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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314087

ABSTRACT

Background: Interferons play a crucial role in antiviral immunity. Genetic defects in interferon receptors (IFNRs) can lead to the development of life-threatening forms of infectious diseases. Case presentation: A thirteen-year-old boy with a novel mutation in interferon alpha/beta receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1)(c.674-2A>G) was diagnosed with COVID-19. He had cold symptoms and a high-grade fever at the time of admission. He was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after showing no response to favipiravir. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning revealed lung involvement of 70% with extensive areas of consolidation in both lungs. Antibiotics, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), remdesivir, methylprednisolone pulse, and other medications were started in the patient. However, remdesivir and methylprednisolone pulse were discontinued after the occurrence of hypertension and bradycardia in the patient. His general condition improved, and a few days later was discharged from the hospital. Conclusion: We reported a COVID-19 patient who had a novel mutation in IFNAR1 and was treated with IFN-γ. Our findings and approach to managing this COVID-19 patient suggest that IFN-γ therapy could be an appropriate choice to treat patients with defects in IFN-α/β signaling pathways.

2.
The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine ; 53(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1601740

ABSTRACT

Background Chest CT scan has an important role in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 infection. A major concern in radiologic assessment of the patients is the radiation dose. Research has been done to evaluate low-dose chest CT in the diagnosis of pulmonary lesions with promising findings. We decided to determine diagnostic performance of ultra-low-dose chest CT in comparison to low-dose CT for viral pneumonia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results 167 patients underwent both low-dose and ultra-low-dose chest CT scans. Two radiologists blinded to the diagnosis independently examined ultra-low-dose chest CT scans for findings consistent with COVID-19 pneumonia. In case of any disagreement, a third senior radiologist made the final diagnosis. Agreement between two CT protocols regarding ground-glass opacity, consolidation, reticulation, and nodular infiltration were recorded. On low-dose chest CT, 44 patients had findings consistent with COVID-19 infection. Ultra-low-dose chest CT had sensitivity and specificity values of 100% and 98.4%, respectively for diagnosis of viral pneumonia. Two patients were falsely categorized to have pneumonia on ultra-low-dose CT scan. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of ultra-low-dose CT scan were respectively 95.7% and 100%. There was good agreement between low-dose and ultra-low-dose methods (kappa = 0.97;P < 0.001). Perfect agreement between low-dose and ultra-low-dose scans was found regarding diagnosis of ground-glass opacity (kappa = 0.83, P < 0.001), consolidation (kappa = 0.88, P < 0.001), reticulation (kappa = 0.82, P < 0.001), and nodular infiltration (kappa = 0.87, P < 0.001). Conclusion Ultra-low-dose chest CT scan is comparable to low-dose chest CT for detection of lung infiltration during the COVID-19 outbreak while maintaining less radiation dose. It can also be used instead of low-dose chest CT scan for patient triage in circumstances where rapid-abundant PCR tests are not available.

3.
Virusdisease ; 32(4): 674-680, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1568407

ABSTRACT

Chest CT scan is currently used to assess the extent of lung involvement in patients with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of lung ultrasound in the diagnosis of COVID-19 pulmonary manifestations in comparison to CT scan. Thirty-three symptomatic patients with suspected COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated by lung ultrasound and then, at a short interval, chest CT scan. In the anterior chest, each hemithorax was divided into four areas. In the posterior chest, eight zones similar to the anterior part were examined. The axillary areas were also divided into upper and lower zones (20 zones were determined per patient). Mean age of the patients was 58.66 years. The sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) of lung ultrasound for the diagnosis of parenchymal lesions were 90.5% (69.6-98.8%) and 50% (21.1-78.9%), respectively. In the evaluation of pleural lesions, the sensitivity (95% CI) and specificity (95% CI) of lung ultrasound were 100% (71.5-100%) and 22.7% (7.8-45.4%), respectively. Owing to the high sensitivity of ultrasound in identifying lung lesions in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia, it can be recommended to use lung ultrasound as a tool for initial screening of patients with high clinical suspicion for SARS-CoV-2 infection during the pandemic. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13337-021-00736-w.

4.
J Clin Immunol ; 42(1): 19-24, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491285

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Interferons (IFNs) play a crucial role in antiviral immunity. Genetic defects in interferon receptors, IFNs, and auto-antibodies against IFNs can lead to the development of life-threatening forms of infectious diseases like a severe form of COVID-19. CASE PRESENTATION: A 13-year-old boy with a previously reported homozygous loss-of-function mutation in interferon alpha/beta receptor subunit 1 (IFNAR1) (c.674-2A > G) was diagnosed with severe COVID-19. He had cold symptoms and a high-grade fever at the time of admission. He was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit after showing no response to favipiravir and being hypoxemic. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scanning revealed lung involvement of 70% with extensive areas of consolidation in both lungs. Antibiotics, interferon gamma (IFN-γ), remdesivir, methylprednisolone pulse, and other medications were started in the patient. However, remdesivir and methylprednisolone pulse were discontinued because of their adverse side effects in the patient. His general condition improved, and a few days later was discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: We reported a patient with severe COVID-19 who had a mutation in IFNAR1. Our finding suggests that patients with IFNAR1 deficiency are prone to severe forms of COVID-19. Besides, IFN-γ therapy may be a potential drug to treat patients with defects in IFN-α/ß signaling pathways which needs further investigations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/deficiency , Adolescent , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Interferon-gamma/therapeutic use , Male
5.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 3(10): 2005-2010, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286232

