality.• Telltale signs include unresponsiveness to antibiotics and worsening clinical symptoms.• Rapid identification of the responsible microbe is vital for time-sensitive treatment and a more rapid recovery.

6.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-4, 2022 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has substantially affected students around the globe due to the closure of educational institutes. However, student involvements and contributions are important in combating the disease; for this reason, the current study was designed to assess the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP), preventive behavior, and risk perception among university students. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted among medical and non-medical university students, from April 1 to June 30, 2020. The 68-item questionnaire was used to evaluate responses using statistical approaches (Student's t-test, regression-analysis, and co-relation analysis) by considering a P-value <0.05 as statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 503 university students (medical and nonmedical) were selected, where majority of participants were females (83%) and 64.5% were of age ranged from 16 to 21 years old. The participants (80%) reported good disease knowledge with a mean score of 12.06 ± 1.75, which substantially higher among medical students (P < 0.05). Most of the respondents (72%) believed that COVID-19 will be effectively controlled through precautionary measures. In correlation subgroup analysis, a significant relationship (P = 0.025) between knowledge and positive attitude were indicated. Fear and knowledge of COVID-19 emerged as strong predictors (P < 0.001) of preventive behaviors towards disease. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated satisfactory knowledge, positive attitudes, and suitable practices among students toward COVID-19. University students can be involved in public education to aid the health authorities in achieving the targets of educational campaigns with maximum population coverage.

7.
Results Phys ; 38: 105652, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867747

ABSTRACT

We consider a new mathematical model for the COVID-19 disease with Omicron variant mutation. We formulate in details the modeling of the problem with omicron variant in classical differential equations. We use the definition of the Atangana-Baleanu derivative and obtain the extended fractional version of the omicron model. We study mathematical results for the fractional model and show the local asymptotical stability of the model for infection-free case if R 0 < 1 . We show the global asymptotically stable of the model for the disease free case when R 0 ≤ 1 . We show the existence and uniqueness of solution of the fractional model. We further extend the fractional order model into piecewise differential equation system and give a numerical algorithm for their numerical simulation. We consider the real cases of COVID-19 in South Africa of the third wave March 2021-Sep 2021 and estimate the model parameters and get R 0 ≈ 1 . 4004 . The real parameters values are used to show the graphical results for the fractional and piecewise model.

8.
Saudi Pharm J ; 2022 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867429

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a more severe strain of coronavirus (CoV) that was first emerged in China in 2019. Available antiviral drugs could be repurposed and natural compounds with antiviral activity could be safer and cheaper source of medicine for SARS-CoV-2. 78 natural antiviral compounds database was identified from literature and virtual screening technique was applied to identify potential 3-chymotrypsin-like protease (3CLpro) inhibitors. Molecular docking studies were conducted to analyze the main protease (3CLpro) and inhibitors interactions with key residues of active site of target protein (PDB ID: 6LU7), active site constitute the part of active domain I and II of 3CLpro. 10 compounds with highest dock score were subjected to calculate ADMET parameters to figure out drug-likeness. Molecular dynamic (MD) simulation of the selected lead was performed by Amber simulation package to understand the conformational changes in docked complex. MD simulations analysis (RMSD, RMSF, Rg, BF, HBs, and SASA plots) of lead bounded with 3CLpro, hence revealed the important structural turns and twists during MD simulations from 0-100ns. MM-PBSA/GBSA methods has also been applied for the estimation binding free energy (BFE) of the selected lead-complex. The present study has identified lead compound "Forsythoside A" an active extract of Forsythia suspense as SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor that can block the viral replication and translation. Structural analysis of target protein and lead compound performed in this study could contribute to the development of potential drug against SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 8922, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864771

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19, since its appearance, has affected about 200 countries and endangered millions of lives. COVID-19 is extremely contagious disease, and it can quickly incapacitate the healthcare systems if infected cases are not handled timely. Several Conventional Neural Networks (CNN) based techniques have been developed to diagnose the COVID-19. These techniques require a large, labelled dataset to train the algorithm fully, but there are not too many labelled datasets. To mitigate this problem and facilitate the diagnosis of COVID-19, we developed a self-attention transformer-based approach having self-attention mechanism using CT slices. The architecture of transformer can exploit the ample unlabelled datasets using pre-training. The paper aims to compare the performances of self-attention transformer-based approach with CNN and Ensemble classifiers for diagnosis of COVID-19 using binary Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and multi-class Hybrid-learning for UnbiaSed predicTion of COVID-19 (HUST-19) CT scan dataset. To perform this comparison, we have tested Deep learning-based classifiers and ensemble classifiers with proposed approach using CT scan images. Proposed approach is more effective in detection of COVID-19 with an accuracy of 99.7% on multi-class HUST-19, whereas 98% on binary class SARS-CoV-2 dataset. Cross corpus evaluation achieves accuracy of 93% by training the model with Hust19 dataset and testing using Brazilian COVID dataset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Algorithms , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted/methods , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Heliyon ; 8(5): e09415, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1859573

