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1.
J Clin Virol Plus ; 2(1): 100061, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616570

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 infection in children frequently leads to only asymptomatic and mild infections. It has been suggested that frequent infections due to low-pathogenicity coronaviruses in children, impart immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in this age group. Methods: From a prospective birth cohort study prior to the pandemic, we identified children with proven low-pathogenicity coronavirus infections. Convalescent sera from these children were tested for antibodies against respective seasonal coronaviruses (OC43, NL63, and 229E) and SARS-CoV-2 by immunofluorescence and virus microneutralization assay respectively. Results: Forty-two children with proven seasonal coronavirus infection were included. Convalescent sera from these samples demonstrated antibodies against the respective seasonal coronaviruses. Of these, 40 serum samples showed no significant neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, while 2 samples showed inconclusive results. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the antibodies generated in low-pathogenicity coronavirus infections offer no protection from SARS-CoV-2 infection in young children.

2.
J Clin Virol ; 146: 105060, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587311

ABSTRACT

Over 90% of the COVID-19 patients manifest mild/moderate symptoms or are asymptomatic. Although comorbidities and dysregulation of immune response have been implicated in severe COVID-19, the host factors that associate with asymptomatic or mild infections have not been characterized. We have collected serial samples from 23 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms and measured the kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 viral load in respiratory samples and markers of inflammation in serum samples. We monitored seroconversion during the acute phase of illness and quantitated the amount of total IgG against the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 and estimated the virus neutralization potential of these antibodies. Viral load decreased by day 8 in all the patients but the detection of viral RNA in saliva samples did not correlate well with viral RNA detection in nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swab samples. 25% of the virus-positive patients had no detectable neutralizing antibodies in the serum and in other cases, the efficiency of antibodies to neutralize SARS-CoV-2 B1.1.7 strain was lower as compared to the circulating virus isolate. Decrease in viral load coincided with increase in neutralizing antibodies and interferon levels in serum. Most patients showed no increase in inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1ß or IL-6, however, elevated levels of IL-7 and other inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α and IL-8 was observed. These data suggest that most mild infections are associated with absence of inflammation coupled with an active innate immune response, T-cell activation and neutralizing antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunity , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
3.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1393559

ABSTRACT

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically active species which are involved in maintaining cellular and signalling processes at physiological concentrations. Therefore, cellular components that regulate redox balance are likely to play a crucial role in viral life-cycle either as promoters of viral replication or with antiviral functions. Zinc is an essential micronutrient associated with anti-oxidative systems and helps in maintaining a balanced cellular redox state. Here, we show that zinc chelation leads to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in epithelial cells and addition of zinc restores ROS levels to basal state. Addition of ROS (H2O2) inhibited dengue virus (DENV) infection in a dose-dependent manner indicating that oxidative stress has adverse effects on DENV infection. ROS affects early stages of DENV replication as observed by quantitation of positive and negative strand viral RNA. We observed that addition of ROS specifically affected viral titres of positive strand RNA viruses. We further demonstrate that ROS specifically altered SEC31A expression at the ER suggesting a role for SEC31A-mediated pathways in the life-cycle of positive strand RNA viruses and provides an opportunity to identify drug targets regulating oxidative stress responses for antiviral development.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/drug effects , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species/pharmacology , Virus Replication , Zinc/pharmacology , Adolescent , Aedes , Animals , Caco-2 Cells , Child , Child, Preschool , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/physiology , Humans , Oxidative Stress , RNA, Viral
5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 613045, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177974

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) initiates infection by attachment of the surface-exposed spike glycoprotein to the host cell receptors. The spike glycoprotein (S) is a promising target for inducing immune responses and providing protection; thus the ongoing efforts for the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and therapeutic developments are mostly spiraling around S glycoprotein. The matured functional spike glycoprotein is presented on the virion surface as trimers, which contain two subunits, such as S1 (virus attachment) and S2 (virus fusion). The S1 subunit harbors the N-terminal domain (NTD) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD). The RBD is responsible for binding to host-cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). The NTD and RBD of S1, and the S2 of S glycoprotein are the major structural moieties to design and develop spike-based vaccine candidates and therapeutics. Here, we have identified three novel epitopes (20-amino acid peptides) in the regions NTD, RBD, and S2 domains, respectively, by structural and immunoinformatic analysis. We have shown as a proof of principle in the murine model, the potential role of these novel epitopes in-inducing humoral and cellular immune responses. Further analysis has shown that RBD and S2 directed epitopes were able to efficiently inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2 wild-type virus in vitro suggesting their role as virus entry inhibitors. Structural analysis revealed that S2-epitope is a part of the heptad repeat 2 (HR2) domain which might have plausible inhibitory effects on virus fusion. Taken together, this study discovered novel epitopes that might have important implications in the development of potential SARS-CoV-2 spike-based vaccine and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virus Replication/immunology , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , Virus Internalization
6.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774837

ABSTRACT

Zinc supplementation in cell culture has been shown to inhibit various viruses, like herpes simplex virus, rotavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, rhinovirus, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). However, whether zinc plays a direct antiviral role in viral infections and whether viruses have adopted strategies to modulate zinc homeostasis have not been investigated. Results from clinical trials of zinc supplementation in infections indicate that zinc supplementation may be beneficial in a pathogen- or disease-specific manner, further underscoring the importance of understanding the interaction between zinc homeostasis and virus infections at the molecular level. We investigated the effect of RSV infection on zinc homeostasis and show that RSV infection in lung epithelial cells leads to modulation of zinc homeostasis. The intracellular labile zinc pool increases upon RSV infection in a multiplicity of infection (MOI)-dependent fashion. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of the ubiquitous zinc uptake transporter ZIP1 suggests that labile zinc levels are increased due to the increased uptake by RSV-infected cells as an antiviral response. Adding zinc to culture medium after RSV infection led to significant inhibition of RSV titers, whereas depletion of zinc by a zinc chelator, N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridinylmethyl)-1,2-ethanediamine (TPEN) led to an increase in RSV titers. The inhibitory effect of zinc was specific, as other divalent cations had no effect on RSV titers. Both RSV infection and zinc chelation by TPEN led to reactive oxygen species (ROS) induction, whereas addition of zinc blocked ROS induction. These results suggest a molecular link between RSV infection, zinc homeostasis, and oxidative-stress pathways and provide new insights for developing strategies to counter RSV infection.IMPORTANCE Zinc deficiency rates in developing countries range from 20 to 30%, and zinc supplementation trials have been shown to correct clinical manifestations attributed to zinc deficiency, but the outcomes in the case of respiratory infections have been inconsistent. We aimed at understanding the role of zinc homeostasis in respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. Infection of lung epithelial cell lines or primary small-airway epithelial cells led to an increase in labile zinc pools, which was due to increased uptake of zinc. Zinc supplementation inhibited RSV replication, whereas zinc chelation had an opposing effect, leading to increases in RSV titers. Increases in labile zinc in RSV-infected cells coincided with induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Both zinc depletion and addition of exogenous ROS led to enhanced RSV infection, whereas addition of the antioxidant inhibited RSV, suggesting that zinc is part of an interplay between RSV-induced oxidative stress and the host response to maintain redox balance.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/pathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/metabolism , Virus Replication/drug effects , Zinc/metabolism , Zinc/pharmacology , A549 Cells , Adolescent , Cation Transport Proteins/genetics , Cell Line , Child , Child, Preschool , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Ethylenediamines/pharmacology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/cytology , Lung/metabolism , Male , Oxidative Stress/physiology , RNA Interference , RNA, Small Interfering/genetics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/metabolism , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
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