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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314093

ABSTRACT

Public health interventions are epidemiologically sound cost-effective methods to control the disease burden. Non-pharmacological Interventions are the only mode to control the disease in the absence of medications. To find the impact interventions on the epidemiological indicators of disease progression. This is a secondary data analysis done on COVID-19 data. Median Doubling Time and R0 were calculated for a rolling period of seven days. Interventions were scored from zero to three with the increasing level of stringency. Multivariate linear regression was performed to find the role of individual interventions on R0 and Median Doubling Time. The highest intervention score was reported in the lockdown phase which gradually decreased to lowest level of 22. R0 values settled to a level of 1.25 and the median doubling time increased to 20 days at the end of the study. Public awareness and public health laws were found to be related to both R0 and median doubling time in the Pre-lockdown phase only. Implementation of interventions at the ground level is one of the key factors of the success of PHI. Post implementation poor effectiveness of many interventions is evident from the study. Further studies related to the sequence of interventions is required to further analyse the poor effect of interventions.

2.
Future Microbiol ; 16: 1267-1276, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484979

ABSTRACT

Aims: This study aimed to investigate how the psychological health of health care professionals (HCP) on COVID duty was different from those who were not directly in contact. Methodology: Of 473 (76%) randomly selected respondents (doctors and nurses) to a WhatsApp request message, 450 subjects' data were finally analyzed. Result: The prevalence of stress, anxiety and depression among HCP was 33.8, 38.9 and 43.6%, respectively. Compared with nonexposed professionals, COVID-19-exposed professionals had roughly double the score of these morbidities (t = 6.3, p < 0.001; t = 6.9, p < 0.001; t = 6.0, p < 0.001). Most worry (71.11%) was about the health of their family, followed by themselves (35.55%). Conclusion: The level of exposure, feelings of uncertainty and fear of infection emerged in our study as possible risk factors for psychological morbidities among HCP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Online Systems , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
Cureus ; 13(6): e15393, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268415

ABSTRACT

Background Public health interventions are epidemiologically sound and cost-effective methods to control disease burden. Non-pharmacological public health interventions are the only mode to control diseases in the absence of medication. Objective To find the impact of public health interventions on the epidemiological indicators of disease progression. Methods This is a secondary data analysis done on COVID-19 data. The median doubling time and R0 were calculated for a rolling period of seven days. Interventions were scored from zero to three with an increasing level of stringency. Multivariate linear regression was performed to find the role of individual interventions on R0 and the median doubling time. Results The highest intervention score was reported in the lockdown phase, which gradually decreased to the lowest level of 22. The R0 values settled to a level of 1.25, and the median doubling time increased to 20 days at the end of the study. Public awareness and public health laws were found to be related to both R0 and the median doubling time in the pre-lockdown phase only. Conclusion The implementation of interventions at the ground level is one of the key factors in the success of public health interventions. Post implementation, poor effectiveness of many interventions is evident from the study. Further, studies related to the sequence of interventions are required to further analyze the poor effect of the interventions.

4.
5.
Nepal J Epidemiol ; 10(2): 856-864, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740484

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic currently expanded its roots to the 206 countries in the world. The morbidity and mortality are not only threat to humans but also its impact on economy is indirectly affecting us. The current review was done to find trend in various states of India. Data was collected from Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and descriptive analysis of the distribution of COVID-19 cases in different states of India. First case of COVID-19 was diagnosed in southernmost state Kerala and after that it has spread to all other states, but situations are more worsen in states with high international migration. Maharashtra is now the most affected state followed by Delhi. Among epidemic curve of all these states, Maharashtra has rapidly growing epidemic curve with highest slope, whereas Kerala has the lowest. When we compared the day wise cumulative case fatality rate, it was found that the case fatality rate of the states like Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh & Rajasthan showed decrease in the case fatality rate over the period. Population density is also one of the key determinants of social interaction and thus the spread of disease specifically in communicable diseases. Government of India had taken many strong initiatives e.g. 40 days nation-wide lockdown, thermal screening at airport, announcement of relief packages for poor and quarantine of outsiders but still there are many missed opportunities like, early stoppage of international traffic, compulsory quarantine for all international travellers, better contact tracing, strong law and order and better preparedness plan.

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