ABSTRACT

Background: Human health and well-being are adversely affected by the effects of COVID-19. This study examined the prevalence of anxiety and depression during COVID-19 lockdown in Bangladesh, and their association with some less explored factors like perceived and relative health status, having elderly members in the family, fear for own and family future, and others from the Asian context. Methods: Using an online survey, data were collected from the population aged 18 years and above, on socio-demographic and economic attributes, and two separate standardized twelve-item scales were used to assess the level of anxiety and depression. Both descriptive and multivariate linear regression were used to analyze the factors associated with anxiety and depression scores. Results: The respondents had an average anxiety score of 21.74 (SD = 8.20) on a scale ranging from 12 to 60 and an average depression score of 24.39 (SD = 10.30) on the same scale. The study findings revealed that respondents' concern for future well-being, perceived physical health status compared to others in the same cohort, and perceived physical health status during the survey compared to prior COVID-19 were significantly associated with anxiety and depression scores during COVID-19 lockdown. In addition, the anxiety score was significantly higher (p = 0.046) for women respondents than men. Moreover, respondents aged 18-24 years had significantly higher (p < 0.001) depression than others. Conclusions: The increased level of anxiety and depression during COVID-19 of adult people in Bangladesh are associated with several factors of which their greater concern about the future of their own and family members and health-related attributes are important. These findings may lead to developing interventions to reduce the psychological crisis during the pandemic in Bangladesh.

11.
Eur Phys J Plus ; 136(8): 853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846543

ABSTRACT

In this article, a mathematical model for hypertensive or diabetic patients open to COVID-19 is considered along with a set of first-order nonlinear differential equations. Moreover, the method of piecewise arguments is used to discretize the continuous system. The mathematical system is said to reveal six equilibria, namely, extinction equilibrium, boundary equilibrium, quarantined-free equilibrium, exposure-free equilibrium, endemic equilibrium, and the equilibrium free from susceptible population. Local stability conditions are developed for our discrete-time mathematical system about each of its equilibrium point. The existence of period-doubling bifurcation and chaos is studied in the absence of isolated population. It is shown that our system will become unstable and experiences the chaos when the quarantined compartment is empty, which is true in biological meanings. The existence of Neimark-Sacker bifurcation is studied for the endemic equilibrium point. Moreover, it is shown numerically that our discrete-time mathematical system experiences the period-doubling bifurcation about its endemic equilibrium. To control the period-doubling bifurcation, Neimark-Sacker bifurcation, a generalized hybrid control methodology is used. Moreover, this model is analyzed along with generalized hybrid control in order to eliminate chaos and oscillation epidemiologically presenting the significance of quarantine in the COVID-19 environment.

12.
Cureus ; 14(5): e24885, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847678

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has had a disastrous impact worldwide. COVID-19 is caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and was declared a pandemic by the WHO on March 11, 2020. The virus has been linked to a wide range of respiratory illnesses, ranging from mild symptoms to acute pneumonia and severe respiratory distress syndrome. Pregnant women are more vulnerable to COVID-19 complications owing to the physiological and immunological changes caused by pregnancy. According to the CDC, pregnant patients with COVID-19 are commonly hospitalized and often require admission to ICUs and ventilator support. Therefore, it is especially important for pregnant women to adhere to disease prevention measures to lower the risk of contracting the disease. In addition, the guidelines of several clinical societies and local health authorities should be followed when caring for pregnant women with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. In this review article, we discuss the epidemiology of COVID-19 during delivery, its effect on the physiological and immunological changes during pregnancy, the classification of COVID-19 severity, maternal and fetal risks, antenatal care, respiratory management, treatment/medication safety, timing and mode of delivery, anesthetic considerations, and the outcome of critically ill pregnant patients with COVID-19, as well as their post-delivery care and weaning from mechanical ventilation.

