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1.
Transfusion ; 62(10): 1997-2011, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019638

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy of donated COVID-19 convalescent plasma (dCCP) is uncertain and may depend on antibody titers, neutralizing capacity, timing of administration, and patient characteristics. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In a single-center hypothesis-generating prospective case-control study with 1:2 matched dCCP recipients to controls according to disease severity at day 1, hospitalized adults with COVID-19 pneumonia received 2 × 200 ml pathogen-reduced treated dCCP from 2 different donors. We evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in COVID-19 convalescent plasma donors and recipients using multiple antibody assays including a Coronavirus antigen microarray (COVAM), and binding and neutralizing antibody assays. Outcomes were dCCP characteristics, antibody responses, 28-day mortality, and dCCP -related adverse events in recipients. RESULTS: Eleven of 13 dCCPs (85%) contained neutralizing antibodies (nAb). PRT did not affect dCCP antibody activity. Fifteen CCP recipients and 30 controls (median age 64 and 65 years, respectively) were enrolled. dCCP recipients received 2 dCCPs from 2 different donors after a median of one hospital day and 11 days after symptom onset. One dCCP recipient (6.7%) and 6 controls (20%) died (p = 0.233). We observed no dCCP-related adverse events. Transfusion of unselected dCCP led to heterogeneous SARS CoV-2 antibody responses. COVAM clustered dCCPs in 4 distinct groups and showed endogenous immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens over 14-21 days post dCCP in all except 4 immunosuppressed recipients. DISCUSSION: PRT did not impact dCCP anti-virus neutralizing activity. Transfusion of unselected dCCP did not impact survival and had no adverse effects. Variable dCCP antibodies and post-transfusion antibody responses indicate the need for controlled trials using well-characterized dCCP with informative assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 817345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875411

ABSTRACT

Recent studies provide conflicting evidence on the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 immunity induced by mRNA vaccines. Here, we aim to quantify the persistence of humoral immunity following vaccination using a coronavirus antigen microarray that includes 10 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. In a prospective longitudinal cohort of 240 healthcare workers, composite SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels did not wane significantly over a 6-month study period. In the subset of the study population previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 based on seropositivity for nucleocapsid antibodies, higher composite anti-spike IgG levels were measured before the vaccine but no significant difference from unexposed individuals was observed at 6 months. Age, vaccine type, or worker role did not significantly impact composite IgG levels, although non-significant trends towards lower antibody levels in older participants and higher antibody levels with Moderna vaccine were observed at 6 months. A small subset of our cohort were classified as having waning antibody titers at 6 months, and these individuals were less likely to work in patient care roles and more likely to have prior exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Infant , Prospective Studies
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311277

ABSTRACT

Background: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. Methods: : Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP 1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to 2) dedicated COVID-19 units, 3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or 4) control units from 01/01/2020-04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. Results: : Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive;among these 60.8% (N=52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p=0.03), working in a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p<0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR=1.63, CI=1.00-2.64, p=0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p=0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI=0.30-0.94, p=0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p<0.01). Conclusions: : Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.

