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1.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143461

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for COVID-19 infection. The COVID-19 pandemic represents one of the worst global threats in the 21st century since World War II. This pandemic has led to a worldwide economic recession and crisis due to lockdown. Biomedical researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and premier institutes throughout the world are claiming that new clinical trials are in progress. During the severe phase of this disease, mechanical ventilators are used to assist in the management of outcomes; however, their use can lead to the development of pneumonia. In this context, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes can serve as an immunomodulation treatment for COVID-19 patients. Exosomes possess anti-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties that can be explored in an effort to improve the outcomes of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients. Currently, only one ongoing clinical trial (NCT04276987) is specifically exploring the use of MSC-derived exosomes as a therapy to treat SARS-CoV-2-associated pneumonia. The purpose of this review is to provide insights of using exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells in management of the co-morbidities associated with SARS-CoV-2-infected persons in direction of improving their health outcome. There is limited knowledge of using exosomes in SARS-CoV-2; the clinicians and researchers should exploit exosomes as therapeutic regime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Exosomes/metabolism , Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Immunomodulation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Cytokines/pharmacology , Exosomes/chemistry , Exosomes/genetics , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Neovascularization, Physiologic/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology
2.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 11: 622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-805179

ABSTRACT

The origin of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is zoonotic. The circadian day-night is the rhythmic clue to organisms for their synchronized body functions. The "development for mankind" escalated the use of artificial light at night (ALAN). In this article, we tried to focus on the possible influence of this anthropogenic factor in human coronavirus (HCoV) outbreak. The relationship between the occurrences of coronavirus and the ascending curve of the night-light has also been delivered. The ALAN influences the physiology and behavior of bat, a known nocturnal natural reservoir of many Coronaviridae. The "threatened" and "endangered" status of the majority of bat species is mainly because of the destruction of their proper habit and habitat predominantly through artificial illumination. The stress exerted by ALAN leads to the impaired body functions, especially endocrine, immune, genomic integration, and overall rhythm features of different physiological variables and behaviors in nocturnal animals. Night-light disturbs "virus-host" synchronization and may lead to mutation in the genomic part of the virus and excessive virus shedding. We also proposed some future strategies to mitigate the repercussions of ALAN and for the protection of the living system in the earth as well.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Lighting , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19 , Ecosystem , Environment , Humans , Light , Melatonin/physiology , Pandemics
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