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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241144, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103438

ABSTRACT

This cross-sectional study explores geographic disparities in antiviral access by quantifying the accessibility of COVID-19 Test to Treat sites for subpopulations by race, ethnicity, age, and rurality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Humans , Rural Population , Healthcare Disparities
2.
Health Secur ; 20(3): 238-245, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882965

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, academic health centers suspended clinical clerkships for students. A need emerged for innovative virtual curricula to continue fostering professional competencies. In March 2020, a multidisciplinary team from the University of Nebraska Medical Center had 2 weeks to create a course on the impact of infectious diseases that addressed the COVID-19 pandemic in real time for upper-level medical and physician assistant students. Content addressing social determinants of health, medical ethics, population health, service learning, health security, and emergency preparedness were interwoven throughout the course to emphasize critical roles during a pandemic. In total, 320 students were invited to complete the survey on knowledge gained and attitudes about the course objectives and materials and 139 responded (response rate 43%). Students documented over 8,000 total hours of service learning; many created nonprofit organizations, aligned their initiatives with health systems efforts, and partnered with community-based organizations. Thematic analysis of qualitative evaluations revealed that learners found the greatest value in the emphasis on social determinants of health, bioethics, and service learning. The use of predeveloped, asynchronous e-modules were widely noted as the least effective aspect of the course. The COVID-19 pandemic introduced substantial challenges in medical education but also provided trainees with an unprecedented opportunity to learn from real-world emergency preparedness and public health responses. The University of Nebraska Medical Center plans to create a health security elective that includes traditional competencies for emergency preparedness and interrogates the social and structural vulnerabilities that drive disproportionately worse outcomes among marginalized communities. With further evaluation, many components of the curriculum could be broadly scaled to meet the increasing need for more public health and health security medical education.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Civil Defense , Communicable Diseases , Curriculum , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(6): 846-852, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879332

ABSTRACT

We used data from a statewide public health-health system collaboration to describe trends in COVID-19 vaccination rates by racial and ethnic groups among people experiencing homelessness or incarceration in Minnesota. Vaccination completion rates among the general population and people incarcerated in state prisons were substantially higher than those among people experiencing homelessness or jail incarceration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Prisoners , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Minnesota , Prisons , Vaccination
4.
Public Health Rep ; 137(2): 263-271, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643028

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Robust disease and syndromic surveillance tools are underdeveloped in the United States, as evidenced by limitations and heterogeneity in sociodemographic data collection throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. To monitor the COVID-19 pandemic in Minnesota, we developed a federated data network in March 2020 using electronic health record (EHR) data from 8 multispecialty health systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study, we examined patients of all ages who received a COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction test, had symptoms of a viral illness, or received an influenza test from January 3, 2016, through November 7, 2020. We evaluated COVID-19 testing rates among patients with symptoms of viral illness and percentage positivity among all patients tested, in aggregate and by zip code. We stratified results by patient and area-level characteristics. RESULTS: Cumulative COVID-19 positivity rates were similar for people aged 12-64 years (range, 15.1%-17.6%) but lower for adults aged ≥65 years (range, 9.3%-10.7%). We found notable racial and ethnic disparities in positivity rates early in the pandemic, whereas COVID-19 positivity was similarly elevated across most racial and ethnic groups by the end of 2020. Positivity rates remained substantially higher among Hispanic patients compared with other racial and ethnic groups throughout the study period. We found similar trends across area-level income and rurality, with disparities early in the pandemic converging over time. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: We rapidly developed a distributed data network across Minnesota to monitor the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings highlight the utility of using EHR data to monitor the current pandemic as well as future public health priorities. Building partnerships with public health agencies can help ensure data streams are flexible and tailored to meet the changing needs of decision makers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , Data Collection/methods , Electronic Health Records/organization & administration , Program Development , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Minnesota/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2 , Sentinel Surveillance , Social Determinants of Health , Sociodemographic Factors
7.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S334-S335, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564261

ABSTRACT

Background It is well known that the HIV epidemic and COVID-19 pandemic have both disproportionately harmed marginalized minority and immigrant communities in the United States. The risk factors associated with disease incidence and outcomes reaffirm that structural vulnerabilities—sociopolitically imposed risk factors like discrimination, legal status, poverty, and beyond which impact a patient’s opportunity to achieve optimal health—play a key role in facilitating the inequitable harms of COVID-19 and HIV alike. This study explores the role of structural forces in increasing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 coinfection among people with HIV (PWH). Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of PWH receiving care at the University of Nebraska Medical Center HIV clinic in Omaha, Nebraska, to collect patient demographics, comorbidities, HIV outcomes, and COVID-19 outcomes for 37 patients with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 coinfection as of August 27, 2020. As a comparison group, we obtained demographic data from a registry of all patients seen at the HIV clinic. We used R Statistical Software to perform descriptive statistical analysis. Results Relative to our overall HIV clinic population, over twice as many Hispanic patients (35.1% vs. 16.0%), three times as many undocumented patients (13.5% vs. 4.2%), and four times as many refugee patients (16.2% vs. 4.0%) had COVID-19. The majority (67.6%) of coinfected patients reported working in “essential” jobs during the pandemic. Thirty-four of the 37 people with HIV and COVID-19 (PWHC) had at least one comorbidity, including increased BMI (83.7%), hypertension (64.9%), or hyperlipidemia (48.6%). All 37 PWHC remained alive as of October 4, 2020. Demographics and HIV Disease Progression of People with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Coinfection vs. Overall HIV Clinic Registry Demographics and HIV Disease Progression of People with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Coinfection vs. Overall HIV Clinic Registry (continued) Conclusion The disproportionate burden of SARS-CoV-2 coinfection on Hispanic, undocumented, and refugee PWH may be a product of structural vulnerabilities contributing to greater risk of exposure. Although all 37 PWHC had well-controlled HIV and relatively mild COVID-19 courses, the broader theme of disproportionate COVID-19 incidence among vulnerable sub-populations of people with HIV reaffirms the importance of structural interventions to mitigate current and downstream harms. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

9.
AIDS Care ; : 1-6, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440540

ABSTRACT

HIV and COVID-19 disproportionately impact marginalized populations, especially racial and ethnic minorities. This descriptive case series from an HIV clinic in the U.S. Midwest explores the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of 37 individuals with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 co-infection. All 37 had suppressed viral loads prior to diagnosis with COVID-19, and all 37 survived. Relative to our overall HIV clinic population, over twice as many Hispanic patients, three times as many undocumented patients, and four times as many refugee patients contracted COVID-19, highlighting the structural vulnerability of these sub-populations.

10.
Healthc (Amst) ; 9(4): 100583, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415422

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has disproportionately impacted Americans in socially vulnerable areas. Unfortunately, these groups are also experiencing lower vaccination rates. To understand how strategic vaccine site placement may benefit high vulnerability populations, we extracted vaccine site locations for 26 U.S. states and linked these data to county-level adult vaccination rates and the CDC 2018 Social Vulnerability Index rankings. We fit quasi-Poisson regression models to compare vaccine site density between the highest and lowest SVI domain quartiles, and assessed whether greater vaccine site density mediated or modified the relationship between social vulnerability and vaccination rates. We found that high vulnerability counties by socioeconomic status had more vaccine sites per 10,000 residents, yet this higher vaccine site density did not reduce socioeconomic disparities in vaccination rates. Persistent vaccination inequities may reflect other structural barriers to access. Our results suggest that targeted vaccine site placement in high vulnerability counties may be necessary but insufficient for the goal of widespread, equitable vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , 34658 , United States , Vaccination
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