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1.
Curr Opin Biomed Eng ; : 100363, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611672

ABSTRACT

The increased severity of COVID-19 infection due to new SARS-CoV-2 variants have resonated pandemic strategies to re-evaluate effectiveness of pandemic management strategies. This becomes critical due to the shortcomings in the existing global healthcare system in all the developed countries. The designing of high-performance nanosystems (NSs) with tunable performances seems to be the most efficient method to tackle infectious SARS-CoV-2 variants. The opinion projects the versatile functionalized NSs and their innovative potential to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 pathways by sensitization of virus, anti-pathogenicity, photocatalysis, photo-thermal, immune response, and development of ultrasensitive assays for SARS-CoV-2 or associated selective biomarkers identification. In this direction, we propose the fabrication of nano-enabled protective gears, masks, gloves, sheets, filtration units, nano-emulsified disinfectants, paints, and detection systems to facilitate improved quarantine or antiviral spaces. Functional protective gears can even tackle the aerosol distribution of infectious strains transmitted through respiratory fluids and pollutants within droplets, aerosols, air, and particulates.

2.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480582

ABSTRACT

It has been proven that rapid bioinformatics analysis according to patient health profiles, in addition to biomarker detection at a low level, is emerging as essential to design an analytical diagnostics system to manage health intelligently in a personalized manner. Such objectives need an optimized combination of a nano-enabled sensing prototype, artificial intelligence (AI)-supported predictive analysis, and Internet of Medical Things (IoMT)-based bioinformatics analysis. Such a developed system began with a prototype demonstration of efficient diseases diagnostics performance is the future diseases management approach. To explore these aspects, the Special Issue planned for the nano-and micro-technology section of MDPI's Biosensors journal will honor and acknowledge the contributions of Prof. B.D. Malhotra, Ph.D., FNA, FNASc has made in the field of biosensors.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , Nanotechnology , Artificial Intelligence , Biomarkers , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems
3.
Mater Lett ; 306: 130898, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415642

ABSTRACT

The importance of early diagnosis of infectious disease has been revealed well by the COVID-19 pandemic. The current methods for testing SARS-CoV-2 mainly utilize biorecognition elements. The process of production of these biorecognition elements is not only tedious, time-consuming but also costly. The molecularly imprinted polymers recently have gained considerable attention as they are stable and also offer high selectivity and specificity than conventional labels. The present review discussed the MIPs-based electrochemical nano-sensors diagnostic of SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Materials Letters ; : 130824, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1401698

ABSTRACT

Unique characteristics like large surface area, excellent conductivity, functionality, ease of fabrication, etc., of graphene and its derivatives, have been extensively studied as potential candidates in healthcare applications. They have been utilized as a potential nanomaterial in biosensor fabrication for commercialized point-of-care (POC) devices. This review concisely provided innovative graphene and its derivative-based-IoT (Internet-of-Things) integrated electrochemical biosensor for accurate and advanced high-throughput testing of SARS-CoV-2 in POC setting.

5.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4620-4642, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240778

ABSTRACT

Despite significant accomplishments in developing efficient rapid sensing systems and nano-therapeutics of higher efficacy, the recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is not under control successfully because the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV-2, original and mutated) transmits easily from human to -human and causes life-threatening respiratory disorders. Thus, it has become crucial to avoid this transmission through precautions and keep premises hygienic using high-performance anti-viral nanomaterials to trap and eradicate SARS-CoV-2. Such an antiviral nano-system has successfully demonstrated useful significant contribution in COVID-19 pandemic/endemic management effectively. However, their projection with potential sustainable prospects still requires considerable attention and efforts. With this aim, the presented review highlights various severe life-threatening viral infections and the role of multi-functional anti-viral nanostructures with manipulative properties investigated as an efficient precative shielding agent against viral infection progression. The salient features of such various nanostructures, antiviral mechanisms, and high impact multi-dimensional roles are systematically discussed in this review. Additionally, the challenges associated with the projection of alternative approaches also support the demand and significance of this selected scientific topic. The outcomes of this review will certainly be useful to motivate scholars of various expertise who are planning future research in the field of investigating sustainable and affordable high-performance nano-systems of desired antiviral performance to manage not only COVID-19 infection but other targeted viral infections as well.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Models, Biological , Nanostructures/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Humans , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Int Rev Immunol ; 40(1-2): 126-142, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236151

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging and highly infectious disease making global public health concern and socio-economic burden. It is caused due to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). It has the tendency to spread rapidly through person-to-person. Currently, several molecular diagnostic platforms such as PCR, qRT-PCR, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), CRISPR are utilized for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. These conventional techniques are costly, time consuming and require sophisticated instrumentation facility with well trained personnel for testing. Hence, it is tough to provide testing en-masse to the people in developing countries. On the other hand, several serological biosensors such as lateral flow immunosensor, optical, electrochemical, microfluidics integrated electrochemical/fluorescence is currently utilized for the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2. In current pandemic situation, there is an urgent need of rapid and efficient diagnosis on mass scale of SARS-CoV-2 for early stage detection. Early monitoring of viral infections can help to control and prevent the spreading of infections in large chunk of population. In this review, the SARS-CoV-2 and their biomarkers in biological samples, collection of samples and recently reported potential electrochemical immunosensors for the rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Elife ; 102021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194809