13.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5416, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842985

ABSTRACT

Despite the focus on knowledge risks in the literature, a limited number of studies have empirically examined technological knowledge risks in terms of digitalization, old technologies, and cybercrime as moderating variables in the relationship between work-life balance and job performance. To address this gap, this paper investigated the moderation effects of technological knowledge risks on the relationship between work-life balance and job performance during the pandemic period in employees of cooperative credit banks. A quantitative approach that involved gathering surveys was adopted. Applying PLS-SEM, the empirical findings revealed that technological knowledge risks have a significant impact on the relationship between work-life balance and job performance. Additionally, this research encourages managers to create and maintain a healthy work environment that promotes valuable employees’ job performance while also evaluating the use of new technological advances and their related risks.

14.
BMJ Open ; 11(8), 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842821

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveIn this study, we aimed to find the seroprevalence of healthcare workers (HCWs) of Pakistan involved in the treatment and care of patients with COVID-19.SettingThis was a cross-sectional study and total of 15 000 HCWs involved in providing services and care to the patients with COVID-19 were randomly selected from all over Pakistan.ParticipantsInformed consent was taken from all participants and were included according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. All testing was done on serum samples for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies using Abbott Chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. An index of 1.4 was used as a cut-off to mark reactive and non-reactive cases. SPSS V.23.0 was used for data analysis.OutcomeImmune status of the study population depicting seroprevalence among HCWs.ResultsOut of all the candidates, majority of the HCWs were men (61.9%) and were doctors (62.4%). The mean age of participants was 32.8 years (SD 8.7) and majority were asymptomatic (51.8%). In this study, 33% of the HCWs were reactive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody. Around 44% of the reactive cases were asymptomatic. The symptoms more significantly associated with seropositivity were: fever (OR 1.31;95% CI 1.16 to 1.48), headache (OR 2.43;95% CI 2.16 to 2.73), cough and shortness of breath (OR 2.10;95% CI 1.91 to 2.31), loss of sense of smell or taste (OR 3.70;95% CI 3.29 to 4.17) (p<0.001). Factors which showed significant association with the presence of antibodies were professional category (absolute risk (AR) 0.09;OR 1.46;95% CI 1.36 to 1.56), availability of protective masks (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.96), safety goggles (AR 0.02;OR 0.90;95% CI 0.84 to 0.97) and living arrangements (AR 0.03;OR 1.12;95% CI 1.04 to 1.20) (p<0.05).ConclusionOur study showed a high seropositivity of HCWs dealing with patients with COVID-19 in Pakistan revealing significant association with professional category, nature of work place and precautions taken while performing duties.

15.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 197-212, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844268

ABSTRACT

As the knowledge of biomolecules is increasing from the last decades, it is helping the researchers to understand the unsolved issues regarding virology. Recent technologies in high-throughput sequencing are providing the swift generation of SARS-CoV-2 genomic data with the basic inside of viral infection. Owing to various virus-host protein interactions, high-throughput technologies are unable to provide complete details of viral pathogenesis. Identifying the virus-host protein interactions using bioinformatics approaches can assist in understanding the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis. In this chapter, recent integrative bioinformatics approaches are discussed to help the virologists and computational biologists in the identification of structurally similar proteins of human and SARS-CoV-2 virus, and to predict the potential of virus-host interactions. Considering experimental and time limitations for effective viral drug development, computational aided drug design (CADD) can reduce the gap between drug prediction and development. More research with respect to evolutionary solutions could be helpful to make a new pipeline for virus-host protein-protein interactions and provide more understanding to disclose the cases of host switch, and also expand the virulence of the pathogen and host range in developing viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Host Microbial Interactions , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(2): 84-100, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841798

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly spread globally. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19, is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus with a reported fatality rate ranging from 1% to 7%, and people with immune-compromised conditions, children, and older adults are particularly vulnerable. Respiratory failure and cytokine storm-induced multiple organ failure are the major causes of death. This article highlights the innate and adaptive immune mechanisms of host cells activated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible therapeutic approaches against COVID-19. Some potential drugs proven to be effective for other viral diseases are under clinical trials now for use against COVID-19. Examples include inhibitors of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (remdesivir, favipiravir, ribavirin), viral protein synthesis (ivermectin, lopinavir/ ritonavir), and fusion of the viral membrane with host cells (chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, nitazoxanide, and umifenovir). This article also presents the intellectual groundwork for the ongoing development of vaccines in preclinical and clinical trials, explaining potential candidates (live attenuated-whole virus vaccines, inactivated vaccines, subunit vaccines, DNAbased vaccines, protein-based vaccines, nanoparticle-based vaccines, virus-like particles and mRNA-based vaccines). Designing and developing an effective vaccine (both prophylactic and therapeutic) would be a long-term solution and the most effective way to eliminate the COVID-19 pandemic.

