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2.
Competitive Trends and Technologies in Business Management ; : 109-124, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2027051

ABSTRACT

E-commerce (EC) is a popular term also occasionally known as Internet Commerce which has grown drastically in the past few decades. Covid 19 has made most of the firms to consider EC as a necessity. At one place EC has started to grow and Business to Business Electronic Commerce  (B2BEC) too has been implemented by many businesses. The process includes the transaction of goods and services, the transfer of funds and the exchange of data virtually. B2BEC opens up new possibilities of trade and for new business partners from around the globe can be found, their offers can be compared, even complex negotiations can be conducted electronically, and a contract can be drawn up and fulfilled via an electronic marketplace. However, sophisticated data management is required to provide such facilities. On the other hand the contribution of the researchers cannot be ignored in the present context, as they bring on surface many pertinent issues and potential solutions with regard to the  daily problems faced by the society. The researchers also are responsible for unearthing issues that might become a point of concern in the future. The researchers’ works need to be reviewed in a systematic way so as to identify the gaps where the future research can be conducted and the gaps can be filled. As the database management is increasingly having relevance in the arena of B2BEC, it is crucial to check the holistic retrospective in this study in light of literature available. As there are no review papers till date in the arena of database management in B2BEC, the present paper is dedicated to explore for the same and propose gaps identified in this area. For this purpose, the paper adopts bibliometric analysis of SCOPUS database i.e., the largest database for scientific studies. © 2022 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc.

3.
Khyber Medical University Journal ; 14(1), 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2026662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the patient satisfaction with telepsychiatry consultations, and whether time and money was saved by patients availing the service. METHODS: Anonymous internet survey using Google Form method, was conducted between April 2020 and September 2020 to collect data from patients using teleconsultation in out-patients psychiatry clinic. The google form consisted of patient satisfaction questionnaire, demographic details, and additional questions about the money and time saved by patients using the service. RESULTS: Out of 260 participants, 152, (58.5%) were males, 148 (58.3%) were married and majority (n=157: 60.4%) of patients were <40 years of age. About 62.7% (n=163) were highly educated. Majority (n=108;41.5%) of the survey participants were from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. The average cost saving was Pakistani Rupees 3000 for the consultation whereas the average time saved was 1.5 days. Patients were happy during communication with doctor including seeing doctor on screen (85.7%), hearing to doctor (90.4%), talking to doctor (84.6%) and discussion of their care plan (81.6%). Majority (79.2%) of the survey participants were happy with the meeting of care needs and 86.5% were happy to avail the service in future. CONCLUSION: The study underscores the importance of telepsychiatry as mode of service delivery during the pandemics. The findings demonstrated a high level of patient satisfaction, considerable amount of time and money saving indicates the effectiveness of telepsychiatry consultation. It needs to expand the telepsychiatry service both in public and private hospitals and also test this model on a representative sample of patients in Pakistan.

5.
Handbook of Research on the Complexities and Strategies of Occupational Stress ; : 378-393, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2024497

ABSTRACT

Through discourse analysis methodology of an online forum and a review of the existing literature, this chapter aims to examine the interceding role of work and the moderating role of resilience in the relationship between occupational stress and well-being of working mothers during the COVID-19 pandemic. While work and family are pertinent in a woman 's life, she is faced with a dilemma: to either be a full-time worker or a full-time mother;yet, she tries to balance the two, which in turn subjects her to stress, both at work and inside the domestic sphere. Not only do mothers have to manage the home, but they also have to manage/maintain their jobs. Yet, adhering to this hope of the work/life balance affects a working mother's ability to maintain paid employment or gain a promotion because she has to, at times, prioritize taking care of her children in the face of high work stress. At the same time, high work stress may be problematic, resulting in neglect. (Working mothers may be forced to dedicate time to work for fear of getting fired and ignore the needs of their children.) © 2022, IGI Global. All rights reserved.

