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1.
Frontiers in Pharmacology ; 11, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-934466

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is an enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus Humans infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop a disease known as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with symptoms and consequences including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), cardiovascular disorders, and death SARS-CoV-2 appears to infect cells by first binding viral spike proteins with host protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors;the virus is endocytosed following priming by transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) The process of virus entry into endosomes and its release from endolysosomes are key features of enveloped viruses Thus, it is important to focus attention on the role of endolysosomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection Indeed, coronaviruses are now known to hijack endocytic machinery to enter cells such that they can deliver their genome at replication sites without initiating host detection and immunological responses Hence, endolysosomes might be good targets for developing therapeutic strategies against coronaviruses Here, we focus attention on the involvement of endolysosomes in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis Further, we explore endolysosome-based therapeutic strategies to restrict SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 pathogenesis © Copyright © 2020 Khan, Chen and Geiger

2.
Journal of Allergy & Infectious Diseases ; 1(2):38-48, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-931957

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19);a worldwide pandemic as declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) SARS-CoV-2 appears to infect cells by first binding and priming its viral-spike proteins with membrane-associated angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) Through the coordinated actions of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins fuse with plasma membranes and ultimately the virus enters cells ACE2 is integral to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and SARS-CoV-2 down-regulates protein expression levels of ACE2 Once infected, patients typically develop acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and a number of other severe complications that result in a high rate of fatality, especially in older (>60 years) adults and in people with pre-existing medical conditions Data now indicate clearly that among people of all age groups, COVID-19 fatalities are higher in men than women Here, attention is focused on these sex differences and posit a role of estrogen in these differences as well as possible therapeutic and protective actions of 17beta-estradiol against COVID-19

3.
Future Healthcare Journal ; 7(3):e67-e70, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-890682

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19 in the UK in March 2020 required a radical remodelling of the medical workforce at Royal Free London NHS Foundation Trust to prepare for the anticipated surge of hospital admissions The provision of relevant teaching and training was immediately identified as a priority, particularly for staff due to work outside their regular medical specialty Rather than deliver face-to-face teaching, doctors at the Trust utilised Microsoft Teams, an online communications and collaboration platform, to deliver a multi-disciplinary Trust-wide education programme responsive to the needs of surveyed medical staff To date members of 18 departments across the Trust have delivered 51 virtual teaching sessions which have been viewed 3,814 times During this pandemic the virtual education programme has facilitated rapid dissemination of new information and provided a platform for discussion and unity amongst colleagues with overwhelmingly positive feedback from both learners and teachers

4.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology ; 125(5):S104, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-887034

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical community has quickly sought methods to reduce rates of transmission Chief among those is usage of both surgical and non-surgical masks Patients with atopy may be at risk for adverse reactions to use of such masks Case Description: This is a 60-year-old Black man with adult-onset atopic dermatitis (AD) with contact dermatitis (patch testing positive to textile dye mix, carba mix, and thiuram mix), and chronic allergic rhinitis His AD was well controlled with daily emollient use alone until April 2020, when he presented to our hospital emergency room three times with complaints of a facial rash He was discharged with prednisone At follow up telehealth visit in Allergy clinic, he reported the symptoms were ongoing for 2 weeks and involved the infraorbital skin and back of his neck Patient denied new exposures to known allergens Further questioning revealed he began wearing a mask for COVID-19 precautions shortly before the rash began Rash distribution correlated with the elastic-containing components of a non-surgical mask We tapered prednisone to avoid rebound dermatitis and advised him to use topical steroid and topical tacrolimus until rash resolved He was instructed to use cotton based, dye-free masks without elastic At telephone visit 1 week later, he endorsed continued improvement Discussion: Common allergens implicated in contact dermatitis, including carbamates and thiurams, are found in masks, elastic bands, and other components of face coverings It is important to identify those with underlying conditions that may result in certain types of face masks being contraindicated [Formula presented]

5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2020 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-856444