6.
Transfusion ; 62(3): 570-583, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP), from donors recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is one of the limited therapeutic options currently available for the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19. There is growing evidence that CCP may reduce viral loads and disease severity; and reduce mortality. However, concerns about the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) and other complications associated with transfusion of plasma, remain. Amotosalen/UVA pathogen reduction treatment (A/UVA-PRT) of plasma offers a mitigation of TTI risk, and when combined with pooling has the potential to increase the diversity of the polyclonal SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study assessed the impact of A/UVA-PRT on SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 42 CCP using multiple complimentary assays including antigen binding, neutralizing, and epitope microarrays. Other mediators of CCP efficacy were also assessed. RESULTS: A/UVA-PRT did not negatively impact antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 and other viral epitopes, had no impact on neutralizing activity or other potential mediators of CCP efficacy. Finally, immune cross-reactivity with other coronavirus antigens was observed raising the potential for neutralizing activity against other emergent coronaviruses. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study support the selection of effective CCP combined with the use of A/UVA-PRT in the production of CCP for patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Furocoumarins , Humans , Immunization, Passive , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 163, 2021 11 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early evaluations of healthcare professional (HCP) COVID-19 risk occurred during insufficient personal protective equipment and disproportionate testing, contributing to perceptions of high patient-care related HCP risk. We evaluated HCP COVID-19 seropositivity after accounting for community factors and coworker outbreaks. METHODS: Prior to universal masking, we conducted a single-center retrospective cohort plus cross-sectional study. All HCP (1) seen by Occupational Health for COVID-like symptoms (regardless of test result) or assigned to (2) dedicated COVID-19 units, (3) units with a COVID-19 HCP outbreak, or (4) control units from 01/01/2020 to 04/15/2020 were offered serologic testing by an FDA-authorized assay plus a research assay against 67 respiratory viruses, including 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Multivariable models assessed the association of demographics, job role, comorbidities, care of a COVID-19 patient, and geocoded socioeconomic status with positive serology. RESULTS: Of 654 participants, 87 (13.3%) were seropositive; among these 60.8% (N = 52) had never cared for a COVID-19 patient. Being male (OR 1.79, CI 1.05-3.04, p = 0.03), working in a unit with a HCP-outbreak unit (OR 2.21, CI 1.28-3.81, p < 0.01), living in a community with low owner-occupied housing (OR = 1.63, CI = 1.00-2.64, p = 0.05), and ethnically Latino (OR 2.10, CI 1.12-3.96, p = 0.02) were positively-associated with COVID-19 seropositivity, while working in dedicated COVID-19 units was negatively-associated (OR 0.53, CI = 0.30-0.94, p = 0.03). The research assay identified 25 additional seropositive individuals (78 [12%] vs. 53 [8%], p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission. Prior to universal masking, HCP COVID-19 risk was dominated by workplace and community exposures while working in a dedicated COVID-19 unit was protective, suggesting that infection prevention protocols prevent patient-to-HCP transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , California/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Regression Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
8.
NPJ Vaccines ; 6(1): 132, 2021 Nov 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503569

ABSTRACT

We analyzed data from two ongoing COVID-19 longitudinal serological surveys in Orange County, CA., between April 2020 and March 2021. A total of 8476 finger stick blood specimens were collected before and after a vaccination campaign. IgG levels were determined using a multiplex antigen microarray containing antigens from SARS-CoV-2, SARS, MERS, Common CoV, and Influenza. Twenty-six percent of specimens from unvaccinated Orange County residents in December 2020 were SARS-CoV-2 seropositive; out of 852 seropositive individuals 77 had symptoms and 9 sought medical care. The antibody response was predominantly against nucleocapsid (NP), full length, and S2 domain of spike. Anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) reactivity was low and not cross-reactive against SARS S1 or SARS RBD. A vaccination campaign at the University of California Irvine Medical Center (UCIMC) started on December, 2020 and 6724 healthcare workers were vaccinated within 3 weeks. Seroprevalence increased from 13% pre-vaccination to 79% post-vaccination in January, 93% in February, and 99% in March. mRNA vaccination induced higher antibody levels than natural exposure, especially against the RBD domain and cross-reactivity against SARS RBD and S1 was observed. Nucleocapsid protein antibodies can be used to distinguish vaccinees to classify pre-exposure to SARS-CoV-2 Previously infected individuals developed higher antibody titers to the vaccine than non pre-exposed individuals. Hospitalized patients in intensive care with severe disease reach significantly higher antibody levels than mild cases, but lower antibody levels compared to the vaccine. These results indicate that mRNA vaccination rapidly induces a much stronger and broader antibody response than SARS-CoV-2 infection.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3081, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387463