6.
Frontiers in Public Health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022975

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe purpose of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on self-reported burnout of health workers, quality of care, and perceptions of COVID-19-related stigma in Mozambique. MethodWe conducted a cross-sectional quantitative assessment of 170 frontline health workers in Nampula District, Mozambique, including 149 (87.6%) primary care providers and 21 (12.4%) mental health specialists. ResultsOf the 170 frontline workers, only 10.1% of frontline workers were experiencing more professional burnout, whereas 33.3% felt it had lessened. The perceived impact on quality of care also varied, without any significant differences by sex, education level, or mental health training background. Compared to the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, 42.3 and 38.1% providers felt that their ability to provide mental health and general health care, respectively, had worsened, compared to 57.7 and 61.9% who believed that either there was no change, or that the work had become easier. Likewise, 26.8% of providers felt that their ability to meet patients' needs had gotten more difficult, whereas 43.4% reported no change and 29.8% reported that it was easier. Twenty-two percent of providers reported an overall increase in caseloads since before the pandemic whereas the majority (67.9%) reported a decrease. Providers believed that 57.1% of people in general were afraid of people with COVID-19, 27.5% were afraid of a person recovered from COVID-19, and 39.9% were afraid of a person with family members with COVID-19. The perceived stigma about healthcare professionals was also low;only 27.4% believed that people in general were afraid of healthcare providers who deliver care to people with COVID-19. ConclusionIn contrast with other global studies, many healthcare workers in our sample reported a reduction in burnout, which may be associated with the lower overall caseloads seen during this period. Similarly, the quality of care was minimally impacted. More research is needed to determine whether the experience in Mozambique is unique, or similarly observed in other low-resource settings.

7.
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology ; 12, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022656

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has killed huge populations throughout the world and acts as a high-risk factor for elderly and young immune-suppressed patients. There is a critical need to build up secure, reliable, and efficient drugs against to the infection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus. Bioactive compounds of Ashwagandha [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] may implicate as herbal medicine for the management and treatment of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of the current work is to update the knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection and information about the implication of various compounds of medicinal plant Withania somnifera with minimum side effects on the patients' organs. The herbal medicine Withania somnifera has an excellent antiviral activity that could be implicated in the management and treatment of flu and flu-like diseases connected with SARS-CoV-2. The analysis was performed by systematically re-evaluating the published articles related to the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and the herbal medicine Withania somnifera. In the current review, we have provided the important information and data of various bioactive compounds of Withania somnifera such as Withanoside V, Withanone, Somniferine, and some other compounds, which can possibly help in the management and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Withania somnifera has proved its potential for maintaining immune homeostasis of the body, inflammation regulation, pro-inflammatory cytokines suppression, protection of multiple organs, anti-viral, anti-stress, and anti-hypertensive properties. Withanoside V has the potential to inhibit the main proteases (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. At present, synthetic adjuvant vaccines are used against COVID-19. Available information showed the antiviral activity in Withanoside V of Withania somnifera, which may explore as herbal medicine against to SARS-CoV-2 infection after standardization of parameters of drug development and formulation in near future.

8.
Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine ; 24:24, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022595

ABSTRACT

Social media represents a significant source of health information for the public, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic where gatherings are limited. It is important for pediatric physical medicine and rehabilitation physicians to understand how their patients use these platforms in order to educate the public and provide sound medical advice on social media. Given the lack of current guidelines on medical education through social media, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of various online social media platforms and describe how they can be utilized to enhance pediatric patient education. It is necessary to understand the different educational functions and limitations of the various social media platforms. This text provides a comprehensive overview of different social media platforms, their educational uses, limitations, and sample accounts. Relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic, social media can improve the efficiency of educational delivery and clinic workflow. Although social media is not meant to replace physician-patient relationships, it can be used as a surrogate for health information and improve- even start- physician-patient relationships. Despite the benefits of social media, pediatric physiatrists may be hesitant to utilize these platforms for several reasons. This text provides an overview of common barriers to social media usage by physicians and recommendations to overcome them. Given that the pandemic has led to increased social media usage, physicians should be aware of its implications on patient care and how they can be used to enhance the practice of pediatric physical medicine and rehabilitation. As social media usage by both patients and physicians grows, more research is needed to create recommendations on how pediatric physiatrists can best utilize social media to educate the public in an enjoyable manner while maintaining a professional image.

