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1.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 2022 Jun 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886686

ABSTRACT

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: The scope of clinical pharmacy services has changed during COVID-19 pandemic with the view to mitigating both exposure and spread of the virus. The performance of novel pandemic-driven services such as tele-pharmacy has remained unexplored, until now. The aim of this study is to investigate the perceptions of healthcare providers of the impact of tele-pharmacy services provided in critical care units during COVID-19. METHODS: A qualitative study of semi-structured interviews conducted with healthcare practitioners who worked in COVID-19 intensive care units and remotely interacted with clinical pharmacists at the Weill Cornell-affiliated Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar. Random sampling technique was employed to recruit participants, with the resultant interview guide piloted before commencement of data collection process. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: From a total 129 and 200 physicians and nurses, respectively, 20 interviews were conducted with physicians (n = 15), and nurses (n = 5). From these interactions, a number of major themes emerged including: satisfactory understanding across clinical environment and personnel (physician and nurses) about remote clinical pharmacists' roles; additional robust feedback on the perception of the remote clinical pharmacy service; an understanding by 'frontline' health personnel on the discernible differences between remote and in-person coverage of clinical pharmacists; a reflection by both physicians and nurses on the novel challenges involved in the implementation of such pandemic-driven service; and solutions to overcome these challenges. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: In this novel qualitative study of pandemic-driven tele-pharmacy service, we found a positive perception amongst healthcare practitioners towards this service; with residual challenges that will need further evaluation by large sampled sized surveys or mixed methods research.

2.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(3): e542, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858806

ABSTRACT

Background and Aims: Clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in countries with low case fatality rates (CFR) are unknown. We sought to determine these in a large cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients in Qatar and explore the early mortality predictors. Methods: We retrospectively studied the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients admitted to the ICU at the national referral hospital for COVID-19 patients in Qatar. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with mortality. Results: Between March 7 and July 16, 2020, a total of 1079 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to the ICU. The median (IQR) age of patients was 50 (41-59) years. Diabetes (47.3%) and hypertension (42.6%) were the most common comorbidities. In-hospital mortality was 12.6% overall and 25.9% among those requiring mechanical ventilation. Factors independently associated with mortality included older age ([OR]; 2.3 [95% CI; 1.92-2.75] for each 10-year increase in age, p < 0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR; 1.9 [95% CI; 1.02-3.54], p = 0.04), active malignancy (OR; 6.15 [95% CI; 1.79-21.12], p = 0.004), lower platelet count at ICU admission (OR; 1.41 [95% CI; 1.13-1.75] for each 100 × 103/µl decrease, p = 0.002), higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio at admission (OR; 1.01 [95% CI; 1-1.02] for each 1- point increase, p = 0.016), higher serum ferritin level at admission (OR; 1.05 [(95% CI; 1.02-1.08] for each 500 µg/L increase, p = 0.002), and higher serum bilirubin level at admission (OR; 1.19 [95% CI; 1.04-1.36] for each 10 µmol/L increase, p = 0.01). Conclusions: The mortality rate among critically ill COVID-19 patients is low in Qatar compared to other countries. Older age, chronic kidney disease, active malignancy, higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios, lower platelet counts, higher serum ferritin levels, and higher serum bilirubin levels are independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.

3.
Clin Case Rep ; 10(5): e05852, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1850028

ABSTRACT

Primary spontaneous tension pneumothorax (STP) is a rare and life-threatening condition. We report a case of COVID-19-pneumonia patient who developed STP as a complication. He had a prolonged hospital stay and was ultimately discharged asymptomatic. A systematic literature search was performed to review studies (N=12) reporting STP in the setting of COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332576

ABSTRACT

Critical illness-associated cerebral microbleeds and leukoencephalopathy related to COVID-19 infection are increasingly being recognized in the literature. We report seven cases of COVID-19 with microbleeds in the juxtacortical white matter and corpus callosum and one case of leukoencephalopathy.

5.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 946, 2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709499

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 complications still present a huge burden on healthcare systems and warrant predictive risk models to triage patients and inform early intervention. Here, we profile 893 plasma proteins from 50 severe and 50 mild-moderate COVID-19 patients, and 50 healthy controls, and show that 375 proteins are differentially expressed in the plasma of severe COVID-19 patients. These differentially expressed plasma proteins are implicated in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 and present targets for candidate drugs to prevent or treat severe complications. Based on the plasma proteomics and clinical lab tests, we also report a 12-plasma protein signature and a model of seven routine clinical tests that validate in an independent cohort as early risk predictors of COVID-19 severity and patient survival. The risk predictors and candidate drugs described in our study can be used and developed for personalized management of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/analysis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Proteomics/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Young Adult
6.
Health Sci Rep ; 5(2): e525, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705401

