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BMC Med Educ ; 22(1):844, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2153565

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 posed many challenges to medical education in the United Kingdom (UK). This includes implementing assessments during 4 months of national lockdowns within a 2-year period, where in-person education was prohibited. This study aimed to identify medical school assessment formats emerging during COVID-19 restrictions, investigate medical students' perspectives on these and identify influencing factors. METHODS: The study consisted of two phases: a questionnaire asking medical students about assessment changes they experienced, satisfaction with these changes and preference regarding different assessments that emerged. The second phase involved semi-structured interviews with medical students across the UK to provide a deeper contextualized understanding of the complex factors influencing their perspectives. RESULTS: In the questionnaire responses, open-book assessments had the highest satisfaction, and were the preferred option indicated. Furthermore, in the case of assessment cancellation, an increase in weighting of future assessments was preferred over increase in weighting of past assessments. Students were also satisfied with formative or pass-fail assessments. Interview analyses indicate that although cancellation or replacement of summative assessments with formative assessments reduced heightened anxiety from additional COVID-19 stressors, students worried about possible future knowledge gaps resulting from reduced motivation for assessment-related study. Students' satisfaction level was also affected by timeliness of communication from universities regarding changes, and student involvement in the decision-making processes. Perceived fairness and standardisation of test-taking conditions were ranked as the most important factors influencing student satisfaction, followed closely by familiarity with the format. In contrast, technical issues, lack of transparency about changes, perceived unfairness around invigilation, and uncertainty around changes in assessment format and weighting contributed to dissatisfaction. CONCLUSIONS: Online open-book assessments were seen as the most ideal amongst all participants, and students who experienced these were the most satisfied with their assessment change. They were perceived as most fair and authentic compared to real-life medical training. We seek to inform educators about student perceptions of successful assessment strategies under COVID-19 restrictions and provide evidence to allow debate on ongoing assessment reform and innovation. While this work looks specifically at assessment changes during COVID-19, understanding factors affecting student perception of assessment is applicable to examinations beyond COVID-19.

2.
PLoS Global Public Health ; 2(9), 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2098670

ABSTRACT

Health workers involved in the COVID-19 response might be at risk of developing fear and psychological distress. The study aimed to identify factors associated with COVID-19 fear among health workers in Nepal during the early phase of the pandemic. A web-based survey was conducted in April-May 2020 among 475 health workers directly involved in COVID-19 management. The Fear Scale of COVID 19 (FCV-19S) was used to measure the status of fear. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with COVID fear. The presence of COVID-19 fear was moderately correlated with anxiety and depression, and weakly correlated with insomnia. Nurses, health workers experiencing stigma, working in affected district, and presence of family members with chronic diseases were significantly associated with higher odds of developing COVID-19 fear. Based on the study findings, it is recommended to improve the work environment to reduce fear among health workers, employ stigma reduction interventions, and ensure personal and family support for those having family members with chronic diseases.

3.
Journal of Young Pharmacists ; 13(2):91-96, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1346681

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus was renamed as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by the world health organization, began its spread in December 2019, in the city of Wuhan, China. Global bodies and governments weren't prepared to handle the impact of the virus on society. Nepal's landlocked nation encountered its incident confirmed case of COVID-19 during the first week of January, with the primary host being a student with a travel history from its place of inception. The nation is deficient in its health resources. The country mainly focused on the stringent implementation of washing of hands, wearing masks, restricting general movement, and maintaining social distancing in public. The disease transmission reached to the third stage, which began within three months after the confirmation of the first case of COVID-19. The lack of tropical hospitals, laboratory and diagnostic facilities added to the challenges faced by the country. This paper is a comprehensive review of the overall preparation and steps taken by the federal system of Nepal to combat the virus's effects till the third stage of transmission. It concludes with the practical limitations faced by the governing authorities of the nation while implementing these measures.

4.
Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International ; 33(28A):211-220, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1314960

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV2 virus, the causative agent for COVID-19 disease has to lead to more than 3.1 million deaths and crossed 146 million infections worldwide so far. Although vaccines development and emergency authorization has been approved by several governments, there has been great concern about its side effects for the long term and its effectiveness against new mutated strains. A resurgence of COVID-19 or related disease can be catastrophic. There is an urgent need to look for effective antiviral agents for many coronavirus strains with minimum side-effects, and maximum efficacy globally. Several, naturally-derived biomolecules have proved their excellent effect on several infectious diseases in a multi-mode fashion by targeting several pathways as well as increasing efficacy with high safety profile. Integrate computational prediction design was used in the study to examine the pharmacology of bioactive compounds of natural origin against SARS-CoV2 spike protein. Keeping these facts we have computationally examined 16 naturally occurring compounds using to evaluate their effectiveness against the SARS-CoV2 virus using the molecular docking technique. Hesperidin derivatives are known to ameliorate diabetes, co-morbidity for coronavirus, as well as help in preventing post coronavirus complications. We found the binding free energy of Hesperidin with spike protein to be -7.57 kcal/mol, the aglycone derivative to be 6.93 kcal/mol, hesperidin monoacetyl derivative to be -7.82 kcal/mol, and hesperidin pentaacetyl derivative to be -8.39 kcal/mol. Our findings revealed that acetylated derivatives of hesperidin showed significant improved remarked binding affinity while aglycone derivative hesperetin showed a decrease in binding affinity. Our studies give a new direction where natural bioactive compounds and their derivatives can be modulated and used after clinical trials to effectively inhibit coronavirus infection as well as diabetes simultaneously with a high safety profile.

5.
Current Psychiatry Research and Reviews ; 16(3):158-166, 2020.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1076373

ABSTRACT

Background: The novel coronavirus disease outbreak of 2019 was declared as a public health emergency by the World Health Organization. At present, the virus has spread throughout the world, leading to millions of cases and is further increasing. Objective: The main objective of this study is to review the impact of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the mental health of frontline workers, isolated and quarantined people and the general population. Methods: The relevant articles were extracted from PubMed, Web of Science and Science Direct database by using the keywords “Mental health”, “COVID-19”, “Impact of COVID-19”, “Frontline workers”, “Quarantine”, “Isolation”, “Immunity” and “Economy”. The retrieved articles were included in the study based on inclusion criteria to perform the review. All the selected scientific articles were critically reviewed and the information is summarized in this narrative review. Results: The majority of the studies stated that frontline health workers were at an increased risk of depression. The infected, suspects and quarantined people were reported with high stress, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal thoughts. The pandemic has devastated the world’s economy, which has severely impacted global mental health. Conclusion: Mental health should be taken into account, and necessary interventional initiatives need to be considered both by the health authorities and the government to minimize the adversity of the consequences. The pandemic may disappear with the discovery of new vaccines or medications, but its negative impact on mental health may persist, particularly among vulnerable populations. Thus, mental health must be a matter of concern in the present scenario. © 2020 Bentham Science Publishers.

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