9.
Vision ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2020910

ABSTRACT

This study aims to offer insightful knowledge on organizational members’ real-life experience of working in a ‘new normal’ environment and explores changes in organizational HR practices and the future of work culture during this pandemic. Applying the qualitative methodology through implementing an in-depth interview technique, this study revealed subjective insights on pandemic impacts within diverse organizations and their coping strategies, that is, remote work practices and technological adaptations. The study found out that HR functionalities powered by different online tools and remote work or flexible roster duties are ensuring employee betterment and organizational productivity at the same time. Pandemic countermeasure oriented or transformed HR practices like online training and e-recruitment are keeping the workforce steady in this distressing time, but the ‘new normal’ lifestyle and evolved work environment, practices are putting much stress on and changing the dimension of work policies like employee well-being, compensation, leave, and so on, through isolation, quarantine and strict health guideline type issues. © 2022 Management Development Institute.

10.
Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings ; 08:08, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2014280

ABSTRACT

Maintaining the resilience of healthcare workers (HCWs) during the protracted COVID-19 pandemic is critical as chronic stress is associated with burnout, inability to provide high-quality care, and decreased attentiveness to infection prevention protocols. Between May and July 2020, we implemented the ICARE model of psychological first aid (PFA) in a novel online (i.e., telehealth) format to address the psychological support needs of HCWs during the COVID-19 pandemic. We found that HCWs needed psychological support related to obtaining clear information about pandemic policies and guidelines, navigating new rules and responsibilities, and processing overwhelming and conflicting emotions. The HCWs in our program repeatedly expressed appreciation for the support we provided. Future directions include establishing online discussion forums, increasing opportunities for individual support, and training HCWs to provide peer support using PFA. This program has far-reaching potential benefit to HCWs and to society at large in the context of a pandemic.

13.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 141:S77, 2022.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-2007599
14.
Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine ; 26:S39-S40, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2006338

ABSTRACT

Aim and background: Mechanical Power in ARDS has predictive value for both VILI and mortality. Driving pressure and mechanical power are two new targets in the mechanical ventilation of ARDS patients. COVID-19 pneumonia has two different phenotypes H type and L type which have different lung compliance, elasticity, and recrutability with different ventilatory strategies. We want to observe how Mechanical Power behaves in H type COVID-19 ARDS and its correlation with compliance and driving pressure. Objective: To study the correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving Pressure and Compliance in H type of COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study conducted in COVID-19 patients admitted to the Medical Intensive Care unit. We included 65 adult COVID-19 patients aged between 18 and 70 years requiring invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours. Patients who developed spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum before initiation of mechanical ventilation were excluded. Patients were categorised to H type based on lung compliance (<40 mL/cmH2O), recrutability, and lung weight. The Mechanical Power was calculated using the following equation, MP = 0.098 ∼ TV ∼ RR (Paw-1/2 for). Paw-peak airway pressure, for-driving pressure, TV-tidal volume, RR-respiratory rate. The variables are taken at 3 different time intervals in the first 24 hours of invasive mechanical ventilation. All patients are ventilated according to ARDSNET protocol. The Driving pressure and compliance were recorded. The correlation of Mechanical Power with Driving pressure and Compliance were analysed using Pearson Correlation. Results: The mean age of the patients was 57.04 ) 13.96 years (mean ) SD), gender distribution 75% were males and 25% were females. A positive correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Driving pressure (Pearson correlation 0.245) which is statistically significant p = 0.049. A negative correlation was observed between Mechanical power and Compliance (Pearson correlation 0.183) which is not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Mechanical Power and Driving pressure the new targets of Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI) and also predictors of mortality in ARDS patients. The positive correlation between Mechanical Power and Driving pressure was observed in H type of COVID-19 patients which behaves similar to other ARDS and independent risk factors of mortality in H type of COVID-19 ARDS too.