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mortality rates and clinical characteristics of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) vary significantly. OBJECTIVES: To describe the data of patients with pulmonary comorbidities who were admitted to the ICU with COVID-19 in Qatar in terms of demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, imaging findings, and outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of the outcomes with regard to mortality and requirement of invasive ventilation, demographic characteristics, coexisting conditions, secondary infections, and imaging findings for critical care patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who had pulmonary comorbidities between March and June 2020. RESULTS: A total of 923 patients were included, 29 (3.14%) were found to have pulmonary disease. All these 29 patients' respiratory disease was noted to be asthma. Among these, three patients (10.3%) died in the ICU within 28 days of ICU admission. They were all above 50 years old. Nineteen (66%) patients required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Twenty-one (72.4%) patients were males. The most common comorbidities included diabetes mellitus (55.1%) and hypertension (62%). Eighteen (62%) patients developed secondary infections in the ICU. Five (17.24%) patients developed renal impairment. Twenty (69%) patients received tocilizumab as part of their COVID-19 management, and out of these 16 (80%) patients developed a coinfection. CONCLUSION: Patients with pulmonary disorders had higher mortality rates than other patients admitted to ICU during the same time frame with similar comorbidities; these patients require extra consideration and care to avoid disease progression and death.

7.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 36(8 Pt B): 2891-2899, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692509

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed at investigating the effects of an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) service on Burnout syndrome (BOS) development in the intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: The authors conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study. SETTINGS: Eight ICUs within 5 tertiary hospitals in 1 country. PARTICIPANTS: Intensive care practitioners (nurses, physicians, and respiratory therapists). INTERVENTION: Using an online questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory Human Services Survey for Medical Personnel. In addition, demographic variables, workload, salary satisfaction, and caring for COVID-19 patients were assessed. Participants were divided based on working in an ICU with ECMO (ECMO-ICU) and without (non-ECMO-ICU) ECMO service, and burnout status (burnout and no burnout). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The response rate for completing the questionnaire was 36.4% (445/1,222). Male patients represented 53.7% of the participants. The overall prevalence of burnout was 64.5%. The overall burnout prevalence did not differ between ECMO- and non-ECMO-ICU groups (64.5% and 63.7, respectively). However, personal accomplishment (PA) score was significantly lower among ECMO-ICU personnel compared with those in a non-ECMO-ICU (42.7% v 52.6, p = 0.043). Significant predictors of burnout included profession (nurse or physician), acquiring COVID-19 infection, knowing other practitioners who were infected with COVID-19, salary dissatisfaction, and extremes of workload. CONCLUSION: Burnout was equally prevalent among participants from ECMO- and non-ECMO-ICU, but PA was lower among participants in the ICU with an ECMO service. The reported high prevalence of burnout, and its predictors, requires special attention to try to reduce its occurrence.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional , COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Burnout, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Job Satisfaction , Male , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321178

ABSTRACT

This is a case of an elderly female with comorbidities and a history of cardiac transplant 13 years back, presented with diarrhea and diagnosed with COVID-19. She was hospitalized and found to have a cardiac injury and urinary tract infection, treated with antibiotics, antivirals, immunosuppressives, and required non-invasive ventilatory support.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321177

ABSTRACT

Tension pneumomediastinum (TPM) is a rare but potentially fatal clinical entity. This leads to leakage of air into the mediastinal cavity and increased pressure on thoracic vessels, respiratory tract, and the heart. We report a series of five cases of COVID-19 complicating into acute respiratory distress syndrome and developing TPM.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318450

ABSTRACT

Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIAS) is a benign cardiac tumor. Differential diagnosis of LHIAS consists of atrial masses such as myxomas or lipomas. Herein, we report a 66-year-old male, admitted as a case of severe COVID-19 and was found to have a LHIAS extending to the crista terminalis.

11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316175

ABSTRACT

Post renal transplant patients are generally immunosuppressed and remain at a higher risk for getting bacterial and viral infections. Most of these patients are taking immunosuppressive medications, including steroids. This case series highlights the clinical outcomes and characteristics of 8 post renal transplant patients who acquired COVID-19.