ABSTRACT

One of the ten greatest public health achievements is childhood vaccination because of its impact controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs). Evidence-based immunization policies and practices are responsible for this success and are supported by epidemiology that has generated scientific evidence for informing policy and practice. The purpose of this report is to highlight the role of epidemiology in the development of immunization policy and successful intervention in public health practice that has resulted in a measurable public health impact: the control and elimination of VPDs in the United States. Examples in which epidemiology informed immunization policy were collected from a literature review and consultation with experts who have been working in this field for the past 30 years. Epidemiologic examples (e.g., thimerosal-containing vaccines and the alleged association between the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism) are presented to describe challenges that epidemiologists have addressed. Finally, we describe ongoing challenges to the nation's ability to sustain high vaccination coverage, particularly with concerns about vaccine safety and effectiveness, increasing use of religious and philosophical belief exemptions to vaccination, and vaccine hesitancy. Learning from past and current experiences may help epidemiologists anticipate and address current and future challenges to respond to emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, with new vaccines and enhance public health impact of immunization programs for years to come.

6.
Cureus ; 12(8):e10054, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-808939

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic The disease mainly affects the respiratory system of the patient, in particular, the lungs, which leads to patients presenting with acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute respiratory failure, with 5-15% of patients requiring observation in the intensive care unit (ICU) with respiratory support in the form of ventilation  This study was aimed at identifying the role of biochemical markers in the risk stratification of invasive and non-invasive ventilation of hospitalized COVID-19 patients Materials and methods The study was conducted as a prospective, observational study of all admitted COVID-19 patients A comparative analysis was performed of the survivors who were on invasive versus (vs) non-invasive ventilation and the non-survivors similarly After computing the descriptive statistics, a multinomial logistic regression model was applied to obtain an unadjusted odds ratio (OR) at 95% confidence interval (CI), with Hosmer-Lemeshow (HL) goodness-of-fit test used to predict the fitness of the data Kaplan-Meier survival curves were obtained for each of the laboratory investigations predicting survival along with the intensive care stay and invasive ventilation A log-rank test was carried out to compare the survival distributions Results A total of 373 included patients in the study had a mean age of 52 78 ± 15 76 years with females younger than males, and indifference amongst invasive vs non-invasively ventilated (p=0 821) Females were slightly more prone to invasive ventilation (p=0 097) Overall, 39% of the subjects did not need respiratory support, while 13% were on a ventilator, 16% on bilevel positive airway pressure/continuous positive airway pressure (BiPAP/CPAP), and 31% on supplemental oxygen therapy Among the laboratory markers, mean hemoglobin was evidently lower in the invasive group, leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia were present in both invasively ventilated and non-surviving patients, while neutrophilia and lymphocytopenia were statistically indifferent among the mode of ventilation Elevated urea, creatinine, and sodium were also significantly deranged laboratory markers amongst the invasively ventilated group C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were elevated significantly in the invasive group, while serum ferritin was more frequently raised in the non-invasively ventilated group Procalcitonin (PCT) was significantly associated with invasive ventilation as opposed to the non-invasive group D-dimer was equally raised in both the groups at admission but significantly elevated in the invasive group at discharge A multinomial regression model signified D-dimer (OR: 16 301), hypernatremia (OR: 12 738), creatinine (OR: 12 589), urea (OR: 12 576), and LDH (OR: 12 245) most significantly associated with death, while those for invasive ventilation were D-dimer (OR: 8 744), hypernatremia (OR: 4 532), PCT (OR: 3 829), neutrophilia (OR: 3 804), leukocytosis (OR: 3 330), and serum urea (OR: 3 312)  Kaplan-Meier curves conclude total leucocyte count (TLC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, urea, creatinine, sodium, CRP, LDH, PCT, and D-dimer all significantly contributing to an early death Conclusion The most significant marker for mortality was D-dimer, followed by serum sodium, urea/creatinine, LDH, ICU stay, and invasive ventilation

7.
Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences ; 36(COVID19-S4), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-743018
8.
Future healthcare journal ; 7(2):174-176, 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-605343

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has placed significant strain on healthcare systems across the world, requiring rapid adaptation and a change in approach to the delivery of healthcare services Although not always immediately at the frontline, radiology has a key role in the effort against the SARS-CoV-2 virus Radiology preparedness, including the development of a set of policies and procedures designed to acquire and maintain enough capacity to support the ongoing care needs of patients both with and without COVID-19, is essential in this modern-day healthcare crisis of unprecedented magnitude

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