15.
Middle East Current Psychiatry-Mecpsych ; 29(1), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2005624

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has led to severe disruption in routine activities, significant mortality and morbidity. Adolescents are particularly prone to mental health issues. The present study aims to estimate prevalence of depression and anxiety and its determinants among school-going adolescents in Kashmir valley of India. Results The Patient Health Questionnaire for Adolescents and Generalised Anxiety Disorder questionnaire were used to screen for depression and anxiety among school-going adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years during January and February 2021. Out of the 439 adolescents who had responded, 426 (97.03%) were included in final analysis. The adolescents had a mean age of 17.5 + 1.26 years and comprised of 57% males. The overall prevalence of depression was 16% and was associated with a past history of COVID-19 infection. Anxiety was present in 20% of adolescents. The prevalence was 14% for boys and 27.5% for girls. On logistic regression, anxiety was associated with female gender, past history of personal COVID-19 infection, history of COVID-19 diagnosis in family and hospital admission due to COVID-19 in family. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are major public health problems among adolescents. The high burden estimated in our study highlights the need for immediate action to support adolescents particularly those with a self/family history of COVID-19.

16.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003508

ABSTRACT

Background: The incidence of nosocomial blood stream infections (BSI) among NICU admissions remains high, with significant mortality and morbidity. Due to COVID-19, there are increased infection prevention (IP) measures in NICUs including universal masking for all healthcare workers and families, social distancing, visitation restrictions, and increased attention to hand hygiene. These measures may also affect late-onset infection rates and offer understanding of novel interventions for prevention. Methods: We examined infection rates from three neonatal centers during the 24 months prior to implementation of COVID-19 IP measures (PRE-period) compared to the months after implementation from April 2020 (POST-period). Late-onset infections were defined as cultureconfirmed infection of the blood, urine, and other sterile fluids or identification of respiratory viral pathogens. An interrupted time series analysis of infection per 1000 patient days was performed based on a change-point Poisson regression with a lagged dependent variable and the number of patient days used as offsets. Each month was treated as independent with additional analysis using an observation-driven model to account for serial dependence. Results: Multicenter analysis to date included all infants cared for at three centers (Level 3 and 4) from 2018-2020. Monthly BSI rates decreased in the POSTperiod at the three centers (Figure 1). At all centers actual BSI rate was lower than the expected rate in the POST-period (Figure 2). The combined BSI rate per 1000 patient days was 41% lower compared to the rate prior to implementation (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.84, P = 0.004). In subgroup analysis of BSI by birthweight, during the POST-period there was a 39% reduction in infants < 1000g (P = 0.023), a 44% decrease for 1000-1500g patients (P = 0.292) and a 53% decrease in those > 1500g (0.083). Examining single center data from the University of Virginia through March 2021, there was a 36% decrease in all late-onset infections (BSI, UTI, Viral, and peritonitis) (95% CI, 0.46 to 0.90, P=0.011). Conclusion: In this preliminary analysis, we found a reduction of BSI after the implementation of COVID-19 infection prevention measures. Additionally, there were fewer viral infections, though there were a limited number of episodes. Further analyses of multicenter data and a larger number of patients from all 12 centers of our study network will elucidate the significance of these findings and the role some of these IP measures, such as universal masking, may have in infection prevention in the NICU (Supported in part by Grant Funding from the Gerber Foundation).