12.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-328582

ABSTRACT

Background: The scope of clinical pharmacy services has changed during the COVID-19 pandemic with the view to mitigating both exposure and spread of the virus. The performance of novel pandemic-driven services such as tele-pharmacy has remained unexplored, until now. To investigate the perceptions of healthcare providers of the impact of tele-pharmacy services provided in critical care units during COVID-19. Methods: A qualitative study of semi-structured interviews conducted with healthcare practitioners who worked in COVID-19 intensive care units and remotely interacted with clinical pharmacists at the Weill Cornell-affiliated Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha Qatar. A random sampling technique was employed to recruit participants, with the resultant interview guide piloted before the commencement of the data collection process. Results: From a total of 129 and 200 Physicians and nurses respectively. 20 interviews were conducted with physicians (n=15), and nurses (n=5). From these interactions, a number of major themes emerged including satisfactory understanding across clinical environment and personnel (physician and nurses) about remote clinical pharmacists’ roles;additional robust feedback on the perception of the remote clinical pharmacy service;an understanding by “frontline” health personnel on the discernible differences between remote and in-person coverage of clinical pharmacists;a reflection by both physicians and nurses on the novel challenges involved in the implementing of such pandemic-driven service;and solutions to overcome these challenges. Conclusion: In this novel qualitative study of pandemic-driven tele-pharmacy service, we found a positive perception amongst healthcare practitioners towards this service;with residual challenges that will need further evaluation by large sampled sized surveys or mixed methods research.

13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305274

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunomodulatory property of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used to counteract severe systemic inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, its use in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to COVID-19 pneumonia is not well established. Methods: : In this retrospective study, we analyzed electronic health records of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, between March 7, 2020, and September 9, 2020. Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS were divided into two groups based on whether they received IVIG therapy. The primary outcome was all-cause ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28 and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for confounders, and the primary outcome was compared using competing-risks survival analysis. Results: : Among 590 patients included in the study, 400 received routine care, and 190 received IVIG therapy in addition to routine care. One hundred eighteen pairs were created after propensity score matching with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Overall ICU mortality in the study population was 27.1%, and in the matched cohort, it was 25.8%. Mortality was higher among IVIG-treated patients (36.4% vs. 15.3%;sHR 3.5;95% CI 1.98- 6.19;P<0.001). Ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28 were lower (P<0.001 for both), and the incidence of AKI was significantly higher (85.6% vs. 67.8%;P=0.001) in the IVIG group. Conclusion: IVIG therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 related moderate-to-severe ARDS was associated with higher ICU mortality. A randomized controlled study is required to confirm this observation further.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305129

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 complications present a huge burden on healthcare systems and warrant a predictive risk model for disease severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection to enable early intervention, prospective decision-making and triaging of patients. We profiled plasma proteins from COVID-19 patients (severe n=50, and mild n=50) and controls (n=50) using function- and pathway-based panels developed with the highly specific proximity extension assays. Several biological pathways were specific for patients with severe complications. Based on these dysregulated profiles, we propose candidate FDA-approved drugs that target multiple upregulated proteins to treat severe complications. In addition, the set of differentially expressed plasma proteins in severe disease contained a robust 46-protein signature, the COVID-19 molecular severity score, which predicts the risk of severe complications. We cross-validated this molecular severity score in an independent cohort and found it useful within three days after hospital admission to predict COVID-19 severity and outcomes. Associated with the molecular severity score, we identified a set of clinical parameters available at admission, that act as a clinical risk score for complications. The molecular and clinical risk scores described in our study may be prognostic tools for severe COVID-19 disease and help alleviate the pressure on healthcare systems during infection peaks.

15.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 310-313, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642146

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 patients presenting with ocular manifestations are from 0.8% to 32% of patients seen in the ED. The available literature is scarce regarding COVID-19 patients presenting with ocular manifestations from the Middle Eastern region. PURPOSE: This study aims to report the incidence of ocular signs and symptoms in COVID-19 patients and find any correlation between the occurrence of ocular manifestations and patients' comorbidities. METHODS: All patients having the primary diagnosis of COVID-19 infection and concurrent ocular manifestations on admission to our tertiary COVID-19 health care centre were included in the study. The patient's demographic data, comorbidities, and type of ocular manifestations were recorded from the patients' health records retrospectively. RESULTS: In our study, 39 (7.8%) patients presented with ocular manifestations. The majority of COVID-19 patients were male, and 200 (20%) patients had a history of other comorbidities. The majority of our patients had hyperaemia (13 [33.3%]), followed by eye pain (9 [23.1%]), epiphora (8 [20.5%]), burning sensation (4 [10.3%]), and photophobia (2 [5.1%]) patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of ocular manifestations and patients' gender or comorbidities (p > .05). CONCLUSION: The occurrence of ocular manifestations was lower compared to the present literature. There was no significant association between the occurrence of ocular manifestations and the patient's gender or comorbidities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S299-S299, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1563768

