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4.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 886: 173447, 2020 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694207

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by a Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was first reported in Wuhan, China at the end of December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 is a highly pathogenic zoonotic virus and closely related to the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The COVID-19 was declared as a global pandemic due to its high infectiousness, and worldwide morbidities and mortalities. The Chinese scientists at the start of the outbreak reported genome sequences, which made the characterization of glycoproteins and other structural proteins possible. Moreover, researchers across the world have widely focused on understanding basic biology, developing vaccines, and therapeutic drugs against the COVID-19. However, until now, no promising treatment options, as well as vaccines, are available. In this review, we have described SARS-CoV-2's genome, transmission, and pathogenicity. We also discussed novel potential therapeutic agents that can help to treat the COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Infect Public Health ; 2020 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670745

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started from Wuhan, China has infected more than 6.7 million individuals and killed more than 390,000 individuals globally. Due to the higher transmissibility and infectiousness, asymptomatic infection, and lack of effective treatment options and vaccine, fatalities and morbidities are increasing day by day globally. Despite physical health consequences, COVID-19 pandemic has created stress and anxiety, as result there is an increased risk of mental illnesses both in the infected and normal individuals. To eradicate these risks, it is necessary to determine the COVID-19 zoonotic source of transmission to humans and clinical manifestations in infected individuals. Although, identification or development of the highly effective therapeutic agents is necessary, however, development of protective strategies against the COVID-19 by enhancing immune responses will be an asset in the current scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. In this paper, we discuss the transmission, health consequences, and potential management (therapeutic and preventive) options for COVID-19 disease.

8.
Saudi Pharm J ; 28(8): 1004-1008, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-623558

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has created havoc in the world by causing thousands of demises in a short period of time. Up till now, several attempts have been made for potential therapeutics against SARS-COV2. In this retrospective, single-center study, we extracted data from 122 COVID-19, RT-PCR confirmed patients. who were treated with a new treatment strategy of lianhuaqingwen with Arbidol Hydrochloride. The patients were either asymptomatic or had mild symptoms for COVID-19 disease. Of 122 patients 21 (17.21%) patients developed severe conditions of COVID-19, while total 111 (90.9%) experienced mild symptoms such as fever in 93 (76.22%) patients, cough in 23 (20.17%) and muscle pain were observed in total 8 (7%) patients. Furthermore our newly applied drugs combination (Lianhuaqingwen and Arbidol Hydrochloride) showed therapeutic effects in 5-7 days in patients with mild symptoms with 98% recovery rate. These results indicate that COVID-19 patients with mild symptoms can be treated with Lianhuaqingwen and Arbidol Hydrochloride. However, extensive clinical investigations are required to confirm the effectiveness of these drugs.

9.
Front. Med. ; (7)20200609.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-615509

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is rapidly spreading across the world to cause thousands of mortalities each day. Poor responses from the authorities to the spread of infection, lack of effective measures for prevention, unavailability of promising treatment options, and sufficient diagnostic options have created an alarming for the world. The transmission routes from human to human of SARS-CoV-2 can be the direct transmission, droplet inhalation transmission, contact transmission, transmission through saliva, and transmission via fecal–oral routes. Due to the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2's, developing control and prevention measures is challenging. Implementing proper strategies addressing the infection control and clinical supplies, understanding the mechanism associated with pathogenesis, advancing in preventive measures and effective treatment and diagnostic options are necessary to control the ongoing pandemic. In this article, we briefly discuss the features, entry mechanism, infectiousness, and health consequences related to the COVID-19 outbreak.

11.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-11, 2020 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-610639

ABSTRACT

An rare pandemic of viral pneumonia occurs in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, which is now recognized internationally as Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the etiological agent classified as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), it has so far expanded to more than 213 countries/territories worldwide. Our study aims to find the viral peptides of SARS-COV-2 by peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) in order to predict its novel structure and find an inhibitor for each viral peptide. For this reason, we calculated the mass of amino acid sequences translated from the SARS-CoV2 whole genome and identify the peptides that may be a target for inhibition. Molecular peptide docking with Moringa oleifera, phytochemicals (aqueous and ethanolic) leaf extracts of flavonoids (3.56 ± 0.03), (3.83 ± 0.02), anthraquinone (11.68 ± 0.04), (10.86 ± 0.06) and hydroxychloroquine present therapy of COVID-19 in Pakistan for comparative study. Results indicate that 15 peptides of SARS-CoV2 have been identified from PMF, which is then used as a selective inhibitor. The maximum energy obtained from AutoDock Vina for hydroxychloroquine is -5.1 kcal/mol, kaempferol (flavonoid) is -6.2 kcal/mol, and for anthraquinone -6 kcal/mol. Visualization of docking complex, important effects are observed regarding the binding of peptides to drug compounds. In conclusion, it is proposed that these compounds are effective antiviral agents against COVID-19 and can be used in clinical trials.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

12.
Environ Res ; 188: 109732, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-539259
13.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-2, 2020 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-327128
15.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108853

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
17.
Environ Res ; 185: 109460, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-18309
18.
J. Adv. Res. ; (24): 91-98, 20200701.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-8831

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Genomic analysis revealed that SARS-CoV-2 is phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome-like (SARS-like) bat viruses, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The intermediate source of origin and transfer to humans is not known, however, the rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed widely. There is no clinically approved antiviral drug or vaccine available to be used against COVID-19. However, few broad-spectrum antiviral drugs have been evaluated against COVID-19 in clinical trials, resulted in clinical recovery. In the current review, we summarize and comparatively analyze the emergence and pathogenicity of COVID-19 infection and previous human coronaviruses severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). We also discuss the approaches for developing effective vaccines and therapeutic combinations to cope with this viral outbreak.

19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-7146

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
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