ABSTRACT

Clinic-based estimates of SARS-CoV-2 may considerably underestimate the total number of infections. Access to testing in the US has been heterogeneous and symptoms vary widely in infected persons. Public health surveillance efforts and metrics are therefore hampered by underreporting. We set out to provide a minimally biased estimate of SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among adults for a large and diverse county (Orange County, CA, population 3.2 million). We implemented a surveillance study that minimizes response bias by recruiting adults to answer a survey without knowledge of later being offered SARS-CoV-2 test. Several methodologies were used to retrieve a population-representative sample. Participants (n = 2979) visited one of 11 drive-thru test sites from July 10th to August 16th, 2020 (or received an in-home visit) to provide a finger pin-prick sample. We applied a robust SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Microarray technology, which has superior measurement validity relative to FDA-approved tests. Participants include a broad age, gender, racial/ethnic, and income representation. Adjusted seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 11.5% (95% CI: 10.5-12.4%). Formal bias analyses produced similar results. Prevalence was elevated among Hispanics (vs. other non-Hispanic: prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.47, 95% CI 1.22-1.78) and household income < $50,000 (vs. > $100,000: PR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.14 to 1.79). Results from a diverse population using a highly specific and sensitive microarray indicate a SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence of ~ 12 percent. This population-based seroprevalence is seven-fold greater than that using official County statistics. In this region, SARS-CoV-2 also disproportionately affects Hispanic and low-income adults.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19 , /statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Bias , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , California/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Immunoglobulin M/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Public Health Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
10.
Blood ; 136(Supplement 1):29-30, 2020.
Article in English | PMC | ID: covidwho-1338955

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, is a pandemic disease with high morbidity and mortality. Currently, available therapeutic options for COVID-19 are limited. Prior experience in epidemics with convalescent plasma (CP) containing antibodies to viruses has demonstrated variable indications of therapeutic efficacy for: Influenza, Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever, and SARS. Characterizing antibody titers to viruses has indicated correlation with therapeutic efficacy. Convalescent COVID-19 patients with potent SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses can serve as plasma donors for immune therapy. However, antibody responses are variable, many donors are first-time higher risk blood donors, and rapid assays to select optimal CP immune efficacy are limited. Pathogen inactivation (PI) of CP can reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infection by unrecognized pathogens. Objectives. This study characterized COVID-19 PI-CP activity;and evaluated efficacy and safety of PI CP transfusion in a case matched controlled cohort of acute COVID-19 patients. Methods. COVID-19 apheresis CP (650 - 1300 mL) was collected from nasopharyngeal PCR + outpatients following 2 PCR negative tests or 28 days after symptom resolution. Amotosalen-UVA PI of CP (INTERCEPT Blood System for Plasma) was performed, and antibody efficacy before and after PI was characterized by: VSV reporter pseudo-virus plaque neutralization (RVPN) NT-50 titer (Vitalant Research Institute, San Francisco), antibody to S and N virus proteins by agglutination-dependent antibody PCR (ADAP, Enable Biosciences, San Francisco), virus ACE-2 soluble receptor neutralization assay (Enable Biosciences), and SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile by coronavirus microarray (University of California, Irvine). Patient inclusion criteria were: confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization, pulmonary infiltrates, availability of ABO compatible CP, and informed consent. CP patients were matched with control patients (CTRL) for disease severity at diagnosis by standardized clinical risk score (W. Liang et al JAMA Intern Med 2020) and concomitant Tocilizumab use. CP Patients received a total of 400 mL of PI CP from 2 donors over 48 hours and standard therapy. CTRL patients received standard COVID-19 therapy without CP. The primary outcome was in-hospital death to day 28. Secondary outcomes included: progression to intubation, admission to ICU, time to discharge, serious adverse events, NP viral clearance, plasma viral clearance, and humoral immune responses. Differences between CP and CTRL patients were assessed by the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables, and by Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Progression to ICU and intubation were analyzed as odds ratios calculated by conditional logistic regression. Results. 15 CP and 30 CTRL patients were enrolled. One CP patient was admitted in cardiogenic shock. Only 2 of 15 CP cohort patients had detectable IgG antibody to SARS CoV-2 S1 antigen at study entry. 3 of 15 PI CP donors had negligible SARS CoV-2 IgG antibodies to all antigens, and demonstrated poor neutralization efficacy. 12/15 CP had effective RVPN titers (>1:80), RVPN titers were correlated with ACE-2 neutralization antibody titers (r2 = 0.83), and had significant activity specific for S and RBD antigens by microarray profiling (Figure 1). SARS CoV-2 antibody levels were variable between CP donors, but not impacted by PI (Figure 1). Baseline characteristics of CP and matched CTRL patients were similar (Table 1). Sensitivity analysis was performed assessing mortality after exclusion of one CTRL patient admitted in cardiogenic shock and the 2 respective controls. In-hospital 28-day mortality was lower in the CP cohort (0/14) compared to 5/28 CTRL, p = 0.151, 2-sided Fisher's exact test. Progression to intubation, ICU admission, and days in hospital were not significantly different (Table 1). There was a trend toward decreased inflammatory response (CRP normalization) in CP patients. Conclusions. In hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was lower in the PI-CP cohor , but not statistically significant. 15% of CP had ineffective antibody by multiple assays. However, PI did not impact CP anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity. PI of plasma provides reduced risk of transfusion transmitted infection from COVID-19 CP donors. In this study, PI CP was safe, and may be effective for early treatment of hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7554, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1171094