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to explore the early predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality among patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods This was a case-control study of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19. Cases were defined as patients admitted to ICU during the period February 29 - May 29, 2020. For each case enrolled, one control was matched by age and gender. Results A total of 1560 patients with confirmed COVID-19 were included. Each group included 780 patients with a predominant male gender (89.7%) and a median age of 49 years (interquartile range = 18). Predictors independently associated with ICU admission were cardiovascular disease (CVD) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16 - 2.32, p=0.005), diabetes (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.13, p= 0.016), obesity (aOR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.03-2.08, p= 0.034), lymphopenia (aOR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.80-4.02, p< 0.001), high aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (aOR= 2.59, 95% CI: 1.53-4.36, p< 0.001), high ferritin (aOR=1.96, 95% CI: 1.40-2.74, p< 0.001), high C-reactive protein (CRP) (aOR=4.09, 95% CI: 2.81-5.96, p< 0.001), and dyspnea (aOR=2.50, 95% CI: 1.77-3.54, p< 0.001). Similarly, significant predictors of mortality included CVD (aOR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.32- 3.53, p=0.002), diabetes (aOR=1.77, 95% CI: 1.07-2.90, p=0.025), cancer (aOR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.50-14.42, p= 0.008), lymphopenia (aOR=2.34, 95% CI: 1.45-3.78, p= 0.001), and high AST (aOR= 1.89, 95% CI: 1.04-3.43, p=0.036). Risk Factors for ICU admission among patients with COVID-19 (N=1560) Conclusion Having CVD, diabetes, lymphopenia, and increased AST were independent predictors for both ICU admission and in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19. In addition, obesity, high ferritin, and CRP levels were associated with increased risk of ICU admission, while cancer was strongly associated with in-hospital mortality. Early identification and monitoring of patients at risk is essential in planning the level of care needed to prevent delay in medical intervention. Disclosures Adel Abou-Ali, PharmD, PhD, Astellas Pharma Global Development, Inc. (Employee)

18.
IDCases ; 26: e01346, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531342

ABSTRACT

The use of steroids and other immune modulatory therapies in the treatment of severe COVID-19 pneumonia predisposes patients to the reemergence of opportunistic infections. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation can be one of them. A 55-year-old gentleman with severe COVID-19 pneumonia and hypoxic respiratory failure who was ventilated and received steroids but no other immunomodulatory drugs; had altered sensorium and multiple episodes of seizures in the later course of his illness. Brain MRI showed leptomeningeal enhancement and encephalopathy changes, electroencephalography (EEG) was suggestive of diffuse encephalopathy and his cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed high Cytomegalovirus PCR DNA titers (103,614). The patient made a complete recovery after treatment with Ganciclovir. Altered sensorium in cases of COVID-19 can be multifactorial. High index of suspicion for reactivation of dormant infections is warranted. CMV meningoencephalitis is one of the differential diagnoses. We believe this is the first case reported of CMV meningoencephalitis in the setting of severe COVID-19 infection.

19.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(7): e04513, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525422

ABSTRACT

Most of the post-renal transplant patients are taking immunosuppressive medications, including calcineurin inhibitors, anti-proliferative agents, and steroids. This case series highlights the clinical characteristics and outcomes of eight post-renal transplant patients with severe COVID-19 infection admitted to the intensive care unit.

20.
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 354, 2021 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been used as an immunomodulatory therapy to counteract severe systemic inflammation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). But its use in COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is not well established. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of electronic health records of COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) at Hazm Mebaireek General Hospital, Qatar, between March 7, 2020 and September 9, 2020. Patients receiving invasive mechanical ventilation for moderate-to-severe ARDS were divided into two groups based on whether they received IVIG therapy or not. The primary outcome was all-cause ICU mortality. Secondary outcomes studied were ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28, and incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust for confounders, and the primary outcome was compared using competing-risks survival analysis. RESULTS: Among 590 patients included in the study, 400 received routine care, and 190 received IVIG therapy in addition to routine care. One hundred eighteen pairs were created after propensity score matching with no statistically significant differences between the groups. Overall ICU mortality in the study population was 27.1%, and in the matched cohort, it was 25.8%. Mortality was higher among IVIG-treated patients (36.4% vs. 15.3%; sHR 3.5; 95% CI 1.98-6.19; P < 0.001). Ventilator-free days and ICU-free days at day-28 were lower (P < 0.001 for both), and incidence of AKI was significantly higher (85.6% vs. 67.8%; P = 0.001) in the IVIG group. CONCLUSION: IVIG therapy in mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 related moderate-to-severe ARDS was associated with higher ICU mortality. A randomized clinical trial is needed to confirm this observation further.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
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