17.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335480

ABSTRACT

Ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) storm associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection is a potentially fatal complication;the correlation of these 2 disorders, however, has not been well studied. This retrospective case series examined outcomes of 2 patients who were admitted for repeated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks with or without syncope and observed to have VT/VF storms with COVID-19. Mechanisms of VT/VF storms in COVID-19 are multifactorial including myocarditis, systemic inflammation, hyperadrenergic state, hemodynamic instability, hypoxia, acidosis, and proarrhythmic drugs. A higher incidence of VT/VF storm is observed in patients with comorbidities and those requiring critical care, with some studies reporting increased mortality. In our cohort, 1 of the 2 patients succumbed to the complications from COVID-19 and the other patient was discharged to home in stable condition. Monitoring of life-threatening arrhythmias in the setting of COVID-19 may need to be adopted to prevent morbidity and mortality.

18.
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother ; 7(5): e79-e80, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821729
19.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 150: 113041, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1821148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), infections like influenza, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), asthma and pneumonia lung cancer (LC) are common causes of sickness and death worldwide due to their remoteness, cold and harsh climatic conditions, and inaccessible health care facilities. PURPOSE: Many drugs have already been proposed for the treatment of lung diseases. Few of them are in clinical trials and have the potential to cure infectious diseases. Plant extracts or herbal products have been extensively used as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Indian Ayurveda. Moreover, it has been involved in the inhibition of certain genes/protiens effects to promote regulation of signaling pathways. Natural remedies have been scientifically proven with remarkable bioactivities and are considered a cheap and safe source for lung disease. METHODS: This comprehensive review highlighted the literature about traditional plants and their metabolites with their applications for the treatment of lung diseases through experimental models in humans. Natural drugs information and mode of mechanism have been studied through the literature retrieved by Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Scopus and Medline PubMed resources against lung diseases. RESULTS: In vitro, in vivo and computational studies have been explained for natural metabolites derived from plants (like flavonoids, alkaloids, and terpenoids) against different types of lung diseases. Probiotics have also been biologically active therapeutics against cancer, anti-inflammation, antiplatelet, antiviral, and antioxidants associated with lung diseases. CONCLUSION: The results of the mentioned natural metabolites repurposed for different lung diseases especially for SARS-CoV-2 should be evaluated more by advance computational applications, experimental models in the biological system, also need to be validated by clinical trials so that we may be able to retrieve potential drugs for most challenging lung diseases especially SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Lung Diseases/drug therapy , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Phytochemicals/pharmacology , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266277, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 household transmissibility remains unclear in Pakistan. To understand the dynamics of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus disease epidemiology, this study estimated Secondary Attack Rate (SAR) among household and close contacts of index cases in Pakistan using a statistical transmission model. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an inclusive contact tracing dataset from the provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa to estimate SAR. We considered the probability of an infected person transmitting the infection to close contacts regardless of residential addresses. This means that close contacts were identified irrespective of their relationship with the index case. We assessed demographic determinants of COVID-19 infectivity and transmissibility. For this purpose based on evolving evidence, and as CDC recommends fully vaccinated people get tested 5-7 days after close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Therefore we followed the same procedure in the close contacts for secondary infection. FINDINGS: During the study period from 15th May 2020 to 15th Jan 2021, a total of 339 (33.9%) index cases were studied from 1000 cases initially notified. Among close contact groups (n = 739), households were identified with an assumed mean incubation period of 8.2+4.3 days and a maximum incubation period of 15 days. SAR estimated here is among the household contacts. 117 secondary cases from 739 household contacts, with SAR 11.1% (95% CI 9.0-13.6). All together (240) SAR achieved was 32.48% (95% CI; 29.12-37.87) for symptomatic and confirmed cases. The potential risk factors for SAR identified here included; old age group (>45 years of age), male (gender), household members >5, and residency in urban areas and for index cases high age group. Overall local reproductive number (R) based on the observed household contact frequencies for index/primary cases was 0.9 (95% CI 0.47-1.21) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and 1.3 (95% CI 0.73-1.56) in Punjab. CONCLUSIONS: SAR estimated here was high especially in the second phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. The results highlight the need to adopt rigorous preventive measures to cut the chain of viral transmission and prevent another wave of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
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