ABSTRACT

A coronavirus antigen microarray (COVAM) was constructed containing 11 SARS-CoV-2, 5 SARS-1, 5 MERS, and 12 seasonal coronavirus recombinant proteins. The array is designed to measure immunoglobulin isotype and subtype levels in serum or plasma samples against each of the individual antigens printed on the array. We probed the COVAM with COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) collected from 99 donors who recovered from a PCR+ confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The results were analyzed using two computational approaches, a generalized linear model (glm) and random forest (RF) prediction model, to classify individual specimens as either Reactive or non-reactive against the SARS-CoV-2 antigens. A training set of 88 pre-COVID-19 specimens (PreCoV) collected in August 2019 and102 positive specimens from SARS-CoV-2 PCR+ confirmed COVID-19 cases was used for these analyses. Results compared with an FDA emergency use authorized (EUA) SARS-CoV2 S1-based total Ig chemiluminescence immunoassay (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics VITROS Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Total, CoV2T) and with a SARS-CoV-2 S1-S2 spike-based pseudovirus micro neutralization assay (SARS-CoV-2 reporter viral particle neutralization titration (RVPNT) showed high concordance between the three assays. Three CCP specimens that were negative by the VITROS CoV2T immunoassay were also negative by both COVAM and the RVPNT assay. Concordance between VITROS CoV2T and COVAM was 96%, VITROS CoV2T and RVPNT 93%, and RVPNT and COVAM 91%. The discordances were all weakly reactive samples near the cutoff threshold of the VITROS CoV2T immunoassay. The multiplex COVAM allows CCP to be grouped according to antibody reactivity patterns against 11 SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Unsupervised K-means analysis, via the gap statistics, as well as hierarchical clustering analysis revealed three main clusters with distinct reactivity intensities and patterns. These patterns were not recapitulated by adjusting the VITROS CoV2T or RVPNT assay thresholds. Plasma classified by COVAM reactivity patterns offers potential to improve CCP therapeutic efficacy CoV2T alone. The use of a SARS-CoV-2 antigen array can qualify CCP for administration as a treatment for acute COVID-19, and interrogate vaccine immunogenicity and performance in preclinical, clinical studies, and routine vaccination to identify antibody responses predictive of protection from infection and disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Coronavirus/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Passive
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007633