17.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003375

ABSTRACT

Purpose/Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a nationwide immunization delay leading to a decline in routine childhood immunization rates. In response, a team from Walter Reed General Pediatrics Primary Care Medical Home (WR-PCMH) devised a quality improvement project aimed to increase immunization rates by identifying and addressing barriers for children to receive vaccinations. Specifically, we focused on MMR immunization rates at 12 through 48 months due to the high morbidity and mortality rates from measles, mumps, and rubella. Design/Methods: MMR immunization rates were quarried monthly from September 2020 to June 2021 via Carepoint, a military patient metrics database. Search criteria included children mapped to WR-PCMH aged 12 to 48 months and their first MMR (MMR1) vaccination status. Per Carepoint review in January 2021, 92 children enrolled in WR-PCMH were delayed in MMR1. These families were contacted with a phone survey to evaluate barriers and reasons for their underimmunization status and encourage vaccination. Results: Per Figure 1, the MMR1 vaccination rate declined to a low of 75% in November 2020, but increased to >90% by December where it stayed for the rest of the data collection period. Of the 92 patients identified as delayed in MMR1, 84 had phone numbers on record. From February to June 2021, 59 contacted families completed the phone survey. Of the respondents, 25 (42%, N=52) were aware that their child did not receive his/her MMR1 vaccine (Figure 2). COVID-related concerns were cited as the reason for delayed MMR immunization in 48% of respondents (N=31), and 77% of these families were specifically concerned about COVID exposures during clinic visits (N=17). Other COVIDrelated reasons cited include perceptions that clinics were closed, time constraints, distance to WR-PCMH and completing virtual well child checks. Conclusion/Discussion: Similar to national trends, WR-PCMH recorded a decrease in MMR immunization during the COVID-19 pandemic. Initial strategies to encourage vaccination included a drive-up immunization tent and extended clinic hours. In winter 2020, new measures were initiated including providing parents with lists of additional military immunization clinic locations and hours, vaccine reminder calls to families, and announcements during clinic huddle to screen for delayed immunizations. The etiology of the increase in MMR1 rate between November and December is not fully understood, but may be related to these initiatives. In conducting our survey of the remaining unvaccinated patients, approximately half of families stated COVID-19 was the reason for delayed immunization. In addition to fear of exposure, convenience and accessibility were reported as barriers. This quality improvement project suggests that the aforementioned clinic practices were effective in preventing a long-term decline in MMR1 vaccination in our military population and that future initiatives should continue to focus on vaccine schedule awareness, accessibility, and reducing actual and perceived risk of COVID exposures at clinic. (Figure Presented).

18.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003269

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 global pandemic has shed light on the importance of testing to stop the spread of disease. For a developing country with a large population of over 200 million inhabitants such as Pakistan, widespread testing can be difficult. To date, 957,371 cases have been confirmed and over 14 million tests have been performed in Pakistan, with only 1% of the population vaccinated. In a country already burdened by health disparities with little to no resources, the challenges became ever apparent as case numbers grew. According to the WHO, complacency among the population in cooperating with public protective measures is a rising challenge. Several violent incidents have occurred in hospital wards in Pakistan, prompting medical staff to fear for their lives and demand extra security not only from the virus, but from volatile patients and families. The incidents are thought to be rooted in a mix of anger at a lack of resources, and mistrust of the medical system. The objective of this study was to survey Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians in Pakistan on their ability to test for COVID-19 and their limitations experienced. Methods: An anonymous prospective survey was performed from February to March 2021 in association with the ChildLife Foundation, a nonprofit organization that operates and manages Pediatric EDs in 10 government teaching hospitals in the province of Sindh. 170 PEM providers were surveyed on their experiences with COVID-19 testing, reasoning for why testing was not performed when infection was suspected and reasoning for patient refusals. Results: 68% of respondents had COVID-19 on their differential for patients under their care in the week prior to survey. However, 49% of respondents did not order any COVID-19 testing. 37% of those providers had at least one patient in whom COVID-19 was on the differential. 81% of providers claimed to collect COVID-19 testing every time when suspected. When surveying reasoning for not acquiring COVID-19 testing, providers listed patient refusal as the top reason, followed by limited availability and cost, mild presentation of disease, patient leaving AMA, fear of violence against healthcare professionals, social stigma/fear from patients of being labelled as COVID-19 positive and denial of the diagnosis. Conclusion: According to this survey, PEM providers in Pakistan were not always able to send COVID-19 testing, when indicated, due to a variety of factors. Testing limitations despite suspicion for disease can be a major hurdle in identifying cases and limiting spread in unvaccinated populations.

19.
The International journal of pharmacy practice ; 30(Suppl 1):i5-i6, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998934

