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iScience ; 24(11): 103215, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446746


Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a life-threatening disease occurring several weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Deep immune profiling showed acute MIS-C patients had highly activated neutrophils, classical monocytes and memory CD8+ T-cells, with increased frequencies of B-cell plasmablasts and double-negative B-cells. Post treatment samples from the same patients, taken during symptom resolution, identified recovery-associated immune features including increased monocyte CD163 levels, emergence of a new population of immature neutrophils and, in some patients, transiently increased plasma arginase. Plasma profiling identified multiple features shared by MIS-C, Kawasaki Disease and COVID-19 and that therapeutic inhibition of IL-6 may be preferable to IL-1 or TNF-α. We identified several potential mechanisms of action for IVIG, the most commonly used drug to treat MIS-C. Finally, we showed systemic complement activation with high plasma C5b-9 levels is common in MIS-C suggesting complement inhibitors could be used to treat the disease.

Sensors (Basel) ; 20(9)2020 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-827037


Non-invasive remote health monitoring plays a vital role in epidemiological situations such as SARS outbreak (2003), MERS (2015) and the recently ongoing outbreak of COVID-19 because it is extremely risky to get close to the patient due to the spread of contagious infections. Non-invasive monitoring is also extremely necessary in situations where it is difficult to use complicated wired connections, such as ECG monitoring for infants, burn victims or during rescue missions when people are buried during building collapses/earthquakes. Due to the unique characteristics such as higher penetration capabilities, extremely precise ranging, low power requirement, low cost, simple hardware and robustness to multipath interferences, Impulse Radio Ultra Wideband (IR-UWB) technology is appropriate for non-invasive medical applications. IR-UWB sensors detect the macro as well as micro movement inside the human body due to its fine range resolution. The two vital signs, i.e., respiration rate and heart rate, can be measured by IR-UWB radar by measuring the change in the magnitude of signal due to displacement caused by human lungs, heart during respiration and heart beating. This paper reviews recent advances in IR- UWB radar sensor design for healthcare, such as vital signs measurements of a stationary human, vitals of a non-stationary human, vital signs of people in a vehicle, through the wall vitals measurement, neonate's health monitoring, fall detection, sleep monitoring and medical imaging. Although we have covered many topics related to health monitoring using IR-UWB, this paper is mainly focused on signal processing techniques for measurement of vital signs, i.e., respiration and heart rate monitoring.

Heart Rate , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Radar , Respiratory Rate , Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted , Telemedicine , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Models, Theoretical , Monitoring, Physiologic/instrumentation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radio Waves
Pediatr Radiol ; 50(9): 1191-1204, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-649113


Pediatric radiology departments across the globe face unique challenges in the midst of the current COVID-19 pandemic that have not been addressed in professional guidelines. Providing a safe environment for personnel while continuing to deliver optimal care to patients is feasible when abiding by fundamental recommendations. In this article, we review current infection control practices across the multiple pediatric institutions represented on the Society for Pediatric Radiology (SPR) Quality and Safety committee. We discuss the routes of infectious transmission and appropriate transmission-based precautions, in addition to exploring strategies to optimize personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies. This work serves as a summary of current evidence-based recommendations for infection control, and current best practices specific to pediatric radiologists.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pediatrics/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Radiologists , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Radiology Department, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2