ABSTRACT

To understand the spread of SARS-CoV2, in August and September 2020, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (India) conducted a serosurvey across its constituent laboratories and centers across India. Of 10,427 volunteers, 1058 (10.14%) tested positive for SARS-CoV2 anti-nucleocapsid (anti-NC) antibodies, 95% of which had surrogate neutralization activity. Three-fourth of these recalled no symptoms. Repeat serology tests at 3 (n = 607) and 6 (n = 175) months showed stable anti-NC antibodies but declining neutralization activity. Local seropositivity was higher in densely populated cities and was inversely correlated with a 30-day change in regional test positivity rates (TPRs). Regional seropositivity above 10% was associated with declining TPR. Personal factors associated with higher odds of seropositivity were high-exposure work (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, p value: 2.23, 1.92-2.59, <0.0001), use of public transport (1.79, 1.43-2.24, <0.0001), not smoking (1.52, 1.16-1.99, 0.0257), non-vegetarian diet (1.67, 1.41-1.99, <0.0001), and B blood group (1.36, 1.15-1.61, 0.001).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , India/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Predictive Value of Tests , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Time Factors
8.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 4(4): 2974-2995, 2021 04 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157888

ABSTRACT

The current scenario, an ongoing pandemic of COVID-19, places a dreadful burden on the healthcare system worldwide. Subsequently, there is a need for a rapid, user-friendly, and inexpensive on-site monitoring system for diagnosis. The early and rapid diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in combating the outbreak. Although conventional methods such as PCR, RT-PCR, and ELISA, etc., offer a gold-standard solution to manage the pandemic, they cannot be implemented as a point-of-care (POC) testing arrangement. Moreover, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) having a high enhancement factor provides quantitative results with high specificity, sensitivity, and multiplex detection ability but lacks in POC setup. In contrast, POC devices such as lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) offer rapid, simple-to-use, cost-effective, reliable platform. However, LFIA has limitations in quantitative and sensitive analyses of SARS-CoV-2 detection. To resolve these concerns, herein we discuss a unique modality that is an integration of SERS with LFIA for quantitative analyses of SARS-CoV-2. The miniaturization ability of SERS-based devices makes them promising in biosensor application and has the potential to make a better alternative of conventional diagnostic methods. This review also demonstrates the commercially available and FDA/ICMR approved LFIA kits for on-site diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/methods , Point-of-Care Systems , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Viral Proteins/immunology , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism
9.
Journal of Industrial Integration and Management ; 5(4), 2020.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1021117

ABSTRACT

Telemedicine (TM) is used to treat patients in a remote location by using telecommunication technology. It exchanges the medical information and data from one location to another through advanced technological innovation. During this COVID-19 pandemic, there is a lockdown in almost all countries. TM is beneficial to healthcare to minimize social distance. This review paper briefs about TM and discusses how this technology works for the COVID-19 pandemic and its significant benefits. An extensive search is made on the known research engines of PubMed, SCOPUS, Google Scholar, and ResearchGate using the appropriate keywords to extract meaningful and relevant articles. Ten major applications of TM for COVID-19 are identified and discussed with a brief description of each provided. The major technological processes involved in TM, which create advancement in the medical field, are also discussed. This technology helps avoid visits to the doctor and hospital during the lockdown and provides a suitable treatment option. It collects the medical information and data, which can be helpful for better treatment of the patient. Telemedicine adopts virtualized treatment approaches for the patient. Now patients can receive better quality treatment without leaving their homes during COVID-19 lockdown.

10.
ACS Appl Bio Mater ; 3(11): 7326-7343, 2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872634

ABSTRACT

Efficient and rapid detection of viruses plays an extremely important role in disease prevention, diagnosis, and environmental monitoring. Early screening of viral infection among the population has the potential to combat the spread of infection. However, the traditional methods of virus detection being used currently, such as plate culturing and quantitative RT-PCR, give promising results, but they are time-consuming and require expert analysis and costly equipment and reagents; therefore, they are not affordable by people in low socio-economic groups in developing countries. Further, mass or bulk testing chosen by many governments to tackle the pandemic situation has led to severe shortages of testing kits and reagents and hence are affecting the demand and supply chain drastically. We tried to include all the reported current scenario-based biosensors such as electrochemical, optical, and microfluidics, which have the potential to replace mainstream diagnostic methods and therefore could pave the way to combat COVID-19. Apart from this, we have also provided information on commercially available biosensors for detection of SARS-CoV-2 along with the challenges in development of better diagnostic approaches. It is therefore expected that the content of this review will help researchers to design and develop more sensitive advanced commercial biosensor devices for early diagnosis of viral infection, which can open up avenues for better and more specific therapeutic outcomes.

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