ABSTRACT

Introduction Despite COVID-19 being a viral illness, antibiotic use has been more prevalent. In addition, co-infection (3.5%) and secondary infection (14.3%) were relatively low in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. A major concern is the increased risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) due to inappropriate antibiotic consumption (1). Aim This review aims to evaluate antimicrobial consumption (excluding repurposed drugs such as remdesivir) in hospitals and determine the prevalence of COVID-19 patients who received antibiotic therapy using meta-analysis. Methods The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines (2). The two investigators independently developed and applied eligibility criteria to examine original articles. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they met the following criteria: (i) original research studies with a minimum sample of 50 patients;(ii) focussed on antibiotic consumption (AMC);(iii) patients with COVID-19 or consumption amid COVID-19 pandemic;(iv) any age group or gender;and (v) reported in the English language. The included articles were retrieved from MEDLINE, CINAHL, WHO COVID-19 databases, including studies published in EMBASE, Scopus, WHO-COVID, and LILACS between December 2019 to July 2021. The modified version of Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to measure biases in included studies after the consensus by both authors. The random-effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence or proportion of AMC among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Results A total of 34 studies conducted among hospitalised COVID-19 patients were included. The extracted studies presented AMC in defined daily doses (DDD) or frequency and percentages. Azithromycin was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic in almost all studies. The meta-analysis that examined overall AMC using data from 25 studies (17 studies from high income countries and eight from low-middle income countires) revealed 69% (95% CI:63%-74%) of hospitalized COVID-19 received at least one course of antibiotics. The sub-group analysis of studies from high income countries (HICs) revealed 59% (95% CI: 51%-66%) consumed antibiotics compared with 89% (95% CI: 82% to 94%) among hospitalised COVID-19 patients in low-middle income countries (LMICs). Conclusion This review highlights the trend of antibiotic consumption in hospitalised COVID-19 patients. A significant rise in antibiotic consumption was observed in LMICs and increased antibiotic consumption in the first few months of the COVID-19 pandemic in HIC. The review outcomes emphasised the importance of rational and judicious use of antimicrobial therapy as well as to strenghting the antimicrobial stewardship policies and activities, particularly during a global pandemic. The limitation of the review undertaken was not identified incidence of co-infection and don’t include studies on reported AMC in immunocompromised patients. References (1) Rawson TM, Ming D, Ahmad R, Moore LSP, Holmes AH. Antimicrobial use, drug-resistant infections and COVID-19. Nature reviews Microbiology. 2020;18(8):409-10. (2) Beller EM, Glasziou PP, Altman DG, Hopewell S, Bastian H, Chalmers I, et al. PRISMA for s: Reporting Systematic Reviews in Journal and Conference s. PLOS Medicine. 2013;10(4):e1001419.

20.
European heart journal ; 43(Suppl 1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1998508

ABSTRACT

Funding Acknowledgements Type of funding sources: None. Background Little has been reported on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the new delta variant, on cardiology services and catheterization volumes in South Asia, during the second year of the pandemic. Purpose We aimed to assess this impact during the second year of the pandemic on cardiology services, procedures and catheterization volumes at a tertiary cardiac centre in Bangladesh. Methods Data on patient visits (outpatient and emergency), admissions, procedures and catheterization volumes were collected for January to June 2020 and 2021 via hospital electronic records. Comparisons for each corresponding month were made between 2021 and 2020. The differences were expressed as a percentage (%Δ). Results Trends showed that admissions in cardiology and cardiac surgery units, outpatient visits, procedures and cardiac catheterization volumes had reached almost pre-pandemic levels in the first quarter of 2021, as compared to 2020. However, ER visits showed >50% reductions in February (Δ-58.7%) and March (Δ -51.9%) 2021, compared to 2020. Admissions and procedures showed a steep decline from March to April 2021, coinciding with the COVID19 surge owing to the Delta variant. A gradual increase in numbers of admissions, patient visits, and procedures were seen in May and June 2021, as compared with corresponding months in 2020. In terms of catheterization volumes, a sharp decline was seen in angiographies and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) from March to April 2021, similar to 2020. Cath lab procedures showed an increasing trend in May-June 2021, and were greater in numbers, compared to corresponding volumes in 2020 [May: Δ+36.9%;June: Δ+33.2% in 2021]. A greater increase was seen for PCI (May Δ+ 46.8%;June Δ+367%) than angiographies (May Δ+32.5%;June Δ+32.5%). Conclusion Cardiology services and cath lab volumes had reached almost pre-pandemic levels in January and February 2021. The surge caused by the delta variant resulted in reduced admissions, outpatient and cath lab volumes beginning from April 2021, however numbers remained greater in 2021 than corresponding months in March-June 2020, possibly indicating an adaptation of the healthcare system to the prevailing pandemic.

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