ABSTRACT

The current practice for diagnosis of COVID-19, based on SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of pharyngeal or respiratory specimens in a symptomatic patient at high epidemiologic risk, likely underestimates the true prevalence of infection. Serologic methods can more accurately estimate the disease burden by detecting infections missed by the limited testing performed to date. Here, we describe the validation of a coronavirus antigen microarray containing immunologically significant antigens from SARS-CoV-2, in addition to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, common human coronavirus strains, and other common respiratory viruses. A comparison of antibody profiles detected on the array from control sera collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic versus convalescent blood specimens from virologically confirmed COVID-19 cases demonstrates near complete discrimination of these two groups, with improved performance from use of antigen combinations that include both spike protein and nucleoprotein. This array can be used as a diagnostic tool, as an epidemiologic tool to more accurately estimate the disease burden of COVID-19, and as a research tool to correlate antibody responses with clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Microarray Analysis/methods , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS Virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242953, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966055

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) revealed significant constraints in critical care capacity. In anticipation of subsequent waves, reliable prediction of disease severity is essential for critical care capacity management and may enable earlier targeted interventions to improve patient outcomes. The purpose of this study is to develop and externally validate a prognostic model/clinical tool for predicting COVID-19 critical disease at presentation to medical care. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of a prognostic model for the prediction of COVID-19 critical disease where critical disease was defined as ICU admission, ventilation, and/or death. The derivation cohort was used to develop a multivariable logistic regression model. Covariates included patient comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and laboratory values. Model performance was assessed on the validation cohort by concordance statistics. The model was developed with consecutive patients with COVID-19 who presented to University of California Irvine Medical Center in Orange County, California. External validation was performed with a random sample of patients with COVID-19 at Emory Healthcare in Atlanta, Georgia. RESULTS: Of a total 3208 patients tested in the derivation cohort, 9% (299/3028) were positive for COVID-19. Clinical data including past medical history and presenting laboratory values were available for 29% (87/299) of patients (median age, 48 years [range, 21-88 years]; 64% [36/55] male). The most common comorbidities included obesity (37%, 31/87), hypertension (37%, 32/87), and diabetes (24%, 24/87). Critical disease was present in 24% (21/87). After backward stepwise selection, the following factors were associated with greatest increased risk of critical disease: number of comorbidities, body mass index, respiratory rate, white blood cell count, % lymphocytes, serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase, high sensitivity troponin I, ferritin, procalcitonin, and C-reactive protein. Of a total of 40 patients in the validation cohort (median age, 60 years [range, 27-88 years]; 55% [22/40] male), critical disease was present in 65% (26/40). Model discrimination in the validation cohort was high (concordance statistic: 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.01). A web-based tool was developed to enable clinicians to input patient data and view likelihood of critical disease. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: We present a model which accurately predicted COVID-19 critical disease risk using comorbidities and presenting vital signs and laboratory values, on derivation and validation cohorts from two different institutions. If further validated on additional cohorts of patients, this model/clinical tool may provide useful prognostication of critical care needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Care , Hospitalization , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors
14.
Lab Chip ; 20(18): 3302-3309, 2020 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-693631

ABSTRACT

To detect the presence of antibodies in blood against SARS-CoV-2 in a highly sensitive and specific manner, here we describe a robust, inexpensive ($200), 3D-printable portable imaging platform (TinyArray imager) that can be deployed immediately in areas with minimal infrastructure to read coronavirus antigen microarrays (CoVAMs) that contain a panel of antigens from SARS-CoV-2, SARS-1, MERS, and other respiratory viruses. Application includes basic laboratories and makeshift field clinics where a few drops of blood from a finger prick could be rapidly tested in parallel for the presence of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 with a test turnaround time of only 2-4 h. To evaluate our imaging device, we probed and imaged coronavirus microarrays with COVID-19-positive and negative sera and achieved a performance on par with a commercial microarray reader 100× more expensive than our imaging device. This work will enable large scale serosurveillance, which can play an important role in the months and years to come to implement efficient containment and mitigation measures, as well as help develop therapeutics and vaccines to treat and prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Imaging/instrumentation , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Microarray Analysis/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Microscopy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Public Health Surveillance , Quantum Dots
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