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1.
Br J Radiol ; 95(1129): 20210835, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a barrier shield in reducing droplet transmission and its effect on image quality and radiation dose in an interventional suite. METHODS: A human cough droplet visualisation model in a supine position was developed to assess efficacy of barrier shield in reducing environmental contamination. Its effect on image quality (resolution and contrast) was evaluated via image quality test phantom. Changes in the radiation dose to patient post-shield utilisation was measured. RESULTS: Use of the shield prevented escape of visible fluorescent cough droplets from the containment area. No subjective change in line-pair resolution was observed. No significant difference in contrast-to-noise ratio was measured. Radiation dosage to patient was increased; this is predominantly attributed to the increased air gap and not the physical properties of the shield. CONCLUSION: Use of the barrier shield provided an effective added layer of personal protection in the interventional radiology theatre for aerosol generating procedures. ADVANCES IN KNOWLEDGE: This is the first time a human supine cough droplet visualisation has been developed. While multiple types of barrier shields have been described, this is the first systematic practical evaluation of a barrier shield designed for use in the interventional radiology theatre.


Subject(s)
Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Protective Devices , Radiology, Interventional/instrumentation , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , Cough , Equipment Design , Fluorescence , Humans , Male , Phantoms, Imaging , Radiation Dosage , Signal-To-Noise Ratio , Supine Position
3.
Simul Healthc ; 15(6): 422-426, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024173

ABSTRACT

STATEMENT: Healthcare simulation training can be significantly disrupted by infectious disease outbreaks, yet it is a key component in several important medical education activities, such as resuscitation refresher training and high-stakes prelicensure healthcare examinations. This article details the strategic and tactical considerations for continuing simulation training during infectious disease outbreaks. A framework of graded responses, titrated to outbreak severity, is provided from the perspective of an academic medical center managing simulation training during the early stage of the now global coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Simulation Training/organization & administration , Academic Medical Centers , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Simulation Training/standards
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243217, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954053

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Teaching endotracheal intubation is uniquely challenging due to its technical, high-stakes, and highly time-sensitive nature. The GoPro is a small, lightweight, high-resolution action camera with a wide-angle field of view that can encompass both the airway as well as the procedurist's hands and positioning technique when worn with a head mount. We aimed to evaluate its effectiveness in improving intubation teaching for novice learners in a simulated setting, via a two-arm, parallel group, randomized controlled superiority trial with 1:1 allocation ratio. METHODS: We recruited Year 4 medical students at the start of their compulsory 2-week Anesthesia posting. Participants underwent a standardized intubation curriculum and a formative assessment, then randomized to receive GoPro or non-GoPro led feedback. After a span of three months, participants were re-assessed in a summative assessment by blinded accessors. Participants were also surveyed on their learning experience for a qualitative thematic perspective. The primary outcomes were successful intubation and successful first-pass intubation. RESULTS: Seventy-one participants were recruited with no dropouts, and all were included in the analysis. 36 participants received GoPro led feedback, and 35 participants received non-GoPro led feedback. All participants successfully intubated the manikin. No statistically significant differences were found between the GoPro group and the non-GoPro group at summative assessment (85.3% vs 90.0%, p = 0.572). Almost all participants surveyed found the GoPro effective for their learning (98.5%). Common themes in the qualitative analysis were: the ability for an improved assessment, greater identification of small details that would otherwise be missed, and usefulness of the unique point-of-view footage in improving understanding. CONCLUSIONS: The GoPro is a promising tool for simulation-based intubation teaching. There are considerations in its implementation to maximize the learning experience and yield from GoPro led feedback and training.


Subject(s)
Anesthesiology/education , Education, Medical, Undergraduate/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Photography/instrumentation , Clinical Competence , Computer Simulation , Computer-Assisted Instruction/methods , Curriculum , Feedback , Female , Humans , Male , Problem-Based Learning/methods , Singapore , Students, Medical , Young Adult
5.
J Neurol Sci ; 417: 117078, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695321

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented increased usage of Personal protective equipment (PPE) by healthcare-workers. PPE usage causes headache in majority of users. We evaluated changes in cerebral hemodynamics among healthcare-workers using PPE. METHODS: Frontline healthcare-workers donning PPE at our tertiary center were included. Demographics, co-morbidities and blood-pressure were recorded. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) monitoring of middle cerebral artery was performed with 2-MHz probe. Mean flow velocity (MFV) and pulsatility index (PI) were recorded at baseline, after donning N95 respirator-mask, and after donning powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), when indicated. End-tidal carbon-dioxide (ET-CO2) pressure was recorded for participants donning PAPR in addition to the N95 respirator-mask. RESULTS: A total of 154 healthcare-workers (mean age 29 ± 12 years, 67% women) were included. Migraine was the commonest co-morbidity in 38 (25%) individuals while 123 (80%) developed de-novo headache due to N95 mask. Donning of N95 respirator-mask resulted in significant increase in MFV (4.4 ± 10.4 cm/s, p < 0.001) and decrease in PI (0.13 ± 0.12; p < 0.001) while ET-CO2 increased by 3.1 ± 1.2 mmHg (p < 0.001). TCD monitoring in 24 (16%) participants donning PAPR and N95 respirator mask together showed normalization of PI, accompanied by normalization of ET-CO2 values within 5-min. Combined use of N95 respirator-mask and PAPR was more comfortable as compared to N95 respirator-mask alone. CONCLUSION: Use of N95 respirator-mask results in significant alterations in cerebral hemodynamics. However, these effects are mitigated by the use of additional PAPR. We recommend the use of PAPR together with the N95 mask for healthcare-workers doing longer duties in the hospital wards.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Health Personnel , Masks/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , Respiratory Protective Devices , Adult , Blood Flow Velocity , COVID-19 , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Headache/etiology , Hemodynamics , Humans , Male , Middle Cerebral Artery/diagnostic imaging , Middle Cerebral Artery/physiopathology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pulsatile Flow , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial , Young Adult
7.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 50(3): 596-603, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641018

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly evolving and affecting healthcare systems across the world. Singapore has escalated its alert level to Disease Outbreak Response System Condition (DORSCON) Orange, signifying severe disease with community spread. We aimed to study the overall volume of AIS cases and the delivery of hyperacute stroke services during DORSCON Orange. This was a single-centre, observational cohort study performed at a comprehensive stroke centre responsible for AIS cases in the western region of Singapore, as well as providing care for COVID-19 patients. All AIS patients reviewed as an acute stroke activation in the Emergency Department (ED) from November 2019 to April 2020 were included. System processes timings, treatment and clinical outcome variables were collected. We studied 350 AIS activation patients admitted through the ED, 206 (58.9%) pre- and 144 during DORSCON Orange. Across the study period, number of stroke activations showed significant decline (p = 0.004, 95% CI 6.513 to - 2.287), as the number of COVID-19 cases increased exponentially, whilst proportion of activations receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable (p = 0.519, 95% CI - 1.605 to 2.702). Amongst AIS patients that received acute recanalization therapy, early neurological outcomes in terms of change in median NIHSS at 24 h (-4 versus -4, p = 0.685) were largely similar between the pre- and during DORSCON orange periods. The number of stroke activations decreased while the proportion receiving acute recanalization therapy remained stable in the current COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore.


Subject(s)
Comprehensive Health Care/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Delivery of Health Care, Integrated/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Recovery of Function , Referral and Consultation/organization & administration , Singapore/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment/organization & administration , Treatment Outcome , Workflow
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