ABSTRACT

Since coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with a hypercoagulable state, especially in critical patients, anticoagulation is used for thromboprophylaxis. Hemorrhagic complications, even uncommon ones such as retroperitoneal hemorrhage, can occur following anticoagulant administration. We present 5 patients with COVID-19 whose clinical course was complicated by spontaneous retroperitoneal hemorrhage. The patients were initially presented with respiratory manifestations of the infection. There was no history or evidence suggestive for traumatic injury. After hospitalization, the patients received supplemental oxygen, antibiotics, enoxaparin or heparin, interferon beta-1b (in three patients), and anticoagulation with subcutaneous injection of enoxaparin (three patients) or heparin (two patients). During the course of hospitalization, the patients showed sudden-onset abdominal pain (three cases), hypotension (three cases), and an acute drop in hemoglobin level. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis revealed retroperitoneal hemorrhage. For one patient, owing to unstable vital signs and an expanding hematoma, surgical intervention was performed. Others were managed conservatively with discontinuation of anticoagulants, intravenous (IV) fluid resuscitation, and packed red blood cells transfusion. Three patients died due to worsening of the infection and respiratory failure. Retroperitoneal hemorrhage could be a potential complication in COVID-19 patients receiving anticoagulation. Careful monitoring of the vital signs and blood tests like hemoglobin level of such patients is essential.

6.
Pol Arch Intern Med ; 130(7-8): 629-634, 2020 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-761202

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Currently, there are known contributing factors but no comprehensive methods for predicting the mortality risk or intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients with novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore risk factors for mortality and ICU admission in patients with COVID­19, using computed tomography (CT) combined with clinical laboratory data. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID­19 (n = 63) from university hospitals in Tehran, Iran, were included. All patients underwent CT examination. Subsequently, a total CT score and the number of involved lung lobes were calculated and compared against collected laboratory and clinical characteristics. Univariable and multivariable proportional hazard analyses were used to determine the association among CT, laboratory and clinical data, ICU admission, and in­hospital death. RESULTS: By univariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in patients with lower oxygen saturation on admission (below 88%), higher CT scores, and a higher number of lung lobes (more than 4) involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. By multivariable analysis, in­hospital mortality was higher in those with oxygen saturation below 88% on admission and a higher number of lung lobes involved with a diffuse parenchymal pattern. The risk of ICU admission was higher in patients with comorbidities (hypertension and ischemic heart disease), arterial oxygen saturation below 88%, and pericardial effusion. CONCLUSIONS: We can identify factors affecting in­hospital death and ICU admission in COVID-19. This can help clinicians to determine which patients are likely to require ICU admission and to inform strategic healthcare planning in critical conditions such as the COVID­19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Iran , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Distribution , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
7.
Iran. J. Radiol. ; 3(17): 1-7, 2020.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-727488

ABSTRACT

Various manifestations may appear in chest computed tomography (CT) scan of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this pictorial review, we present chest CT manifestations of 14 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 disease and various manifestations including ground-glass and consolidative opacities, reticular opacities, halo sign, and other findings.

8.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(9): 1366-1376, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-718568

ABSTRACT

We investigated significant predictors of poor in-hospital outcomes for patients admitted with viral pneumonia during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Iran. Between February 22 and March 22, 2020, patients who were admitted to three university hospitals during the COVID-19 outbreak in Tehran, Iran were included. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and chest CT scan findings were gathered. Two radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT features of the lesions and also scored the extent of lung involvement as the sum of three zones in each lung. Of 228 included patients, 45 patients (19.7%) required ICU admission and 34 patients (14.9%) died. According to regression analysis, older age (OR = 1.06; P < 0.001), blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) < 88% (OR = 2.88; P = 0.03), and higher chest CT total score (OR = 1.10; P = 0.03) were significant predictors for in-hospital death. The same three variables were also recognized as significant predictors for invasive respiratory support: SpO2 < 88% (OR = 3.97, P = 0.002), older age (OR = 1.05, P < 0.001), and higher CT total score (OR = 1.13, P = 0.008). Potential predictors of invasive respiratory support and in-hospital death in patients with viral pneumonia were older age, SpO2 < 88%, and higher chest CT score.

9.
J. Cell. Mol. Anesth. ; 1(5): 6-14, 20200101.
Article in English | WHO COVID, ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-682608

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a newly emerged pandemic with great worldwide challenges. Radiologic features are one of the most important aspects of the disease, both for screening, diagnosis, treatment assessment and follow-up. Here we review the radiologic aspects of COVID-19 with special focus on critical care patients.

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