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J Cardiovasc Dev Dis ; 9(8)2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2023765


Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women. Pulmonary embolism (PE) is the third most-common cause of cardiovascular death, after myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. We aimed to evaluate the attributes and outcomes of PE specifically in women and explore sex-based differences. We conducted a systematic review of the literature using electronic databases PubMed and Embase up to 1 April 2022 to identify studies investigating PE in women. Of the studies found, 93 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. The risk of PE in older women (especially >40 years of age) superseded that of age-matched men, although the overall age- and sex-adjusted incidence of PE was found to be lower in women. Risk factors for PE in women included age, rheumatologic disorders, hormone replacement therapy or oral contraceptive pills, pregnancy and postpartum period, recent surgery, immobilization, trauma, increased body mass index, obesity, and heart failure. Regarding pregnancy, a relatively higher incidence of PE has been observed in the immediate postpartum period compared to the antenatal period. Women with PE tended to be older, presented more often with dyspnea, and were found to have higher NT-proBNP levels compared to men. No sex-based differences in in-hospital mortality and 30-day all-cause mortality were found. However, PE-related mortality was higher in women, particularly in hemodynamically stable patients. These differences form the basis of future research and outlets for reducing the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of PE in women.

Diabetology ; 3(3):477-493, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2009972


Background: COVID-19 has been associated with a higher risk of death in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). However, there is a dearth of data regarding the effects of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in these patients. We explored the in-hospital outcomes of patients who presented with COVID-19 and DKA. Methods: A propensity score-matched observational retrospective cohort study was conducted in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in the public healthcare system of New York City from 1 March 2020 to 31 October 2020. Patients were matched, and a subgroup analysis of patients with DKA and COVID-19 and patients without COVID-19 was conducted. Results: 13,333 (16.0%) patients with COVID-19 and 70,005 (84.0%) without COVID-19 were included in the analysis. The in-hospital mortality rate was seven-fold in patients with DKA and COVID-19 compared to patients with COVID-19 and without DKA (80 (36.5%) vs. 11 (5.4%), p < 0.001). Patients with COVID-19 and DKA had a two-fold higher likelihood for in-hospital death (OR: 1.95;95% CI: 1.41–2.70;p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple variables. Conclusions: DKA was associated with significantly higher in-hospital mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

J Clin Med ; 11(11)2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869672


While the relative efficacy of remdesivir as a therapeutic agent in selected patients with COVID-19 has been established, safety concerns have been raised regarding potential nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Our main objective was to investigate the kidney- and liver-related safety outcomes in patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir in a public hospital in New York. A propensity score-matched retrospective study was conducted in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 from 1 June 2020 to 10 March 2021. A total of 927 patients were included in this study (remdesivir: 427, non-remdesivir: 500; women: 51.8%; median age 61 years; median BMI: 28.5 kg/m2). Matching without replacement yielded a cohort of 248 patients (124 in each group). In the matched cohort, the remdesivir group had a significantly lower rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) (12.1% vs. 21.8%, p = 0.042), a lower rate of acute liver injury (ALI) on the verge of statistical significance (7.3% vs. 14.5%, p = 0.067), and non-significantly lower death rate (13.7% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.593) compared to the non-remdesivir group. Multivariable analyses revealed that patients treated with remdesivir were found to be associated with a significantly lower likelihood for AKI (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.24-0.67, p < 0.001), no association was found for ALI (OR: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.35-1.30, p = 0.241), while a trend towards an association of patients treated with remdesivir with a lower likelihood for in-hospital death was observed (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.32-1.01, p = 0.053). In conclusion, no safety concerns with regards to renal and liver outcomes were raised in patients with COVID-19 treated with remdesivir. Instead, there were signals of possible nephroprotection and improved in-hospital mortality.

Cureus ; 14(3): e22770, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776622


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions worldwide with a high mortality rate due to a lack of definitive treatment. Despite having a wide range of clinical features, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as the primary cause of mortality in these patients. Risk factors and comorbidities like advanced age with limited lung function, pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity have increased the risk for severe COVID-19 infection. Rise in inflammatory markers like transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 7 (MMP-1, MMP-7), along with collagen deposition at the site of lung injury, results in extensive lung scarring and fibrosis. Anti-fibrotic drugs, such as Pirfenidone and Nintedanib, have emerged as potential treatment options for post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. A lung transplant might be the only life-saving treatment. Despite the current advances in the management of COVID-19, there is still a considerable knowledge gap in the management of long-term sequelae in such patients, especially concerning pulmonary fibrosis. Follow up on the current clinical trials and research to test the efficacy of various anti-inflammatory drugs is needed to prevent long-term sequelae early mortality in these patients.